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SPE 5791

(!!!!
The ~Vertical Multiphase Flow of Oil and Gas
At High Rates
R. E. Cornish. SPE.AIW. Ahu Dh.1111
Pmokum co LIIJ

Introduction
While mimy in~cstigators hwe uttemptd to dcvclly
mcthds for predicting the pressure loss thut occurs in
u vertical vdlhorc in Mhich oil id gas arc !1OUing
simultaneously. fcw huve specifically considered casing
annulus flow. and thcv )mly tit relatively low rtites.-::
Most Middle Eust oil cwlpimies ha~c studied the proh- This equation is similur in mimy \vays to that of
lcm. but littk ha%been published. Hi.gh-rincWCIIS,ill- llx?ttrnann ilnd Cwpentcr} and Hugedorn and Brw n2.:1
though few in numkr u hen cwmpt.ud \Jith Ihc totiil A cwt k derived from the gcncrd mwgy equution.
number d producing wd Is worldwide. iiwwunt for iI The timdiuncntid ditkrcnw ki wc=rrthis puper und the
considcraldc proportion o! the worlds productilm: yet wor~ t)i those previollsl~ rnentiorrwtis that no general
none of the prcwntly puldishix.i urliclcs prmiiuts the corrclutiorts arc mxk from musses of ticld or experi-
!No-phaw prcsw.re drop with any prccisi(m. Sanchcz11 nwwttii diitit. The prcs: we truverw is evaluated using
has calculated the bottonl-h(dc tlow ing pressure for P\T dtitil fur the crude oil being considered, friction
many wells using the methods of Hagedorn and fuctors At tiinett from a stimdtird Moody diagram or the
Brown.:] Duns and ROS,4orkiszcw SIi,: and Biix~ndrll Colchrook cqutition. @ implicitly tissumes no slippage
imd Thomas. 1: Included in Sanchez uw w-cthe first 10 twtwcen phwcs. The individual parameters and their
wells Iistcd in Tatdc 1. Ttib]c 2 compares his results f(lr treatnwnt are diwuswi in the follwving wctions.
these 10 WIIS with those f(wnd bchwA.
The, objective of this paper is to describe iI more itc- Fluid Density
cumtc means for Aculiiting the two-phaw pressure The tluid density is derived from PVT dmu tiw the tlow-
drop in a vertical wllborc for tl(m raw in excess of inq crude oil. These data are usuidly obtained from
obout 5.000 B/D. with large-diameter tubing. casing. (w laboratory mewmrcmentsmade on a bottom-hole wmplc
casing annulus oil strings. The, limitations to the collectwi from the well imd pressure sealed during
range of application arc discussed. transportation from the field. It is usual that prwurc-
VOIUIIW rcl;itionships. undx c(}nstant-c(~lnp(~sitil~n
scp-
Pressure Traverse Equation artition conditions. wc determined at several tempera-
The prewrc uwerse equation. as used i:! this paper, is tures. generally covcrinp the rimgc from bottom-hole
of the form temperature to the ant.. ipatcd or Iinotvn separation

A method is pre.wntcd for ctlkwlt~titlg the pressure drop in a ~wticttl MY!I jlm~ing oil ttmi
sm. It i.~ designed primarily ,jhr jlmt r(~tes in C.UW.S of 5,000 BID ill !(~rge-tliitt)ltttr
tubing, cmin,q. or cmin,g atvmli, ad rdies lw(t\*ily m the use of PVT dw~.

J1LY. 1976 x~s


.

TASLE 1 SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA?


Wellhead
Depth Bottom-Hole Flowing
Oil String
-..-- to Top Oil Solutior( Flowing Pressure
wze Perforations Rate GOR Pressure Annulus
Well
. ..- (in.)
.. if;
d -.(fq ___ (BID)
. ___ (scflbbl)
----- . . ..(psig)
. . . (psig) Group
. . .
9% 0 8,225 31,000 785 3,078 970
K. :
3
4
9%

2
9%
0
0

:
8,245
8,413
8,105
8,1f5
14,800
9,000
32,400
36,800
785
785
785
785
2,887
2,814
2,670
2,750
950
850
770
814 T
A
1
5
6 0 8,129 25,000 785 2,455 700
E 8,119 29,500 785 2,970 980
: 9% : 8,372 30,800 785 3,2!37 1,150
9 6% 0 7,953 18,300 785 3,215 750
10 % 0 7,980 18,800 785 2,722 885
11 7,834 8,254 16,090 867 3,005 600
i%
12 6,~ 8,125 26,510 867 3,159 956
!ka
13 6,04; 8,100 24,240 867 2,731 770
L
14 6,04: 6,086 21,850 867 2,711 775
:% 0
15 5,964 7.996 23,750 887 2,758 800
&s 0
16 7 5.995 8.030 23.850 867 2,768 780
9% 0
i7 5.987 8.050 24.180 , 867 2,954 900
L
18 7 5.72: 7,918 24,980 867 2,984 890
9% 0
7 0 7,947 11,160 867 3,642 1.450
;: 7 0 7,947 9,400 887 3,475 l.i.w
21 5 7,834 8,254 9,340 867 3,455 1,23ti
&/a
22 6,00: 7,958 9,170 867 3,684 1,515
k 0
23 6,004 8,125 8,560 867 3,017 1,010
!&a *
24 7 6,05; d,230 9,690 887 3,600 1,430
9% 0
25 7 5,993 8,048 11,270 867 2,520 700
9%
26 7 5.99: 8,048 19,570 867 3,345 1,130
9%
27 7 6.04~ 8,100 18,800 887 3,305 1,080
958
28 7 6,04: 8,086 8,110 887 3,488 1,325
.
9%
29 604: 8,086 9,850 867 2,034 545
ks
3P 7 6,94: 8,086 12,830 867 3,360 1,250
9%8 0 B
31 6,046 8,086 15,850 867 3,290 1,170
:54 0
32 6,046 8,086 19,500 887 3,103 1.080
L
33 7 6,04: 8,086 23,160 887 2,995 935
95/~
34 7 6,04: 8,086 24,950 867 2,911 870
9%
35 6,02: 8,065 20,680 867 3,312 1,250
;5b 0
36 6,024 8,067 19,570 867 3,291 1,210
:5h
37 5,96: 7,996 12,350 867 3,354 1,240
k
38 5,99: 8,030 19.300 867 3,295 1,100

39
:%s
7
9%
8,37:
0
8,940 3,875 365 2,637 390 tc
40 7 0 9,052 4,850 365 2,773 330
41 7 0 9,136 4.134 365 2,702 347 1
The f,eld data were UWXI10 compar@measured Dregguredroog wdh those calculated Wna the oresaure Waveraaeauatlon
All flow la annular and all walls have a 27a.tn !ubmg effmg to1SOto 200 ft above top parfo;atlona

x-lb JOURNAL OF PETROLEtJNlTECHNOLOGY


tempmture. In addition, the sample is flashed from
saturation pressure to separation pressure and the gas
evolved per residual unit volume of oil is measured at
several temperatures.
The process that a reservoir barrel of oil undergoes in
moving from the reservoir to the wellhead is flash sep-
aration; for a stabilized flow rate. the mass flow rate
into the wellbore is constant. (In this paper. constant
composition separation and *flash separation refer
to the same process. Thus, it is seen that the PVT data
will yield a mixture density as a function of pressure for
a constant temperatutv. ) So that these data can be of use
in calculating the density in a wellbore, some means of
compensating for the tem~rature change from bottomh-
ole to surface conditions must be devised. The sim-
plest way of doing this. illustrated in Fig, 1. iro;olves
graphically interpolating between the curves at bottom-
hole temperature znd surface temperature. The value
of ~ used in evaluating the pressure traverse equation
is thus the value of the fluid density at the mean of the
two pressure points being considered. as determined by
the pressure-density curve derived from the PVT data.
The mixture density is defined in terms of the oil-
and gas-phase densities and the holdup by the rela-
tionship
Plf,=P/. H/. +pu (H-)/.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(2)
It has been demonstrated that when slippage of the
gas through the oil occurs. the volume occupied by the
gas decreases and the holdup increases. thus increasing
the mixture density.
When no slippage occurs, the holdup can be ex-
pressed in terms of the PVT volume ratios and the gas
liberated per unit volume of residual oil; thus.

I ! 80F

:Onst.mt C.a.rpo%tts,
n _
%parat,on (urbes

-%-
;mle.Ce,at.d Cu,.e Lar Ca.stc..l
:ompof,t,omScporat,w l~om \
250 F !0 210r

~ Constant Combos,
t,on !epar>t,on
.

L 10.
0
. -~
2fl 39

.Go ._SC
M,xture Dzrwty ( lb/ Cu~t )
Fig. 1 Construction of mixture density cuwe.
J~lLy , 1976
.

/./,, v-R&
..7 NR,.= ED..............................,.(6)
Pm

= V/Vs,,t - RBJV,,,I For casing annulus flow, typical of most high-rate


.(3)
VW,,,,
wells. some means of accounting for the different
roughnesses of the inside of the casing and the out-
where side of the tubing must be devised. It is proposed that
the effective roughness height be determined by the
B,, = p,,. r z .
relationship
p T,,. 5.615

Calculating the mixture density from PVT data is = r(b*)+er(D,.?D,) (7)


equivalent to dividing the oil density at saturation pres- In this paper, roughness heights of 0.0005 and
sure by the volume ratio. ViVMtit. at the pressure and 0,00015 ft were used for the tubing and casing. re-
temperature being considered. s~ctively.
p,,, =psat/(v/v.al) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(4)
For annulus flow, the pipe diameter, D, is re~aced
by a hydraulic diameter, De. defined as
It can be shown that Eq. 4 is equivalent to Eq. 2.
with the holdup given by Eq. S. [n other words, that no cross-sectional area
4 X
D,, =
slippiige exists is implicit in calculating the mixture wetted perimeter
density from PVT data, which. for a circular annulus. reduces to
At high rates equivalent to a two-phase Reynold*s
number greater than 10~,this implicit assumption seems Dr=D,. Dt . .,..,........,............(8)
reasonableand is supported by the accuracy of the results, This diameter is used in the pressure traverse equa-
It is also of interest to note that in many papers on tion, the ReynoMs number. and the roughness ratio.
vertical multiphase tlow. the use of some general cmre- e/D,.. [n classical tluid mechanics. this substitution
Iation for the properties of hydrocarbon mixtures is re- is considered effective only if the ratio of inner to
quired. One such widely used correlation is that of outer diameter does not exceed 0.3. However. in the
Standing; 1~Fig. z compares a mixture density-pressure case of the small-annulus (6s%x 274 in. ) data available.
plot calculated from this correlation with the same plot the substitution appears completely satisfactory.
derived from the actuidPVT data for the crude. It can be Note that the effects of couplings or upsets .. the
seen that at till pressures below saturation pressure, the annulus have not been studied, but that some allo-mdnce
Standing-derived mixture density is lower thqn the for their presence can be included in the effective
PVT-derived mixture density. The point i~ that general roughness height. e.
correlations can be misleading. and should only be used If a computer is used to evaluate the pressure travers-
when no other data sources are available.

Friction Factor
Duns and ROS4correlated their friction factor with the 3500-

liquid Reynolds number. Poettmann and Carpenter.1


justitlably- arguing that viscosity effects are negligible at -.. .
turbulent fh~-w.used the num-erator of the Reynolds 300G
number, while Hagedorn and Brownzn used a two-
phase Reynold*s number based mt a mixture viscosity.

/
The viscosity of the mixture has been the subject of
2500 !ler,wd from P. V-? 4ata \
considerable discussion and experimental work.g in
which it has been noted that the viscosity of a mixture
rapidly decreases from the liquid viscosity as the gas-
liquid ratio increases. An empirical equation to descrtbe
-9
In 2000. C.zr,vad from stand,no~
Y /,
.a --=7-:/
05
the behavior of a mixture viscosity was suggested by g
Arrhenius (see Ref. 9) and modified by Hagedorn and :. / /
G
Brown. It is of the form & 1500-:

//
AII=PI?LP, I* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(5)
For the range of flow rate considered in this paper. it //
is of no practical importance to define a Reynolds I 000
number based on a mixture viscosity. This is because /
the oil Reynolds number, which defines the lower
limit of a two-phase Reynolds number, is high enough
that the friction factor is substantially constant for a
.500
. /
/

given roughness for any increased value of the Rey-


nolds number. In case this method is used for very
o~
L .
..

-,~o
large-diameter oil strings ( 13% in. or greater) where an
oil Reynolds number might be as low as 104. a two- M,xture Density (lb /cuff )
phase Reynclds number will ce used and defined as FtQ. 2 Comparison of mixture density curves.

X28 JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOL&Y


.

equation. the Colebrook equation gJV(?I) below can be ExceaaGas Production


used to determine the friction factor. Excess gas production (production of free gas with satu-
#
+ 2.51 . .(9)
rated crude) can be handled by synthesizing a bottom-
v}= 20 og ( 3.7; D,. ~NRe ) hole sample of saturated oil and free gas, measuring
the PVT properties in the Laboratory, and using these
Solution of this equation by hand is tedious because data to determine the mixture density. Alternatively,
of the iteration involved, if production-test data are available to determine the
amount of free gas production. the new mixture density
The Acceleration Term can be calculated directly. Gas-lift wells could be han-
The acceleration term, In (p2/p ,), accounts for the sub- dled in a similar manner.
stantial changes in kinetic energy that can occur at low
pressures when the fluid velocities are high. The values
of the density are read from the pressure-density curve Temperature Efkts :
derived from the PVT data, as shown in Fig. 1, come-
If the pressure traverse equation is evaluated by hand,
sponding to the pressures defining the increment being
the graphical method of correcting for temperature
considered.
shown in Fig. 1 is sufficiently accurate for most pur-
Results poses. The effect of temperature can be considerable in
high-rate wells because the major component of the
Table 3 shows calculated and measured pressure drops pressure drop in the wellbore is caused by [he hydro-
for each of ,the 41 wells detailed in Table 1. The aver- static column of fluid. If an incorrect wellbore tempera-
age percentage error in the calculated pressure drops is
-0.84. and the standard deviation of the error is 2.06
percent, TABLE 3- COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND
In Table 2, the results of this paper for Wells 1 MEASURED PRESSURE DROPS
through 10 (Group A) are shown with those calculated Pressure Drop =
by the methods of Baxendell and Thomas,2 Duns and Bottom-Hole Flowing
ROS.4Orkiszewski.s and Hagedorn and Browm,23and Pressure - Wellhead
Flowing Pressure Error (Perce.N)
as shown by Sanchez. 1] It is apparent that the results nil
obtained using PVT data to calculate the mixture den- Rate Measured
sity are far more reliable than the others shown. Well (BID) Apm.a,

2,108 2,106 0.00


Discussiort of Method and Results 1 %%
3 9,000
1,937
1,984
1,967
1.959
+ 1.55
-0.26
Range of Application 4 32,400 1,900 1;920 + 1.(35
Use of the pressure traverse equation is limited to wells 5 36,600 1,936 1,990 + 2.79
6 25,000 1,755 1,785 + 1,71
in which the following criteria are met: ( 1) laboratory- + 1..51
7 29,500 1.990 2,120
derived PVT data are applicable to the produced crude 8 30,600 2,147 2,197 + 2.32
oil; (2) the well is flowing at a stabilized rate; and (3) 9 18,300 2,465 2.505 + 1.62
the two-phase Reynolds number is greater than 10}. 10 18,800 1,837 1,852 + 0.82
No upper limit is placed on the oil flow rate. but no 11 16,080 2,405 2,427 + 0.90
12 26,510 2,203 2,195 -0.40
quantitative lower limit has been determined. Qualita- 13 26,510 1,961 1,954 - 0.4C
tively, a lower-limit equivalent to a two-phase Rey- 14 21,650 1.936 1,920 -0.80
nolds number of 10~ can be inferred from the resuhs 15 23,750 1,956 1,946 -0.50
of the Group C wells. [n this group. the two-phase 16 23,850 1,988 1,956 -1.60
17 24,160 2,064 2,028 -1.30
Reynolds number ranges from 0.7 X 105 to 1.1 X 10h
18 24,960 2,094 2,051 -2.10
for oil rates of 3,875 to 4.850 B/D. with a GOR of 365 11,160 2,192 2,212 + 0.91
scf/bbl. The tlowstring size is 7- x 2%-in. annulus. For ;: 9,400 2,295 2,240 -2.40
a larger flowstring, such as a 9% x 27s-in. annulus, 21 9,340 2,225 2,165 -2.70
the equivalent oil rate is 5,000 B/D for a G(X? ~f 790 22 9,170 2,169 2,119 -2.31
23 8,560 2,007 1.952 -2.74
scf/bbl. The equivalent oil rate is calculated from the 24 9,690 2,170 2,125 -2.07
mass flux required to give the lower limit of the two- 25 11,270 1,820 1,750 -3.85
phase Reynolds numlxr. and is thus a function of the 26 19,570 2,215 2,125 -4.06
reservoir crude properties (p,at). the separation condi- 18,600 2,225 2,115 -4.94
E 8,110 2,163 2,093 -3.24
tions (B,,). and the flowstring cross-section area (,4). It 29 9,850 1,469 1,494 + 0.34
can be shown that the equivalent oil rate is given by 30 12,630 2,110 2,070 -1.90
31 15,850 2,120 2.095 -1.18
32 19,500 2,063 2,053 -1:44
33 23,160 2,080 2,050 -0.49
34 24,950 2,041 2,016 -1.22
Note that the GOR is only relevant since it affects the 35 20,660 2,062 2,112 + 2.42
saturation density and, hence, the mass flux. At rates 36 19,570 2,081 2,116 + 1.68
lower than those quoted above. slippage must occur and 37 12,350 2,114 2,104 -0.47
surging is like!y. In event of surging. the premise of 36 19,300 2,195 2,080 -4.78
39 3,875 2,247 2,247 0.00
steady-state conditions on which the pressure traverse 40 4,850 2,443 2,338 -4.30
equation is based is violated, and the method cannot be 41 4.134 2.355 2.297 -2.46
expected to describe the system accurately. Standard deviation of the error 2.06

JULY. 1976 829


.

ture is used, an incorrect mixture density will be derived p = density, lb/cu ft


from the PVT data, If a computer is used, as was the ~ = density of flowing mixture at means of
case for most of the results in this paper, more accurate pressure increment, lb/cu ft
results can be obtained by determining the flowing m = standard deviation, percent
temperature gradient in the wellbore and interpolating
between PVT data measured at three different tempwa- Subscripts
tures to obtain the mixture density. ( = casing
d talc = calculated
Results g=gas
The results and calculation method clearly show the L = liquid
following: m = mixture
1. Actual laboratory PVT data can significantly in- mess = measured
crease the accuracy of predictions of pressure losses in o = oil
weilbores. sat = saturation conditions
2. Sophisticisted theories and calculation techniques se = standard conditions
that attempt to cover all flow regimes may result in less I = tubing
accurate predictions than a well defined method used at
a restricted tlow condition. Acknowledgments
3. For crudes and well conditions typical of the 41
data points in this pa~r. the pressure ioss caused by The author is grateful to the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Co.
friction in the wellbcre is nominal compared with the Ltd. for permission to publish the data contained in this
losses caused by the hydrostatic column C: tluid. paper and wishes to acknowledge the help of members
4, As the wellhead flowing pressure is reduced, the crf the Petroleum Engineering Dept. in preparing and
mixture velocity increases signiilcantly and the acceler- collating the data.
ation losses must be taken into account (see Wells 29,
39.40, and 41). References
1. Poeurrtarm,F H. and Carpenter,P. G.: The Multiphase F1OW
Conclusions of Gas, Oil & Water ThroughVerticaf Flow StringsWith Appli-
cationsto the DesignotGas-lift installations. Drill. muf Prod.
A simple, homogetmus flow model in which there is no Psw., API t 19S2)2S7.
slippage between the gas and liquid can be used to pre- 7
. . Hagedorn.A. R. and Bnm n. K. E.: The Effect of Liquid Vis-

cosity in Vertical Two-PhaseFlow. J. Per. Ted. (Feb. I~ )


dict pressure losses in high flow-rate wells, using fric- Z03.210 Tr{uls.. AIME, 231.
tion factors obtained from published sources and a 3. Hagedorn, A. R. and Brown. K. E.: ExperimentalStudy of
two-phase Reynolds number. PressureGradicn!s Occurring During Continuous Two-Phase
The field engineer is thus provided with a tool for Flow in Small Diameter Vertical Conduits,J. Per. Tech. (April
developing pressure-depth-flow-rate plots for the are; in 1%5) 47544; Tmns.. AIME, 224.
4, Duns. H., Jr.. and Ros, N. C. J.: Vertical Flow of Gas and
which he is working. The method, while tedious to cal-
Liquid Mixtures in Wells, Proc.. Sixth Norld Pet. Cong..
culate on a slide rule, readily lends itself to a small Frankfrm(June 1%3) Sec. II, PaperX?-PD6.
desk-top computer. . . Orkissewski,J.: Pt@ctingTwo-PhasePressureDropsin Verti-
5
cal Pipes, J. Per. Terh. (June 1%7) 829-83/?:Trun.s.. AIME,
Nomenclature 2do.
6. Moody. L. F.: FrictimrFactorsfor Pipe Flow. Trwrs., ASME
A =cross-sectional area of casing, tubing. or (t9W)66.671-6W.
casing annulus, sq ft 7. Hunsaker.J. C. and Rightmire, B. G.: Enginswing ,4pplirwims
@ F/nitf Mechunics, MiGraw .Hill Book Co., Inc., New York
B = fluid volume factor, vol/vol
(19.$7)
D = pipe diameter. ft 8. Uren, L. C.. Gregory. P. P., Hancock, R. A., and Feskov, G.
D,. = hydraulic diameter. ft v.: -Flow Resistanceof Gits-011Mixtures Through Vertical
r = roughness height. ft pipes. Trms.. llME ( 1930) tf6. 209-219.
,. /= friction factor 9. Hatchek. E.: 71J@[i.icmity q)Liquids, G. Bell & Sons Ltd.. .
Lmrdnrt(1928).
g = acceleration of gravity. fusecz 10. Katz. D. L.. Cornell, D., Kobayashi. R.. Poenrnamr.F. H..
h = depth. ft \ary. J. A., Elenbaas,J. R,, and Weinaug. C. F.: Humflrookqf
HI = liquid holdup ,Vuwu/ Gm En,qinmrin,g, McGraw-Hi]I Book Co,, lnc., New
t)l = mass tlow rate. lb/see York (1959) 17S.
NN,,= Rcynolds number Il. Sanchez.M,: Comparisonof Correlationsfor PredictingPres-
sure Losws in Vertical Multiphase Arvdar Flow.. MS thesis,
p = pressure. psia or psig (defined in text) U. of Tuks (March 1972).
q = volumetric tlow rate, STB/D 12. Bmendall, P. B. and Thomas R.: The Calculationof Pressure
R = gas evolved at given pressure and Gradients in High-Rate Flowing Wells,. J. Pd. Twh. (Oct.
temperature. scf/STB 1%1 ) 102.3-t02S: Trms.. AIME. 222.
13. Standing. M. B.: Vdnmctric und Plt<Jsc Betwiow (?f Oil Field
-- T = temperature. R Hytirm&bw Syswtn.s, Reinhold PublishingCorp.. Ncw York
. = velocity, ft/sec ( t952). . .
l~= volume. cu ft
Is= mass tlow-rate per unit area, lb/see sq ft
APPENDIX
Z = gas deviation factor
A = difference ,, Reservoir Fluid Data
c = error The following reservoir fluid and field separation data
P = viscosity. Ib/ft sec are applicable.
S.?(I JOLJRNALOF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY
b

Group A Wells Separation at Field Conditions First


Initial reservoir pressure 3,956 psig at 250 F at _xw E?!z E2!lf
7.700 ft subsea Pressure, psig 185 3 0
Saturation pressure 2 sS00psig Temperature, F 180 170 160
GOR, scf/bbl 714 150 3
PVT Characteristics At Initia! At !%turation Gas R.D, at 60 F/14.7 psia 0.97 1,8
Pressure Pressure Stock-tank gravity. API 39.9
Density. lb/cu ft 41.04 40.03 Formation volume factor at initial pressure,
Viscosity. cp o.~g 0.24 reservoir vol/stock-tank VOI 1,60
Formation volume factor at saturation pressure.
Separation at First Second reservoir vol/stock-tank VOI 1.65
Field Conditions Stage Stage Boot Tank
~so 45 Group C Wells
Pressure, psig 0
Temperature. F 180 I 70 16: 155 Initial reservoir pressure 4.425 psig at 255 F at
GOR. sethbl 650 85 50 3 8,800 ft subsea
Gas R,D. at 60 F/14.7 pski 0.88 1.30 1.87 Saturation pressure 1.325 psig
Stock-tank gravity. API 39.2
Formation volume factor at initial pressure. PVT Characteristics At initial At Saturation
reservoir vol/stock-tank VOI 1.48 Pressure Pressure
Formation volume factor at saturation pressure, Density. lb/cu ft 44.64 4~.91
reservoir vol/stock-tank vot 1.52 Viscosity, cp 0.45 0.33

Group B Wells Separiition at FielJ Conditions First


I nitiid reservoir pressure 3,9J0 psig 250 F at
ut Stage Boot T~nk
7.700 ft subsea Pnxsure, psig 50 3 0
!%turation pressure 2.255 psig Temperature. F 1-to
GOR. scf/bbl 327 35 3
PVT Characteristics At Initial At Siituration Gas R,D. at 60 F/14,7 psig i.o14 1.470
Pressure
Pressure Stock-tank gravity. API 40.3
Density. Jb/cu ft 41.04 39.06 Formation volume factor at initial pressure.
ViscosNy. cp ().j~ o.~~ reservoir voUstock-tank vol I ,270
Or#gmal manuecr,pt recewed m Soc!ely oi Petroleum Engmeers offIce Sept Formation volume factor at saturation pressure.
19. 1975 PaFW accepkd for publlcal!on Dec 23. 1975 Rewed manuscript reservoir vol/stock-tank M l.~~]
ISPE 57911 received March 18. 1976 c Copyright 1976 American Inemute of
Mmmg. Metallurgical. and Petroleum Eng,neers. Inc 31?T

JULY. 1976 x3I


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FOUR 6.4 ACRE FOUR 6.4 ACRE FIVE 3.2 ACRE
5-SPOTS 9-SPOTS 5-SPOTS

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SIX 3.2 ACRE SEVEN 3.2 ACRE EIGHT 3.2 ACRE


5-SPOTS 5-SPOTS 5-SPOTS

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FIVE 3.2 ACRE FIVE 3.2 ACRE FIVE 3.2 ACRE
5-SPOTS PLUS 5-SPOTS PLUS 5-SPOTS PLUS
TWO PRODUCERS THREE PRODUCERS FOUR PRODUCERS
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@ PRODUCTION WELL

@ INJECT;ON WELL

+ CORNERS OF ORIGINAL PATTERN

FIG, 2 - PATTERN NOMENCLATURE,


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FIG, 4- FIVE 3,2 ACRE FI


PRODUCERSON EACH LEASE, !~~s;;;s;k;;!~$?;!!, p;!~~;;
INJECTION WITH EQUAL BHP IN ALL INJECTORS},
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fM, 5- FOUR 6,4 ACRE FIVE-SPOTS ON EACH LEASE,
PSI BHP IN PRC31JCERS, ALANCED INJECTION WITH
hJAL BHP IN ALL INJEcToRS J ,
-

---FOUR6.4 ACRE 9-SPOTS

******FOUR 6.4 ACRE S-SPOTS

FIVE 3.2MRE S-SPOTS+4PROD.


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iiNIULnTIVE bMTl%i-lNJECikO, ST%- *1O--- --
FIG, 6- OIL RECOVERYVS CUMULATIVE INJECTION FOR DEMONSTRATION FLOOD,