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Introduction

Over the last two centuries, the composition of the Earth's


atmosphere has been altered substantially by human
activities, including fossil fuel burning, agriculture,
deforestation and industrial emissions. In addition to
regional problems, such as higher levels of tropospheric
ozone and other forms of air pollution, there is growing
evidence that these changes will have a significant, long-
term impact on the planet's climate and biota.
Considerable research effort is now underway to unravel
the often complex interactions and feedbacks among
climate, atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemistry and
ecosystem dynamics under past, present and potential
future conditions.

Accurate projections of future climate change and its


impact on society and the natural environment hinge on
two key questions: how will radiatively active trace gas and
aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere evolve in the
future, and how sensitive is the climate system to these
changes in forcing? The questions are, of course, not
independent because many of the chemical species of
interest have natural biological sources and sinks that
respond to climate variations. A third issue, the effect of
the expected climate perturbations on society and on
natural and managed ecosystems, is crucial to the problem
but beyond the scope of this review. Some of the causes
of greenhouse effect are mentioned below:

Burning of Fossil Fuels


Fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas have become an
integral part of our life. They are used on large basis to
produce electricity and for transportation. Pollution which
gets emit from vehicles contains carbon dioixde, which is
one the main gas responsible for increase in greenhouse
effect. Apart, from that, the production of electricity
consume too much of coal which releases large amount of
these gases into the atmosphere.
Deforestation
Forests holds a major green area on this earth. Plants and
trees intake carbon dioxide and release oxygen, through
the process of photosynthesis, for the survival of human
beings. Large scale development have forced people to
look for alternate places for living which has resulted in
cutting down of trees. The wood that is produced, when
burnt releases more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Increase in Population
Over the last few decades, there have been huge increase
in the population. Now, this has resulted in increased
demand for food, cloth and shelter. New manufacturing
industries have come up release some harmful gases into
the atmosphere which increases the greenhouse effect.
Also, more people means more usage of fossil fuels which
in turn has aggravated the problem.

Farming
Nitrous oxide is one the greenhouse gas that is used in
fertilizer and contributes to greenhouse effect which in turn
leads to global warming.

Industrial waste and landfills


Industries which are involved in cement production,
fertilizers, coal mining activities, oil extraction produce
harmful greenhouse gases. Also, landfills filled with
garbage produce carbon dioxide and methane gas
contributing significantly to greenhouse effect.