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Copyright IBID Press, Victoria.

First published in 2011 by IBID Press, Victoria,


Library Catalogue:

l. Information Technology

2. International Baccalaureate. Series Title: International Baccalaureate in Detail

Oliver Kim.

ISBN: 978-1-876659-52-3

All rights reserved except under the conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments. No
part of this publication m ay be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the
prior permission of the publishers.

\\'hile every care has been taken to trace and acknowledge copyright, the publishers tender their apologies for any accidental
infringement where copyright has proved untraceable. They would be pleased to come to a suitable arrangement with the rightful
owner in each case .

This resource has been developed independently by the publisher and the content is in no way connected with or endorsed by the
International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO). The publisher gratefully acknowledges the permission granted by IBO to use and
adapt extracts from various relevant IBO publications.

Frontispiece: The International Space Station (NASA photograph).

Cover design by Key-Strokes.

Published by IBID Press, 36 Quail Crescent, Melton, 3337, Australia.

Printed by KHL Printing.



T zis book is dedicated to Magdalena and Michael.

zere are numerous illustrations and photographs in this bao k. Those that were not made by myself were made available under the
Creative Commons licence, the GNU Free Documentation Licence or are available in public domain. I would like to thank-fully
-knowledge the generosity of the '!lany photographers and artists for making these images freely available for public use.

Last but not least, I would like to thank my wife for her patience and moral support while I spent countless days behind the computer
riting this book.

e author and publisher would like to gratefully credit or acknowledge the following photographs:

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. -10 left/ public domain by NASA, p. 40 right/ cc-by-sa Marco Mioli, p.41 top left/ public domain by Davepape, p. 41 bottom
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r: attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright holders. Where the attempt has been unsuccessful, the publisher
-omes information that would redress the situation.

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Terminology 1
What is information and communication technology? 1
What is computer science? 2
What is ITGS? 2
What do es the term global society mean? 2
What are social issues? 3
What are ethical issues? 3 -
What do es Theory of Knowledge (ToK) have to do with the course? 4
1.2 Data and information 4
What are the differences between data and information? 4
What are ADC and DAC? 5
What is microfilm? 5
What are the advantages and disadvantages of analogue and digital data? 6
What are sorne decisions when making analogue to digital conversions? 6
1.3 A brief history of early computing 7
When was. the first computer invented? 7
What was the first commercial computer? 8
What are the five generations of computers? 8
What were sorne early personal computers? 9
What is Moore's law? 1O

Chapter 2: Social and ethical issues 11

2.1 Reliability integrity 11
Reliability and integrity: ls the data correct? How well does the hardware work? 11
integrity case study: The story of an upload mishap 12
2.2 Security 13
Security: How can computer systems and data be protected? 13
Security case study: A virus infection 14
2.3 Privacy and anonymity 15
Privacy and anonymity: How can personal data be kept secret? 15
Privacy case study: When deleted files are not really deleted 15
_.4 bztellectual property 16
Intellectual property: Who owns the piece of work? 16
Intellectual property case study: A copyright dispute 16
:: : A.uthenticity 17
Authenticity: Are you really the person who you claim to be? 17
Authenticity case study: The case of a stolen identity 17
The digital divide and equality of access 19
The digital divide and equality of access: What is accessibility? 19
e digital divide and equality of access: On the support of a school 19
neillance 20
- neillance: Monitoring and controlling the activities of users 20
neillance case study: The story of the notebook class 20
li::ation and cultural diversity 22
G o alzation and cultural diversity: On the making of a smaller world 22
G alization case study: The problem with the keyboard 22
;: e. The importance of rules and regulations 23
case study: The chip card system 24

2.1 O Standards and protocols 25

Standards and protocols: Ensuring interoperability 25
Standards and protocols case study: The case of lost standards 25
2.11 People and machines 26
People and machines: IT and its impact on a person 26
People and machines case study: When technology alone is not enough 26
2.12 Digital citizenship 27
Digital citizenship: What is responsible computer use? 27
Digital citizenship case study: Don't trust computers? Don't trust yourself! 27

Chapter 3: Information technology systems 29

3.1 Hardware 29
3.1.1 The computer system 29
3.1.2 Input and output devices 40
3.1.3 Social and ethical/ToK 53
3.2 Software 62
3.2.1 Fundamentals 62
3.2.2 System utilities 75
3.2.3 Malware 78
3.2.4 Utility software 82
3.2.5 Social and ethical/ToK 84
3.3 Networks 94
3.3.1 Network technologies 94
3.3.2 Network functionality 104
3.3.3 Network administration 107
3.3.4 Social and ethical/ToK 116
3.4 Internet 124
3.4.1 Fundamentals 124
3.4.2 Tools 135
3.4.3 .Services 147
3.4.4 Internet threats and security 151
3.4.5 Social and ethical: ToK 155
3.5 Personal and public communications 163
3.5.1 Technologies 163
3.5.2 Services 167
3.5.3 Social and ethical/ToK 169
3.6 Multimedia 172
3.6.1 Theoretical concepts 172
3.6.2 Data collection 176
3.6.3 Product development 179
3.6.4 Components: Text 183
3.6.5 Graphics, images and animations 187
3.6.6 Audio 194
3.6.7 Video 196
3.6.8 Integrating the components 199
3.6.9 Social and ethical/ToK 205
3.7 Databases 213
3.7.1 Database organization 213
3.7.2 Database functions 219
3.7.3 Data storage and access 222
3.7.4 Social and ethical/ToK 223
3.8 Spreadsheets, modelling and simulations 228
3.8.1 Theoretical and practical concepts for spreadsheets 228
3.8.2 Modelling and simulation technologies and considerations 236
3.8.3 Developing and using models and simulations 239


3.8.4 Social and ethical!TOK 242
3.9 Project management 247
3.9.1 Theoretical fundamentals 247
3.9.2 The product development life cycle 250
3.10 IT systems in organizations 253
3.10.1 Information systems, people and teams 253
3.10.2 The system development life cycle 255
3.10.3 Project management issues 258
3.11 Robotics, artificial intelligence and expert systems 269
3.11.1 Robotics 269
3.11.2 Artificial intelligence 271
3.11.3 Expert systems 279
3.11.4 Applications of robotics-> artificial intelligence and expert systems 282
3.11.5 Social and ethical!ToK 287

Chapter 4: Application to specific scenarios 291

4.1 Application to specific scenarios: Business and employment 291
4.1.1 Traditional businesses 291
4.1.2 Online business and e-commerce 296
4.1.3 Transportation 301
4.2 Application to specific scenarios: Education and training 308
4.2.1 Dist<1;nce learning over large areas 308
4.2.2 Use of IT in teaching and learning 311
4.2.3 Hardware and network technologies in the classroom 316
4.2.4 Provision for special needs 319
4.2.5 School administration 320
4.3 Application to specific scenarios: Environment 322
4.3.1 Modelling and simulations 322
4.3.2 Satellite communication 325
4.3.3 Mapping and virtual globes 326
4.3.4 E-waste 329
4.3'.5 Resource depletion 332
4.4 Application to specific scenarios: Health 334
4.4.1 Diagnostic and therapeutic tools 334
4.4.2 Online medical information and sales 338
4.4.3 Medical research 344
4.4.4 PsychologicaL and physical issues 345
4.5 l}pplication to specific scenarios: Home and leisure 348
4.5.1 Bornes and home networks 348
4.5.2 Digital entertainment 351
4.5.3 Social networking 354
4.5.4 Published and broadcast information 356
4.5.5 Digital policing 357
4.5.6 Hardware, software and networks 359
4.6 Application to specific scenarios: Politics and government 361
4.6.1 Political processes 361
4.6.2 Government information sites 364
4.6.3 Access to personal information held on government databases 366
4.6.4 Government control and use of information 367
4.6.5 Law and order 369
4.6.6 Military 371


Chapter 5: Assessment 373

Interna/ assessment 373
What is the ITGS interna! assessment? 373
What are the parts of the documentation? 374
What are the formal requirements? 375
Externa/ assessment 375
What are the definitions of the command terms? 375
Assessment objective 1: Knowledge and understanding 375
Assessment objective 2: Application and analysis 375
Assessment objective 3: Synthesis and evaluation 376
Externa! assessment overview 376
SL Paper 1 and HL Paper 1 377
SL Paper 2 and HL Paper 2 377
Paper 3 (HL only) 377 -
What are stakeholders? 377

ary 379

ex 390



Contents 1.1 Terminology

This section clarifies sorne important terminology relating to the Information
Technology in a Global Society (ITGS) course. Additionally, this chapter attempts to
clarify how information technology is related to social and ethical issues.

:What is information and communication

technolog}!!l .
" ;A,;! , *' ;! ""' ( ,

The term information technology (IT) is a broad term that includes many different
aspects of computing and information processing. Information technology refers to
the study of the acquisition, processing, storage and communication of information
with the help of computer technology. Information technology is not a purely technical
study. It places a strong emphasis on how computers are used in organizations, and the
interaction between computers and humans.

In recent years, we have seen a convergence of technologies. Convergence refers to

the 'coming together' of several different technologies. It is now possible to access the
Internet, use the telephone and write text using a single device. A distinction between
mobile phones and palmtop computers is not easily possible any more. Many mobile
phones also incorporate music players and a digital camera. Users can then distribute
photographs using their mobile device.

The term information and communication technology (ICT) takes these changes into
account by placing a stronger emphasis on the communication of information. Although
ICT is the more modern term, it is not yet able to completely replace the term IT.

Research different definitions for the following terms: Information technology (IT);
information and communication technology (ICT); and computer science.
Compare the definitions.
Can you find similarities or differences between these terms?
Are there any significant overlaps?
Can sorne terms be used interchangeably?
Are sorne terms used differently in different areas, such as education, business or
the sciences?