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Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd Document No.

Product Version Classification


Wireless Planning and Designing
Department

Product Name:GSM900/1800 Total 15 pages

Frequency Planning Theory


Version 1(2001,0323)
(Only for internal use)
Written by: Technical support group of Date: 2001/03/23
wireless planning and design
department
Reviewed by: Date: yyyy/mm/dd
Reviewed by: Date: yyyy/mm/dd
Approved by: Date: yyyy/mm/dd

Shenzhen Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd

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Huawei Wireless planning and Designing Department Frequency Planning Theory

Revision Record
Date Revised Note Written by
Version
2001/03/13 1.00 The first draft is completed Zengshuhui, Sifazhong,
Zhaoqiyong

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Huawei Wireless planning and Designing Department Frequency Planning Theory

Table of Contents

Frequency Planning Theory.............................................................................................................4


1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................4
2 Requirements for Frequency Division and Carrier to Interference Ratio..............................4
2.1 GSM900..............................................................................................................................4
2.2 DCS1800 ............................................................................................................................5
2.3 Requirements for Carrier to Interference Ratio ..................................................................5
3 Frequency Multiplexing Technologies ......................................................................................5
3.1 4*3 Multiplexing Mode.........................................................................................................5
3.2 Close Multiplexing Technology ...........................................................................................6
4 Frequency Planning ....................................................................................................................7
4.1 Frequency Band Dividing....................................................................................................7
4.2 Frequency Planning Principle .............................................................................................8
5 Cases Analysis ............................................................................................................................9
5.1 Case 1(Close Frequency Multiplexing) ..........................................................................9
5.1.1 Preliminary Planning ................................................................................................9
5.1.2 Final Frequency Planning ......................................................................................10
5.1.3 Conclusion..............................................................................................................11
5.2 Case 2(1X3 Frequency Multiplexing)...........................................................................11
6 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................12
Appendix 1 Frequency Hopping....................................................................................................14
I. Several Concepts in Frequency Hopping .......................................................................14
II. Frequency Hopping Algorithm .......................................................................................15
III. Overview of Frequency Hopping Data Configuration ...................................................16
Appendix 2 Concept of Synchronization Cell........................................................................18

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Huawei Wireless planning and Designing Department Frequency Planning Theory

Frequency Planning Theory

Abstract: Frequency planning is one of the several most important factors which
influence the wireless network quality. This paper describes several common frequency
planning modes and part of the examples.
Key words: Frequency planning Network quality

1 Introduction
Developed till now, capacity of the cellular system is limited in a certain degree by the
frequency bandwidth. The frequency can meet the capacity requirements in a certain
area only when it is multiplexed. But the frequency multiplexing, especially the close
frequency multiplexing mode, will certainly make us face the problem of how to reduce
the interference of the same and neighboring frequencies. In the same area, if the
frequency multiplexing distance is longer, interference of the same and neighboring
frequencies will be less and the capacity will be smaller. If the frequency multiplexing
distance is closer, the capacity will be larger. But this will cause the increasing of the
interference from the same and neighboring frequencies. How to get the capacity and
voice quality balanced is a problem that must be solved in frequency planning. In other
words, a good frequency plan can increase the network capacity while maintaining good
voice quality.

2 Requirements for Frequency Division and Carrier


to Interference Ratio
The cellular system is generally divided into GSM900M and DCS1800M systems. The
carrier frequency interval is 200KHz. The up and down frequencies are divided as
follows:
Network type Frequency bandwidth(up/down)(MHz)
GSM900 890~915/935~960
DCS1800 1710~1785/1805~1880

2.1 GSM900
There are 124 frequency points totally, the sequence numbers (ARFCN)are 1~124.
Each end is left with a protection bandwidth of 200KHz. According to the stipulations of
our country, the mobile telephone occupies 890~909/935~954MHz, and the Unicom
occupies 909~915/954~960MHz. Relation of the frequency and the sequence number
(n)is as follows:

The base-station receives:f1(n)=890.2+(n-1)×0.2 MHz

The base-station sends: f2(n)=f1(n)+45 MHz

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Huawei Wireless planning and Designing Department Frequency Planning Theory

2.2 DCS1800
There are 374 frequency points totally. The sequence numbers(ARFCN)are from 512~
885. Relation of the frequency and the sequence number(n)is as follows:

The base-station receives: f1(n)=1710.2+(n-512)×0.2 MHz

The base-station sends:f2(n)=f1(n)+95 MHz

2.3 Requirements for Carrier to Interference Ratio


GSM is an interference-restricted system. According to the requirements for signal
demodulation in space interface, GSM stipulates the protection ratio of the same and
neighboring frequencies should meet the following requirements:

Carrier to interference ratio of the same frequency: C/I>9dB; With 3dB allowance left
in the project, i.e., C/I>12dB;

Rejection ratio of the neighboring frequencies: C/A >-9dB;With 3dB allowance left
in the project, i.e., C/A>-6dB

3 Frequency Multiplexing Technologies

3.1 4*3 Multiplexing Mode


Frequency points in the available frequency bandwidth are grouped according to different
frequency multiplexing modes prior to frequency planning. The most common frequency
multiplexing mode in the cellular system is 4*3 frequency multiplexing mode, as shown in
the following Figure:

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Huawei Wireless planning and Designing Department Frequency Planning Theory

Figure 1 4*3 Frequency multiplexing mode

As can be seen from the above Figure, in 4*3 mode,“4” indicate 4 stations,“3”
indicates each station has 3 cells,altogether 12 cells are frequency families. Different
cells in the same family have different frequencies. But cells of other families use a group
of frequencies from the 12 frequency families repeatedly.

3.2 Close Multiplexing Technology


The development of network construction will certainly bring a rapid increasing of
network capacity. In turn, it will raise an even higher demand on network construction.
With the dividing of cells and the use of micro-cellular and distributed antenna system,
how to plan the frequency properly becomes a subject of challenge. And various close
frequency multiplexing technologies have emerged. At present, the most popular ones
are MRP of ERISSON company, IUO of NOKIA company and FRACTIONAL REUSE(1
×3)of North Telecom. etc.

Different frequency multiplexing technologies needs the support of the corresponding


software and hardware technologies. At the same time, the handover, functional control,
channel allocation algorithm, DTX and frequency hopping are perfected and developed.
It also puts forward higher demands for the selection of antenna. In other words, how to
reduce the interference is the key factor to guarantee the system service quality since
the frequency multiplexing is very close. In frequency planning, this is shown as the
proper selection of base-station position and cell direction, proper setting of antenna
height and declination angle to reduce the cross-area coverage. In system functions, it is
shown as the use of DTX, frequency hopping technique and the use of BGT handover,
functional control of up and down lines, allocation algorithm of optimization channels etc.
In parameter setting, it includes proper setting of static power of the base station, various
hand-over thresholds, proper setting of frequency hopping parameters to reduce the
possibility of the collision of the same and neighboring frequencies in a maximum degree.
In addition, it raises higher demands for stray index and the adjacent channel selection
index of the base station equipment. This paper will not describe these in detail. See the

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related documents for the specific contents. Refer to Appendix 1 for the frequency
hopping.
Nearly all-different close multiplexing technologies use the hierarchical concept. Plan
BCCH and TCH in different layers. A different layer uses a different
frequency-multiplexing mode. Considering that BCCH must always send system
information for the test and contact of the mobile phone so as to make the mobile phone
decode correctly. At the same time, 12 frequency points must be allocated to BCCH at
least to enhance the correctness of mobile phone test report. In the actual allocation,
considering the irregularity of base station allocation and variation of azimuth angle of the
cell,more than 14 frequency points are generally allocated to BCCH. Its frequency
planning is generally done with 4*3 or looser frequency multiplexing mode. Frequency
planning of TCH uses 3*3, 2*3 and 1*3 modes etc. It should be pointed out that the
purpose of different carrier layer using different multiplexing degree is to avoid the
interference as far as possible. It is shown specifically as follows:
z In case of the unevenness of network station types, since not all cells will use TRX
in the last layer or the last several layers, so TRX in the last layer or the last several
layers can realize closer multiplexing degree(even if no frequency hopping).
z As each carrier layer tries to use different multiplexing mode, thus making frequency
points of any two cells in the network not completely the same. That is to say, cells
with complete the same frequency doesn’t exist.
z When multiple frequency multiplexing is implemented, although the interference is
increased, TRX is added in the cell at the same time, making more frequencies
taken part in frequency hopping, thus make the gain increased.
z If frequency points with less interference and greater interference exist in the same
cell, make them combined together when the frequency hopping technique is used.
The interfered frequency points can still be used normally according to the
characteristics of Viterbi decoder. For each burst, although the interference is
variable, the voice quality depends on the average value of the interference for a
special connection.

4 Frequency Planning

4.1 Frequency Band Dividing


When hierarchical frequency planning is performed with close multiplexing mode, it
involves how to divide the frequency band. Generally, sequence segmentation mode and
interval segmentation mode can be used. That is to say, sequence numbers (ARFCN)
of frequency points allocated in the same layer are continuous or discontinuous. 2~3
frequency points are generally left for planning the microwave cellular or the special case
(Mountain station in the downtown area) when cutting the frequency. The following
describes the dividing of BCCH and TCH layers in multiple close-multiplexing modes.

Suppose the max. station type is S4/4/4, and the sequence numbers of frequency
points are 512~561, 50 frequency points totally, we can divide the frequencies as four
layers of BCCH, TCH1, TCH2 and TCH3. In multiple frequency-multiplexing modes,
basic principles for determining the multiplexing degree of different carrier layers are
allocated to the frequency points layer by layer. Try to keep the multiplexing degrees in
different layers to be different and implement close multiplexing layer by layer. The
general principle is:BCCH>TCH1>TCH2>TCH3. To keep good voice quality, it is better
to control the average multiplexing degree in TCH layer between 7 ~ 8. It is
recommended to use 1*3 mode when it is lower than 7. In this example, 12

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frequency points are allocated to BCCH layer, and 38 frequency points are allocated to
TCH layer.

1)The sequence segmentation can be divided as follows:

BCCH(12)
:512 ~523;

TCH(38)
:524 ~561

2)The interval segmentation can be divided as follows:

BCCH(12)
:512, 514, 516,…,532, 534;

TCH(38)
:513, 515, 517, …, 531, 533, 535 ~561

As can be seen from the above planning:frequency planning between layers is of less
interference when using continuous planning mode. The interference between layers
occurs on the frequency separation point. But the interference from the same and
neighboring frequencies should be considered carefully when planning the frequency in
the same layer of different cells. When using discontinuous planning mode, it is easy to
plan frequencies in the same layer. But the influence of interference between layers is
great. So the coordination of between them should be considered carefully.
In case of less available frequencies, such as network of China Unicom, all available
frequencies can be used as BCCH frequency point for planning. This will certainly make
frequency planning in TCH layer more complicated. But frequency plan got in this way is
more reasonable, and the utilization ratio of the limited frequency points is higher. But
this kind of frequency plan is of poor adaptability, and it is unfavorable for capacity
expansion and frequency modification when optimizing the network. Under the well
configuration of base station, 29 frequency points of Unicom can realize S3/3/3 station
with 12/9/8 mode.
In 1*3 frequency multiplexing mode, it is of less influence on the interference when TCH
layer uses sequence and interval grouping modes. But, in the central city, influence of
the neighboring frequency of the opposite adjacent cell is slightly greater than
neighboring frequency of the parallel adjacent cell. It is just opposite in the border of the
city. The selection of grouping mode depends on the actual conditions.

4.2 Frequency Planning Principle


When planning frequencies in a certain area, it generally uses the mode of geographical
area. But a certain number of frequency points should be preserved or the frequency
points should be divided at the border of the areas (When the frequency is sufficient). It
is better to select borders out of hot spot areas or complicated networking areas. It is
generally planned beginning from the most concentrated area of base stations. As the
stations are allocated irregularly, it is difficult to guarantee that the carrier frequency in
the same layer can be planned completely in 4*3 or 3*3 mode etc. It needs to adjust
flexibly according to the actual requirements. Generally, the following principles should
be followed no matter which kind of mode is used for frequency planning:

1)The same frequency points are not allowed in the same base station.

2)It is better to make the frequency interval between BCCH and TCH in the same cell
higher than 400K.

3)When the frequency hopping is not used, it is better make the frequency interval
between TCH in the same cell higher than 400K.

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4) In none 1*3 multiplexing mode, avoid the direct adjacent base station to have the
same frequency (Even if the main lobe direction of the antenna is different, it is also
difficult to predict the influence of the side lobe and back lobe because of the antenna
and the environment).

5)Considering the antenna height and the complexity of broadcasting environment, the
close opposite base stations with the same frequency should be avoided (Including
across from each other).

6)Generally, 1*3 multiplexing should guarantee the number of frequency hopping points
is over two times the number of frequency hopping carrier frequencies.

7) Pay special attention to the same frequency multiplexing. Avoid conditions that are
the same as BCCH and BSIC to occur in the adjacent area.

8 ) Start PBGT handover, when the rejection ratio of neighboring frequencies is


guaranteed via parameter adjustment, neighboring frequency can be used in direct
opposite adjacent cell.

Note:Good network structure is the basis of a good frequency plan. See related
documents for specific contents of setting up the network.

5 Cases Analysis

5.1 Case 1(Close Frequency Multiplexing)

5.1.1 Preliminary Planning

Unicom network in a certain area, with concentrated base stations, flat terrain and max.
station type S3/3/2.

Divide BCCH and TCH in continuous hierarchical mode. Where, 96~109 frequency
points are allocated to BCCH, and 110~124 frequency points are allocated to TCH. It
should be avoided as far as possible in frequency planning that opposite cells have the
same and neighboring frequencies. But, many opposite cells with the same frequency
are in alternate station direction (Including across from each other) , as shown in the
following Figure:

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同频 The same frequency 1 公里 1 one kilometer 邻频 The neighboring frequency


背 向 同 频 The same frequency in backward direction 两 对 邻 频 Two pairs of
neighboring frequencies
As can be seen from the above Figure, obviously, four pairs of opposite cells with the
same frequency in alternate station direction. All of them are BCCH frequency points.
The interference is only related to the distance between stations and it has nothing to do
with whether there is other base station between two cells when engineering parameters
and transmitting power are fixed. The result of frequency planning is that there are more
complaints because of the poor voice quality and frequent disconnection in urban area.

5.1.2 Final Frequency Planning

With the use of hybrid allocation principle of full band BCCH and TCH, the opposite cells
with the same frequency are avoided in frequency planning. But there are many opposite
cells with neighboring frequency in the adjacent base station, the same frequency
generally occurs on back to back cell, as shown in the following Figure:

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同频 The same frequency 1 公里 1 one kilometer 邻频 The neighboring frequency


背 向 同 频 The same frequency in backward direction 两 对 邻 频 Two pairs of
neighboring frequencies

The declination angle of the antenna is adjusted a lot while using the frequency plan. At
the same time, PBGT handover algorithm is used, and the PBGT handover threshold is
adjusted to 70(equivalent to 6dB). As a result, there are fewer complaints in the city and
TCH disconnection ratio in the traffic statistic indexes decreases about 1%.

5.1.3 Conclusion

A good frequency plan is one of the important factors to keep the network operate
properly.
As mentioned previously, the network quality can also be obtained with close multi-layer
multiplexing mode (such as 12/9/8) and via careful planning.

5.2 Case 2(1X3 Frequency Multiplexing)


The following describes the use of 1*3 multiplexing mode with the Unicom GSM900
network in a certain place.
z Unicom 900 frequency points:96~124
z Configuration of carrier frequency:S3/3/3
z BCCH carrier frequency layer:96~109 Multiplexing mode:4*3
z TCH carrier frequency layer:110~124 Multiplexing mode:1*3

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1)Sequence grouping plan

TCH is grouped in sequence. 3 cells of the same base station use the same HSN.
Different stations use different HSN. All carrier frequencies on the same layer in the
network use the same MAIO. Suppose the frequency hopping groups are allocated as
follows:

Group 1:110 111 112 113 114

Group 2:115 116 117 118 119

Group 3:120 121 122 123 124

Take 1 for HSN of station A, MAIO of two carrier frequencies TCH1 and TCH2 of each
cell are 0 and 2 respectively. Take 2 for HSN of station B, MAIO of two carrier
frequencies TCH1 and TCH2 of each cell are 0 and 2 respectively, and so on. Thus,
neighboring frequency is avoided among 3 different cells on the same station. Relative to
TCH interval grouping, adjacent cells opposite to different stations are of less the
possibility of collision. But, there is a possibility of collision of neighboring frequency
among cells of different parallel stations relative to TCH interval grouping.

2)Interval Grouping Plan

TCH is grouped by interval. 3 cells of the same base station use the same HSN. Different
stations use different HSN. Carrier frequencies on the same layer use the same MAIO.
Suppose the frequency hopping groups are allocated as follows:

Group1:110 113 116 119 122

Group2:111 114 117 120 123

Group3:112 115 118 121 124

Take 1 for HSN of station A, MAIO of two carrier frequencies TCH1 and TCH2 of the cell
of group1 are 0 and 2 respectively, MAIO of two carrier frequencies TCH1 and TCH2 of
the cell of group 2 are 2 and 3 respectively and MAIO of two carrier frequencies TCH1
and TCH2 of the cell of group 3 are 4 and 0 respectively. Take 2 for HSN of station B and
so on etc. Thus, neighboring frequencies are avoided among 3 different cells on the
same station. Relative to TCH continuous grouping, adjacent cells opposite to different
stations have the possibility of collision of neighboring frequency. But, there is no
possibility of collision of neighboring frequencies between cells of different stations in
parallel relative to the TCH interval grouping.
How to group TCH will reduce the interference of 1*3 frequency hopping. It can be said
both continuous grouping mode and interval grouping mode have their own
disadvantages. But, in the city center where concentrated base stations are distributed
regularly, influence of neighboring frequency of the opposite adjacent cell is generally
greater than that of the neighboring frequency of the parallel adjacent cell. The sequence
grouping has obvious advantages. But, the use of interval grouping outside of the base
station concentrated area is more useful for homogenizing the influence caused by the
interference. Therefore, the local conditions should be taken into consideration when
selecting the grouping mode. It is recommended to use sequence-grouping mode when
the new channel allocation algorithm under close multiplexing mode is implemented.
Thus, service quality of the whole network can be guaranteed.

6 Conclusion
A good frequency plan is got on the basis of proper cell planning (including station
address, antenna direction, height, declination angle and transmitting power etc.). It can

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be implemented effectively by adding DTX, frequency hopping, functional control


ofup-link and down-link, well handover and channel allocation algorithm etc.

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Appendix 1 Frequency Hopping

I. Several Concepts in Frequency Hopping

1. Frequency Hopping

Frequency hopping refers to that the mobile phone and base station receive and send
information with a same frequency point. The frequency point sequence number is the
hopping sequence number. A hopping sequence number (HSN) is an arrangement for
determining all (N) frequency points only with HSN and mobile allocation index offset
(MAIO)through a certain algorithm in the given frequency points set containing the
number of N frequency points. The number of N channels on different time slots(TN)
can use the same HSN. Different channels in the same time slot of the same cell use
different mobile allocation index offset(MAIO)。

2. Frequency Hopping Mode

Frequency hopping mode is divided into the frame frequency hopping and time slot
frequency hopping from the time domain concept and is divided into radio frequency
hopping and base band frequency hopping from the implementation mode of carrier
frequency.

Frame frequency hopping:Each TDMA frame’s frequency point changes once. In this
mode, each carrier frequency can be considered as a channel. TCH in TRX carrier
frequency where BCCH is located can not take part in frequency hopping when frame
frequency hopping is used in a cell. Other different carrier frequencies should have
different MAIO. It is a special example for time slot frequency hopping.

Time slot frequency hopping:Each time slot frequency point of each TDMA frame
changes once. TCH in TRX where BCCH is located can take part in frequency hopping
when time slot frequency hopping is used. But, it is implemented only when base band
frequency hopping is used.

Radio frequency hopping:TX (Transmitting) and RX(Receiving) of TRX take part in the
frequency hopping. The number of frequency hopping frequency points in the cell can
exceed the number of TRX in the cell.

Base band frequency hopping:Each transmitter operates on a fixed frequency. TX


doesn’t take part in the frequency hopping. It transmits the frequency hopping via the
handover of base band signals. But the RX must take part in frequency hopping.
Therefore, it is possible for the number of frequency hopping points in the cell to be
greater than the number of TRX in the cell.
The current use of frequency hopping on Huawei equipment: BTS2.X mainly uses radio
frequency hopping mode. It is recommended not to use base band frequency hopping
mode. And the frame frequency hopping mode should be used for data configuration.
BTS3.X can use base band frequency hopping, radio frequency hopping, time slot
frequency hopping and frame frequency hopping. And the BTS3 X later than the version
0529 supports TCH of TRX where BCCH that uses the base band frequency is located to
take part in frequency hopping (It is, of course, time slot frequency hopping).

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II. Frequency Hopping Algorithm

1. Several Parameters

CA:Cell allocation Table,set of frequency sequence numbers used in the cell.

FN:TDMA frame number,which is broadcast on the synchronization channel. BTS and


MS are synchronized via FN(0~2715647).

MA:It is used in the set of wireless frequency sequence numbers of mobile station
frequency hopping. It is a sub-set of CA. M includes the number of N frequency
sequence numbers, 1 ≤ N ≤64.

MAIO: Mobile allocation index offset (0 ~N-1). During the communication, wireless
frequency sequence numbers used in the air interface is an element in the set MA. MAI
(Mobile allocation index,0 ~N-1) is used to specify a specific element in the set MA.
In other words, the frequency point used is specified by MAI. MAIO is an initial offset of
MAI. It is used to prevent multiple channels from holding the same carrier frequency
simultaneously.

HSN: Hopping sequence number (Generator) (0 ~ 63) ;It is cyclic frequency hopping
when HSN=0. And it is random frequency hopping when HSN≠0.

2. Frequency Hopping Algorithm

The related parameters can be set properly to make the system in optimum operating
state only when you know the actual functions and concept of frequency hopping of each
parameter in the frequency hopping algorithm. The following is the flow chart for
calculating the actual operating frequency of the carrier frequency in each frequency
hopping time slot. Where, MAI=(S+MAIO)MOD N RFCHN=MA(MAI);S is got via
calculating according to the frame numbers and hopping sequence numbers. MAI is the
number of carrier frequencies actually allocated via S plus hopping frequency offset.

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MA MAIO FN HSN FN FN
(m0...mN-1) (0...N-1) T3 (0...50) (0...63) T1 (0...2047) T2 (0...25)

NBIN bits 6 bits 6 bits 11 bits 5 bits

T1R = Represent
T1 MOD 64 in 7 bits

6 bits 7 bits

Exclusive OR

6 bits

Addition

7 bits

Look-up table

7 bits

Addition

8 bits
T =
T3 MOD 2^NBIN M' = M MOD 2^NBIN

NBIN bits NBIN bits


N M' < N Y

S = (M' + T) MOD N S = M'

NBIN bits

MAI = (S + MAIO) MOD N

NBIN bits

where NBIN = INTEGER((Log base 2 of N) + 1)


RFCHN = MA (MAI)
MOD = MODULO
^ = raised to the power of

RFCN

Figure2 Frequency hopping algorithms

III. Overview of Frequency Hopping Data Configuration

1. HSN (Hopping Sequence Number)

Location:Data Table of frequency hopping

Range of values: 0~63. 0 indicates cyclic frequency hopping(0 is forbidden for some
equipment) ,other values indicate pseudo random frequency hopping. In principle, all
channels of all carrier frequencies of the base station which may have the same and
neighboring frequencies should use the same HSN so as to make different carrier
frequencies free from collision of the same and neighboring frequencies by setting MAIO
properly. As it can not be guaranteed that different base-stations use the consistent
frame numbers, HSN of different base-stations should be made different as far as
possible. Especially when the same frequency hopping group is used, possibility of
collision can be minimum only when HSN is different.

2. TSC(Training Serial Code)

Location: Frequency hopping data Table

Range of values:0~7;The value must have the same color as that of the base station.

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3. MA(Mobile Allocation Set)

Location:Carrier frequency configuration Table

Range of values:0~64;MA is the set of frequency hopping points of frequency, which is


composed by 64 frequency points in max. The frequency point sequence numbers must
be contained in CA Table(Cell allocation Table).

4. MAIO(Mobile Allocation Index Offset)

Location:Wireless Channel Configuration Table

Range of values:0~(N-1);Where, “N “ is the number of frequency points contained in


MA. Frequency hopping mode supported by the base station should be considered when
planning MAIO. Try to avoid the collision of the same and neighboring frequencies under
the same cell of the same base station.

5. CA (Cell Allocation Table)

Range of values:0~64;All frequency points in the cell should be contained in it, and it
should be allocated continuously from the parameter “Valid Frequency Point 0”, no empty
data item should exist.

6. Frequency Hopping Mode

Location:Cell configuration data Table

Range of values: no frequency hopping, base band frequency hopping and radio
frequency hopping. Select them according to the support of base station and the actual
requirements.

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Appendix 2 Concept of Synchronization Cell


Concept of synchronization cell is very important for establishing frequency hopping
strategy and reducing interference in the network effectively. BTS and MS are
synchronized through the convention of frame number.
1. For base station equipment of our company, frame numbers of various cells in the
same base station are generated by the main clock generator(MCK or TMU). And they
don’t use the frame number offset technique of different cells of the same base-station.
All frame numbers are the same. Therefore, when different cells of the same base-station
share the same MCK or TMU generator, they can be treated as synchronization cells.
The base-station supports the synchronization cell in the following way:
z Max. synchronization base-station type of BTS2 X: S6/6/6.
z Max. synchronization base-station type of BTS30: S18/18/18, the frame is
generated by one of the TMU. The max. base-station type S6/6/6 in the case of one
TMU(the combination of three cabinets).
z Max. synchronization station type of BTS312: S24/24/24, one TMU manages S8/8/8,
S24/24/24 is managed by 3 TMU, but the frame No is only generated on one TMU.
z The frame number is generated by one of the TMU. The max. synchronization
station type is S8/8/8 in the case of one TMU(the combination of two cabinets).
2. In synchronization cells, the same HSN can be used in different frequency hopping
groups since frame numbers used by each TRX in each cell are completely the same.
Set MAIO properly to avoid collision of neighboring frequencies in various cells of the
same base-station and within the cells.

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