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consuming nothing but clean energy

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A12.2 // 11152015


freeimages.com1

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p2


Defining the Problem 4

Brainstorming & 13
Divergent Thinking

Contents Focused Ideation 21

Design Development 33

Appendix 47
Life Cycle Inventory /
Analysis & Process Flow

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Defining The Problem

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Research

Initial Question:
Why arent Americas energy habits
changing?
An article in The Washington Post entitled, Why 50 million smart
meters still havent fixed Americas energy habits drew my
attention to this issue. The article went on to quote a few
economists and behavioral scientists that say the problem is
two-fold:

1. Consumers dont have a clue how much energy they are using
and the information isnt translated into dollars and cents.

2. Consumers dont have access to dynamic pricing or clean


energy alternatives.1

Initial Problem Statement:


Energy consumption information is
obscure, difficult to obtain, and
irrelevant. And there are very few
dynamic pricing programs. Therefore
there is little incentive to change
energy consumption behavior.

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Stakeholder Study:

Biosphere - stands to gain or lose according


to the amount of energy is consumed - as in
quantity of fuel and material extracted from the
ground and quantity of CO2 emissions.

User - stands to gain or lose depending on


whether or not they can cut power
consumption and get rewarded for their effort.

Client - a category that represents two parties.


Small scale renewable manufacturers and
suppliers stand to gain or lose depending on
how many consumers switch to renewable
sources. Second, major power companies stand
to gain or lose depending on consumer pressure
for clean vs. dirty energy sources and
government intervention and incentive.

Society - forms the fourth category. Clean en-


ergy collectives (or solar garden communities)
stand to gain or lose depending on lifestyle
habits of consumers and the cooperation (or
lack of) from local utility companies, and
government incentives. Society in general
stands to lose in keeping old, centralized, dirty
fuel power grid. It stands to gain in a
de-centralized, clean-energy smart grid.

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Existing Models:
Non-invasive Load Monitoring (NILM) - measures Dynamic Pricing - a variable rate based on Distributed Energy Resource (DER) - these are
the amount of electricity households consume. supply and demand (by using as little power as products or systems that are independent of the
Capable of measuring the individual signature of possible during peak hours customers are able to utility companies but still supply power to the grid.
appliances in the home. save money on their energy bill). Includes prepay
systems - similar to paying in advance for - Clean energy collectives (also called
Smart meters. 50 million of them. gasoline or cell phone minutes. community solar gardens). Subscribers buy or
lease solar panels and the portion of their
In-home display (like those from Rainforest electricity thats generated by their panels gets
deducted from their bill.
Automation)
- Some households opt to install grid-tied solar
User interfaces (apps and websites like those systems on their own roofs.
from Plot Watt)
- Electric vehicles (EVs) leverage household
energy requirements (for instance, by charging
the car in the morning customers can use the
battery in the vehicle during peak hours and then
charge their car back up again. Cars like the
Nissan Leaf become an integral part of the home
power system.

- Teslas Powerwall and Sonnen Batterie are


similar examples only the battery is a unit
mounted on the wall, not on four wheels.

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3 choices for clean energy
istributed Energy
D Res
ou
rce
1 Renewable
s

Community
energy public
utility 2 renewable
energy coop
Individual

Subscribers
(solar garden) 3 home, small
office, and
own panels company
power company
pays you
Subscribers lease systems
panels from
middle supplier /
Grid-tied
provider
system Off-the-grid
power company (OTG) system
pre-pay
pays you
program

Vehicle-to-home Deep-cycle
dynamic (V2H) and vehi- battery:
pricing cle-to-grid (V2G):
enable conumer to 1. Large scale -
stay off grid or at least Nissan Leaf & Tesla Tesla Power
cut consumption wall
during peak hours.
2. Small scale -
Goal Zero
Yeti 1250

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Observe

Consumer
Interviews:

Linda (71-yr.old, retired): Stephanie (46-yr. old, wife, mother, Michael (23-yr.old husband, father, Jessica (34-yr. old wife, mother,
office manager): graphic designer): midwife):
No knowledge. I dont know how
to cut my power consumption ex- I dont have time. I need to see 1. Motivation - I need to know how Theres no quick access to how
cept changing light bulbs. the information in front of me quick- much money I can save, and much something costs. Its all just
Turning off appliances is a hassle ly and easily and I cant. what difference it makes to use imaginary numbers, kind of like the
(like the television) because of hav- less electricity. feeling you get when using a cred-
ing to re-program them. 2. No understandable way to mea- it card. You have a vague notion
sure my current usage. about how much youre spending
3. No way to measure change. Too yet it doesnt seem real.
much work to see how much
power Im saving if and when I I need something like constant
change my habits. reminders on my phone or tablet
4. Energy efficient products are reminding me Hey, turn off lights
often costly at the outset (like or, hey, turn down the AC.
switching to all LED bulbs in the
house). Also something like my Fitness Pal
5. I dont want one more thing in app. Something that surrounds me
my life to have to think about with a social community of fellow
and manage. Too much work. users that cheer me on whenever
they see me curb my energy us-
age.

Also being rewarded with a cost


savings would influence me to
change.

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Analyze

SWOT assessment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES

NILM User interfaces put actual real-time figuresInformation is still missing. Existing interfaces only
(existing NILMs, dynamic pricing, and DER in front of user faces. give an overall rate (such as current usage = 12.0
strategies) / hr.) They dont break it down per appliance,
Dynamic and pre-pay pricing strategies save cus- room, or zone.
tomers money and provide incentive for conus-
mers to change their energy habits. Existing interfaces and apps dont offer sugges-
tions to get customers thinking about what other
changes they could make.

Shouldnt just be consumption reduction. It should


be a change from dirty energy to clean energy.

OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

Information could be more precise (as in per ap- Already several user interfaces, apps, and mobile
pliance, room or zone) to help customers accu- websites out there. This is not a new concept.
rately pinpoint and learn which appliances and
habits use the most energy. Community solar gardens exist already.

An energy fitness app could harness the Solar energy leasing companies exist.
healthy peer pressure power of social media to
effect positive change. Dynamic and pre-pay pricing strategies already
exist (though not in all states).
User interface could volunteer suggestions to
effect change. Leveraging hybrid cars for balanced energy use is
common.
Education - Customers need to know how to use
the tools and systems that exist.

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Organize & Synthesize High consumption of fossil fuel energy

Low consumption of solar energy

Steps in Behavioral Change:


Step #1 - Put real-time information in front of the Existing
smart
How to get from
customer in the same way that a gas gauge or bat-
tery charge gauge in a hybrid car gives a constant
meters A to B?
readout on energy output.
A

Step #2 - Identify guilty appliances and habits


that need to be phased out.

Inaccessible Accessible
info info
Salt River Project
Step #3 - Replace dirty energy sources with pre-pay system
Plot Watt
clean energy sources (whether community solar gar-
dens, clean energy utility companies, or personal
grid-tied systems).
Rainforest
Automation

Community

Step #4 - Use an interface to educate and


solar gardens

guide customers to smarter options and combina-


tions that fulfill their energy requirements while saving
them money and gets them on clean energy.
Nissan LEAF
V2H / V2G
B
Low consumption of fossil fuel energy

High consumption of solar energy

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Key Issues: Key Design Drivers: Key Design Objectives:

Consumers dont have a clue how much Conventional American energy consump- Provide minute-by-minute, meaningful infor-
electricity theyre consuming until after the tion habits. mation to consumers.
bill comes.
Traditional utility company model Educate consumers on available tools, sys-
Consumers dont know what appliances use tems, and strategies.
the most energy. Availability of fossil fuel
Create incentive or make them more acces-
Consumers dont see what other power op- Grid Defection - the trend toward distributed sible.
tions could save them money (like not using energy resources.
electricity during peak hours). Encourage lower consumption.
New consumer demand based on a more
Consumers dont see what passive strategies educated and discriminating energy con- Make DERs, specifically community solar gar-
could save them money. sumer. dens more accessible.

Whats missing are user interfaces that relay Entrance of new R&D / energy, transporta-
info from the meter in real time and translate tion, and building technology
info to dollars and cents.

Consumers need access to dynamic pricing


(prices that vary based on supply and de-
mand)

Behavioral research suggests that technol-


ogies alone dont necessarily change what
we do or the habits we form.

Info is too obscure and difficult to obtain.

Websites are not enough. Only 8% were al-


ready using online analysis of energy usage.

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Brainstorming & Divergent
Thinking

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Mindmap
Average Amercian
enery consumer:
- uses too much
Lack of
- uses unhealthy
financial
Absence of - pays too much
incentives
information
- real time
- meaningful
How might we... - disaggregated How might we...
Due to these factors
Provide real-time, Generate more
meaningful, disaggre- financial incentive?
gated information?
- Generate political
- by improving activism
user-friendly induc- Lack of clean Lack of education
tance readers energy options on the benefits of - Generate attarc-
(in many areas of consuming less tive ways to peti-
-by supplying the U.S.) and consuming tion utility compa-
detailed data by clean nies
applicance, by room,
and by zone Lack of strategies
How might we... or graduated
plan to improve How might we...
Encourage more clean consumption
energy options across habits Educate the average
the U.S.? consumer on the
benefits?
- pursue and design How might we...
the idea of micro - Create fun education
capture Design and suggest programs
strategies and gradu-
- expand more ated plans for - Travelling programs
grid-tied options and improvement?
configurations - School programs
- Create an energy - Create phase plans
coach for the average - Blog
consumer (like a
- Use social media timetable for replac-
and community as a ing an old refrigera-
motivator tor)

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Deeper into the How might we 4. Create a buy-back company or lease service company that would
come and pick up your old appliance and replace it with a new one.
question:
How might we educate on the value of
How might we provide more clean energy consuming less and consuming clean?
options?
1. Make the material easy to read, complex information easy to compre-
1. Micro Capture: hend.
kinetic energy from stairs
2. Make the material fun.
kinetic energy from opening / closing doors
micro-hydro in toilet tank 3. Use infographics.
micro-hydro in down spouts
4. Make information easy to access - with big easy buttons and functions.
2. Solar panel attached to roof of EV to charge in the sun when parked.
5. Make the material aesthetically pleasing.
3. Easy, packaged OTG solution for smaller zones or systems in the home like
home office or fridge / freezer combo. 6. Not a lot of hoops to jump through to get a quote.
4. Support fringe renewables. 7. Travel around with a pop-up exhibit.
5. Create appliances that serve multiple functions. 8. Travel to schools to speak and do workshops with students.
6. Design 19V rechargeable kitchen appliances that charge just like drills. 9. Design a solar steam engine and trailer as a traveling pop-up exhibit. Use
a steam punk theme. Go to schools, ride in festivals and parades across
the country.

How might we suggest personal strategies? How might we increase incentives?


1. Make use of a virtual energy coach that gives suggestions on what to
do next, helps set goals to be reached in phases. 1. Lottery pick among lowest energy consumers.

2. A user interface that suggests passive strategies that save you money. 2. Increase community and social peer pressure (everybodys doing it!)

3. Design an easy reference and comparison guide for like appliances or 3. Biggest Loser competition. The people vote. Competitors use different
scenarios. strategies to cut their personal consumption and switch to clean energy.

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Applying Constraints:
For $5?
How would McDonalds do it? 1. Use free social media
2. Start a blog
1. Put in a Happy Meal with a Low Consumption Man toy or an induc- 3. Start a free weebly site
tance reader 4. Use your mouth
2. Use the Im Lovin it slogan 5. Visit power companies in person and make appeals
3. Market to the masses 6. Demonstrate / march at rallies
4. Create a consistent product 7. Lobby politicians
5. Paper on tray tells the story - facts about energy 8. Shoot a video
6. Create a stream-lined system 9. Take photos
7. Make it convenient - packaged and drive-through 10. Write articles
8. Use the power of the assembly line 11. Write a book and self-publish online
9. Use the power of the team
10. Make it pre-packaged and modular

For $5 million?
How would Starbucks do it? 1. Travel the world and speak
2. Help people change their habits
1. Play cool music 3. Help provide electricity to the under-served
2. Use the power of vibe to make it attractive 4. But and install OTG systems for all my family and friends
3. Make all their stuff powered by renewables 5. Introduce a whole new line of eco-effective appliance or an eco-effec-
4. Use the power of lifestyle brand and make the statement use our stuff tive appliance service industry
because its cool and youll be cool 6. Start a foundation
5. Create perceived quality 7. Travel around with a pop-up exhibit educating people
6. Use attractive packaging

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If it were a different country / continent? What if it was 25 years from now?
1. We would have smart homes where our in-home Jarvis (virtual butler)
1. The focus would be on complete OTG systems because there either is
no infrastructure or it is extremely unreliable. would monitor our power and notify of us changes needed, and then
do it if we told him to.
2. In SA it was a prepay system only.
2. We would use 100% clean energy.
3. Lights and refrigeration would be the priorities.
3. The grid would be completely decentralized, redundant and renew-
able.

4. We would use passive solar strategies to work with nature instead of


against it.
If it was a different time period? 5. We would have smaller, more modest homes.
Back in the early 1800s (pre Industrial Revolution) consumers would live
6. We would take advantage of service industries.
with simplicity and rely on water wheels and oxen.
7. We would use block chain sharing networks over individual ownership.

8. We would count energy from the sun as a gift to be used with gratitude
rather than extracting fossil fuels and polluting as a right.
What is the problem like?
Obesity - Supersize me (over consumption of junk food because it tastes
good and its convenient)

What is it not like?


1. The African bush where there is no grid

2. Pre-Industrial Revolution

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Powers of 10:
How might we do it locally?
1. Determine which is more cost-effective for the area and context - com-
munity solar gardens vs. personal grid-tied system?

2. Form a renewable energy coop (community solar garden).


Clean Energy Collective2

Regionally?
1. Establish a network of community renewable energy coops across the
Midwest.

Nationally?
1. Government provides incentives to power companies to be inclusive or CCP3
cooperative with DERs

2. Help power companies to transition to dealing in information and be-


coming platform-based (like iTunes) and connecting DERs with consum-
ers.

Globally?
1. Cooperate with DERs in other parts of the world to share ideas and
solve problems.

dailymail.com4

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Where are the gaps? Rainforest
Automation
an already crowded market City Electric Plot Watt
Green Button
Disagregation
Remote Connect
appliance-level
Induction Non-intrusive load
datafrom a modeled after
Readers montioring (NILM)
whole-building Energy fitness My Fitness Pal,
energy signal Various user- Interfaces virtual & com- Fitbit, and Biggest
that provide relevant, munity coach - Loser
real-time feedback like using the social
Teslas Powerwall Smart Rainforest Automation. media platform
Meters

Nissan Leaf EV
V2H & V2G - using
EV cars and large,
grid-tied, in-home The Ideal Anylitics and
coaching using
batteries for Plot Watt
power bridging.
(near utopia) - smart phone app
platforms like Plot
low or appropriate Watt
energy consump-
tion using clean
D i s t r i b u te d

renewable energy
Prepay
Individual grid-tied only. programs Salt River
or OTG renewable Project
energy solutions What consumers ultimately
care about:
Ene

Dynamic
Pricing -
1. Safety
rg y

variable rates
Community
tied to supply 2. Security
Re

Renewable Energy
Coops, also called
and demand. 3. Comfort
so

Community Solar
ur

e(
c

Gardens
DE Whatever the solution, it has to
R) speak to consumers in this realm.
Community
Education - to
encourge grass-
roots action for
solar gardens and
utility company
reforms

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Organize and Capture Secondary Ideas: Relevant Details and Further
Exploration:
Results 1. Get real-time, relevant data up close and
meaningful to the average consumer. 1. Create a campaign.

Top Idea: 2. Educate on the value of consuming less bad


and more good energy.
2. Take it on the road - a pop-up exhibit.

3. Create a social tipping point.

Influence energy
3. Educate average consumer on available op-
tions. 4. Leverage the power of social media and com-
munity accountability and encouragement

consumption
4. Suggest personal strategies and a phased somewhat like My Fitness Pal.
plan to completely switch-over from consum-
ing dirty energy to consuming clean energy 5. Incorporate a user-friendly, non-invasive load

behavior for
only. monitoring (NILM) device

6. Leverage the power of fun in creating a com-

positive change!
petition somewhat like Biggest Loser.

7. Leverage the power of financial reward (lot-


tery pick among lowest energy consumers).

8. Integrate a partnership program that links an


individual community with an under-served
community in a developing country.

9. Explore more smart use (sharing, multi-task-


ing etc.). For example, the EV car is not just a
car. The EV has two very important functions
not just one. It is now a battery on wheels.
Extrapolate the idea. All other appliances,
gadgets, etc. could be treated this way.

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Focused Ideation

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Ah-ha Moment
It was after I watched a Ted Talk of Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain
Institute discussing RMIs new book Reinventing Fire that I began to real-
ize that the motivation for switching over to solar energy is about energy
abundance.

Solar Energy Facts:


174 quadrillion watts of energy from the sun strike the earth every day.

On a day with no clouds, one square meter of the earth receives about
one kilowatt of energy.

For six hours in the middle of a sunny day, an area about the size of
a small backyard swimming pool will receive about 288 kilowatts of
energy - nearly 10x what the average US household uses in an entire Reinventing Fire5
day!1

The Top Idea Became:

Educate and influence energy


consumers to switch over
to clean energy abundance!

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How the SWITCH educational
campaign might work Community
solar gardens
Individual, home,
SOHO, or small
Learn about all business grid-tied

1
This metering package
is by EKM Metering.
5 available options

a. Distributed energy
system

resources (DER) Vehicle-to-home


(V2H) and vehi-
cle-to-grid (V2G)
pre-pay
Choose and install a non- b. Utility company
incentives
invasive load-monitoring dynamic
(NILM) device (if the client doesnt pricing
already have a smart meter)

4 Identify trouble Create a plan with


areas & energy
hogs 6 bench mark goals
(to implement in phases)

2 Set up the NILM


interface and
learn how it works
(including rewards & lottery

7
Samples of the UI
pick from biggest
from Simple Energy.
Begin the

3
switchers). switch
Examples from
a. Screen readout Rainforest
for in-home use. Automation.
Begin tracking
consumption

8 Get community sup-


port, win competitions,
and earn rewards
b. Smart phone
and web-based
app.

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After I had captured results from
my brainstorming, I discovered four
other important influences:

1. Simple Energy

2. Sunport

3. Soltrekker

4. Oak Ridge National Lab

Simple Energy is by far the most


user-attractive site out there that
specializes in changing energy
consumption behavior by coupling
relevant on-demand information
and incentives. They act as the mid-
dle-man between the utility com-
pany and the consumer. Heres
what the website says,

Simple Energy is a digital customer


engagement program that brings
value to customers while driving
positive, measurable business out-
comes for utilities. We transform
customer and consumption data
into digital experiences that inspire
people to take action.

Simple Energy6

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Sunport is a plug-in outlet that mea-
sures the energy from that outlet
and tells the utility company that
you as the consumer want that
amount of electricity to come from
solar power sources only. By using
the device consumers have a voice
and can create greater demand
for solar energy.

Sunport7

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Soltrekker - an RV that runs on
vegetable oil and travels to schools
across the U.S. to educate children
about renewable energy. It has
solar panels, rain water harvesting,
and a composting toilet.

Soltrekker8

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory
created a 3D printed vehicle that
can power a 3D-printed home
(and vice versa). This expands the
paradigm for vehicle-to-home
(V2H) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
systems.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory9

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As a result of more mid-stream research and discovery,
I chose to focus the design completely on a road show
that educates the public using a video blog format
featuring informative visits to related destinations and
one-on-one consultations with guests.

Chronological Order:

1. Create a road show campaign.

2. Use the format of a video blog.

3. Take it on the road using an all-electric RV that would function some


what like a mobile lab and studio.

4. Show consumers how to use existing systems, tools, and strategies.

5. Use the ERV to help demonstrate distributed energy resources with


the ERV as a literal vehicle-to-grid model.

6. Create a video blog by recording various crew visits.

7. Harness social media to create a social tipping point.


Kiravan10

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A Video Blog A Day In The Life Of The Switchmobile

12-24 episodes

House call - introduce feature household to a


smart meter and NILM in-home device (from EKM
or Rainforest Automation).

Come back the next day and demonstrate


several NILM apps (like Simple Energy).

Visit a small business or small restaurant and


demonstrate Plott Watt. Hitting the road in the Switch-mobile Charging the RV along the way Opening out the trailer for an exhibit

Visit a state representative.

Visit local utility company - talk about grid defec-


tion and incentives like dynamic pricing and
prepay programs.

Talk to next feature household about tracking


consumption and energy hog applicances.

Talk about distributed energy resources (DERs).


Visit a community solar garden.

Visit a grid-tied, renewable energy home. Folding out solar panels for the day Visiting a community solar garden Video session with feature household

Feature either Nissan LEAF or Tesla and talk about


V2G / V2H.

Visit a fracking field, mountaintop removal coal


mining site, or nuclear power plant and talk about
devastating long-term impacts.

Visit a wind farm.

Visit a regional solar installer / provider.

Visit RMI and talk to Amory Lovins about Rein-


venting Fire. Blogging and designing Exploring an integrated RV & tiny house Back to home base to unwind

Demonstrate living small on stuff and large on


experience.

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Life Cycle Inventory &
Process Flow
Summary
(see appendix for detailed inventory
and flow)

RV Building Process:
Framing - Most RVs have a steel chassis that is Walls (Built-Up vs. Laminated) - Built-up construc- Outer Shell - The outer shell is typically made of
welded, bolted, or riveted together. Aluminum is tion refers to building the walls one step at a aluminum or fiberglass. Both are durable choices.
uncommon. Steel is galvanized or powder- time. First wall framing and interior skin is installed.
coated for protection from the elements. Then insulation and wiring are laid in. Then the Roofing - The choices for roofing materials are
outer skin is added. This process makes typically aluminum, EPDM, and fiberglass.
Framing for walls consists of wood or metal. Alu- disassembly easier. Fiberglass is the most expensive option for a roof.
minum is typically used for trailers and steel most Aluminum is usually the product of choice for RV
common in motor homes. Metal wont rot like Laminated refers to a system where the interior builders.
wood. Good weather sealing is important, skin, framing, insulation, electrical chases and
especially around windows. outer skin are sandwiched together with Insulation - Spun fiberglass, Foam core which is
adhesive and treated as one complete unit. This made of polystyrene, are the two most common
process usually stronger, tighter, and better choices for insulation.
insulated. It also produces less waste.
Windows - Low emission, dual-paned windows
are the wise choice in complementing insulation.

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p30
Material Flow Example:
Steel RV Chassis Extract
Zinc Note: Because the steel is mixed with a

Extract
Start Here Extract
petroleum based coating, the chassis is no
longer able to be recycled. If the steel was
Petroleum Coal galvanized, however, recycling the chassis
would be possible. The zinc used in the
Extract
Iron Ore Refine galvinization process must also be account-
Zinc ed for. It must be extracted, refined, and
Run melted in order to coat the steel by dipping.
Machinery
Reclamation rate for zinc is 80%. Both zinc
Generate and steel have the potential to be 100%
Electricity recycleable.
Transport

Induction
Refine Furnace
Iron Ore

Galvanized steel
chassis can be recycled
Transport indefinitely.
Furnace

Treat
Steel

Transport Furnace
Electrostatic
Gun
Dealer /
Welding User
Polyester,
polyeurethane, Shape
Steel Powder
or acrylic powdered Powder-coated steel
Transport Coat
epoxy Build chassis unable to be
Chassis recycled - goes to
landfill.

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p31
Okala Impact Assessment Roofing - Aluminum (100% recycled content).

Windows - Low emission, dual-paned windows.


Summary Interior doors, cabinets & furniture - PlyVeneer, PlyCorr or Xanita Kraft

(see appendix for full assessment) Counter tops - Paperstone

Flooring - Flor carpet squares and bamboo laminate flooring

As a test run for the Okala Impact Assessment I chose to compare two Textiles - Up-cycled organic cotton
possible materials for siding / cladding and two more for framing, studs,
and ribs. I was shocked to see how low the impact was for bamboo
(.0010/hr.) and how high for carbon-reinforced plastic and additive man- Systems:
ufacturing (.4101/hr.). I was also surprised to see how low fiberglass was. It
was difficult to estimate material weight and transport distance.
Water - Rainwater harvesting, grey-water recycling
Bamboo isnt just a flooring material. Crushed bamboo laminate can be
formed into structural beams. As a result of the assessment I will consider Electricity - PV solar
crushed bamboo laminate products for many future applications.
Toilet - Composting toilet

Sinks & Shower - Low-flow


Conclusions on Building Materials:
Chassis - Galvanized steel.

Walls / Framing - a structural insulated panel (SIP) incorporating:

Oriented Structural Straw Board (OSSB) for interior and exterior skin

Crushed bamboo laminated beams for framing

Mycelium insulation

Outer Shell - Fiberglass or bamboo cladding.


Novofibre11

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p32
Design Development

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p33
It all started here! Beauer 3X12

Inspirations
Mitsubishi14

RV camper could ride on


a flatbed like this offroad
camper by Mitsubishi?

French RV company, Beauer, provides initial inspiration with an


incredible design. But their motor home is gas, not electric.

Hardanger Retreat15

Smith13

And could the


Smith, an electric truck RV camper look
manufacturer in the UK, is more like this?
now partnering in a joint
venture with FDG electric
vehicles in Kansas City,
USA. The trucks are and these?
flatbeds and have a 100
mile range.

Loftcube16

OTIS17

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p34
Concept Sketches for Switchmobile

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p35
Switchmobile layouts

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p36
Switchmobile layouts
(how it operates)

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p37
Switchmobile layouts

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p38
Logo concepts

switch!
the switch
helping people consume nothing but
consumin g nothing but
clean energy
clean energy

consuming nothing but clean energy


consuming nothing but clean energy

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p39
Vehicle applications

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p40
Exhibit layout
concept

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p41
Exhibit concept

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p42
Exhibit concept

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p43
Pop-up exhibit concept
(for 15 enclosed trailer)

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p44
Pop-up exhibit concept side elevation B

(for 15 enclosed trailer)

top view front elevation A

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p45
Sources:

1. Mooney, Chris. Why 50 million smart meters still havent fixed Americas energy habits.
Energy and Environment. The Washington Post, January 29, 2005,
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2015/01/29/ameri-
cans-are-this-close-to-finally-understanding-their-electricity-bills/

2. Solar Powered in Toronto. http://www.yourturn.ca/solar/solar-power/how-much-power-


does-the-sun-give-us/

Photo Sources:
1. Moore, Patrick. Solar Panels. freeimages.com 12. Beauer 3X RV. http://www.beauer.fr/en/

2. Clean Energy Collectives 500kW Boulder Cowdery Meadows Solar Array, Boulder, Colo- 13. Smith Electric Trucks. Smith. http://www.smithelectric.com
rado. http://communitysolarplatform.com/
14. Renovated 2003 Mitsubishi Fuso Off Grid Cruiser. Tiny House Talk.
3. Dynamic Wind Loads on Solar Panels. CCP. http://www.cppwind.com/blogs/dynam- http://tinyhousetalk.com/renovated-2003-mitsubishi-fuso-off-grid-cruiser/
ic-wind-loads-solar-panels
15. Hardanger Retreat: Modern Fjord Cabin. Home DSGN.
4. Bains, Inderdeep. An idyll blighted by 18,000 solar panels: Seen from the sky, the reality of http://www.homedsgn.com/tag/hardanger-fjord/
alternative energy. Daily Mail.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2403265/An-idyll-blighted-18-000-solar-panels- 16. Fincube. Studio Aisslinger. http://design-milk.com/fincube-by-studio-aisslinger/
Seen-sky-reality-alternative-energy.html
17. OTIS. Green Mountain College. http://www.gizmag.com/otis-green-mountain-col-
5. Reinventing Fire. http://www.rmi.org/reinventingfire lege/30534/

6. Simple Energy. http://simpleenergy.com/

7. Sunport. http://sunport.co/

8. Soltrekker. http://soltrekker.org/

9.Oak Ridge National Laboratory. http://web.ornl.gov/sci/eere/amie/

10. Kirvan. http://kiravan.net/

11. Novofibre. http://www.novofibre.com/

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 p46
Appendix A
Life Cycle & Process Flow (for 3 materials)
Steel
Component Natural Environment Raw Material Extraction Material Processing Component Manufacturing Assembly & Packaging Transport/Distribution/Purchase Construction/Installation Use Phase Maintenance/Upgrading End of Life Scenarios
Where does it come from? Virgin Material Input/ Detail Process Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail
Outpu Outpu Outpu Outpu Outpu Outpu Outpu Outpu Outpu
Steel Steel comes from iron ore. Iron ore is too soft to be Iron Ore Input Energy to mine the iron ore - either deep mining or Making steel from pig iron Input Energy for various methods of melting the pig iron. Fabricating the steel into usable Input Energy required for machining (milling, laser cutting, Assembling steel components Input Energy required for operating compressed air rachets Parts travel to RV / trailer Input Energy required for hauling parts Installing / assembling steel Input Energy required for operating compressed air rachets Customer uses RV / trailer Input Water needed to wash it Steel parts may need to be Input Energy required for transportation of replacement Transport to recycling facility Input Energy required for transporting scrap steel to be
used on its own so it has to be combined with alloys surface mining. parts (for engine, chassis, etc.) welding, etc.) as engine, chassis, hardware, and other tools needed for assembly. manufacturing facility (axles, parts into RV / trailer. and other tools needed for assembly. repaired or replaced parts recycled.
- most of the time it's combined with carbon. etc. engine, chassis, hardware, etc.)

Output Damage to environment from mining, especially Output Fossil fuel required to heat the furnace to extreme Output Fossil fuel required for machining. For cooling? Output Fossil fuels required for electricity to power the tools. Output Fossil fuel required for transporation. CO2 emissions Output Fossil fuels required for electricity to power the tools. Output Depletes water resources Output Fossil fuels required. Contributes to CO2 emissions. Disassembly Output Fossil fuels required. Contributes to CO2 emissions.
surface "strip" mining. Grinding ore on site releases temps. CO2 emissions. from train or hauling trailer.
arsenic, lead, and mercury. Taconite health risks to
workers and those who live near the site.
Input Materials for machinery to extract the iron ore. Treating the steel to improve its Input Energy required to plate the steel with another metal Input Input Painting certain parts? Input Paint or powder coating Input Painting certain parts? Customer cleans RV / trailer Input Soap and wax needed to keep it shiny Input Energy required for power tools for repair / Disassembly Input Energy required for tools to disassemble.
properties. or dip the steel in another molten metal (like zinc) replacement.

Output Virgin materials and processing to make the Output Fossil fuel required to heat the furnace to extreme Input Output Chemicals harmful to environment and workers. Input Output Chemicals harmful to environment and workers. Output Chemicals harmful to the environment Output Fossil fuels required to provide energy to tools. Disassembly Output Fossil fuels required to provide energy to tools.
machinery, maintenance required, parts and service. temps. CO2 emissions. Contributes to CO2 emissions. Contributes to CO2 emissions.

Input Transport the iron ore to the steel mill. Rolling or shaping the steel into Input Energy required to shape steel ingots, blocks, Input Input Input Input Input Recycling Input Macinery needed to move and sort scrap steel.
finished product. blooms, slabs and billets or rolling them into sheets

Output Requires fossil fuel for transportation. Output Fossil fuel required to heat the furnace to extreme Input Input Input Input Input Recycling Output Fossil fuels required. Contributes to CO2 emissions.
temps. CO2 emissions.

Input Input Transport to Manufacturing plant Input Input Input Input Input Melting steels down Input Heat required to melt the steel down.

Input Output Fossil fuel required for fuel to transport. Input Input Input Input Input Melting steels down Output Fossil fuels required for furnaces. Contributes to CO2
emissions.

Input Output CO2 emissions from trucks, trains, etc. Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Copper
Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input


Lifecycle Form
Component Natural Environment Raw Input
Material Extraction Material
Input Processing Component
Input Manufacturing Assembly
Input & Packaging Transport/Distribution/Purchase
Input Construction/Installation
Input Use Phase
Input Maintenance/Upgrading Disassembly EndInput
of Life Scenarios
Where does it come from? Virgin Material Input/ Detail Process Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail
Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu Disassembly Outpu
Input
Copper Copper wire comes from copper Copper is typically extracted Input Copper is extracted from mines in Chile and North Grinding ore into powder Input Energy for grinding. Copper rods are drawn through a Input Energy for stretching Copper wire is wound on spools Input Wood required for spools Transport to construction Input Fuel required for transport. Installing / assembling copper Input Energy required for operating tools needed for No real impacts here. Input Copper wire may need to be Input Energy required for manufacturing of wire Copper transported to scrap Input Fossil fuels required for operating machinery and
from sulphide ores America - from deep mines and surface mines alike die and thinned to the proper facility. wire into product. assembly. replaced. components. yard / recycling center. equipment to separate and transport copper.
Input Input diamter for pipe and wire. Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input
Output Damage to environment from mining, especially Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Output Trees cut for wood Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input Fossil fuels required for electricity to power the tools. Input Output All the same effects of fossil fuel extraction and CO2 Disassembly Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions.
surface "strip" mining. Displacement of wildlife. emissions on the environment.
Input Destruction of forest, prairie, and desert Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input
ecosystems.
Input
Input Ore is transported to copper mill. Concentrating - ore is enriched Input
Input Energy for concentrating Copper is annealed (made Input
Input Energy required to heat wire to extremely high temp. Spools may or may not be Input
Input Plastic shrink wrap may be used. Plastic made from Input
Input Input
Input Input
Input Recycled copper transported to
Disassembly Output
Input Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions.
using a process called froth pliable) shrink wrapped in plastic fossil fuels. copper mill
flotation.
Input
Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input
Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions. Paraffin oil Input
Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input
Output Fossil fuels must be extracted for plastic. Input
Input Input
Input Input
Input Disassembly
Copper melted down. Input
Input Heat required to melt copper down.
that's mixed with copper comes from fossil fuels.
However, the oil is recycled.
Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Roasting - powdered, enriched Input Energy for roasting Input Input Input Input Input Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions.
Input ore is heated 500-700 C to Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input
remove sulphur and dry the ore.

Input Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input Input Input Input Input Some copper may go to landfill Input

Input Smelting Input Energy for smelting Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Conversion Input Energy for conversion Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Anode casting Input Energy for anode casting Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Electro-refining Input Energy for elctro-refining Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Output Fossil fuels contribute to CO2 emissions Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Fiberglass
Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input Disassembly Input


Lifecycle Form
Component Natural Environment RawInput
Material Extraction Material
Input
Processing Component
Input
Manufacturing Assembly
Input
& Packaging Transport/Distribution/Purchase
Input
Construction/Installation
Input
Use Phase
Input
Maintenance/Upgrading Disassembly
EndInput
of Life Scenarios
Where does it come from? Virgin Material Input/ Detail Process Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail Input/ Detail
Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu
Input Outpu Disassembly Outpu
Input
Fiberglass hard panels / vehicle Fiberglass is made from spun glass fiber strands Silica (sand), soda ash (sodium Input Energy required to mine and gather silica, soda ash, Silica, soda ash, and limestone Input Energy required to tremendous heat. Input Fiberglass panel components Input Fiberglass panel components Input Energy required for transportation Fiberglass panel components Input Hardware needed. Once it is manufactured, Input Fiberglass is extremely durable Landfill Input Fiberglass is considered a monstrous hybrid and
siding coated with polyester resin/hardner. carbonate), and limestone and limestone. are melted down at high are created for shipping. must be tranported to RV / are installed onto the RV / fiberglass is chemically inert. and should not need to be cannot be recycled. Instead it goes to the landfill.
(calcium carbonate) for the Input temperatures. Input Input Input trailer manufacturing facility Input trailer. Input Input replaced. Disassembly Input
l
Output Fossil fuel is needed. Contributes to CO2 emissions. Output Fossil fuels needed for heat. Contributes to CO2 Input Moderate man-power required to Input If pallets are used, then wood is required. Output Fossil fuels provide the energy. Contribute to CO2 Input Tools required. Input Output It will not decompose.
emissions. stack panels on pallets and emissions.
either strapped or shrink
wrapped.
Input Silica is transported to glass factory. Transport of glass beads Input Energy required for transport Glass is extruded through Input Energy required. Input Timber must be harvested to make wood pallets. Input Input Energy required for assembly. Input
busings to form individual
strands.

Output Fossil fuel is needed for transport. Contributes to Output Fossil fuels needed. Contributes to CO2 emissions. Output Fossil fuels needed for heat. Contributes to CO2 Input If shrink wrap is used, then plastic is required. Input Input Input
CO2 emissions. emissions.

Resin is a petrochemical Input Fossil fuel extraction. Input Glass fibers can be Input Output Plastic is petrochemical based. Input Input Input
compound and comes from manufactured as chopped
fossil fuels. strand mat (CSM)

Output Great potential environmental damage. Oil spills. Input Input Input Input Input Input
Explosions. Fire. Displacment of wildlife. Destruction
of forest ecosystems.
Input Fossil fuel transport. Input Polyester resin is made from Input Fossil fuels needed. Input Input Input Input
petrochemicals

Output Great risk of environmental damage. Oil spills. Input Output Contributes to CO2 emissions. All risks of Input Input Input Input
Displacment of wildlife. Destruction of forest environmental damage.
ecosystems if on land and marine ecosystems if on
ocean.

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

p47
Input Input Input Input Input Input Input

SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A15.1 // 12112015 Input

Input
Input

Input
Input

Input
Input

Input
Input

Input
Input

Input
Input

Input
Appendix B
Life Cycle Analysis #1 and #2

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Appendix B
Life Cycle Analysis #3 and #4

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SHANNON REECE // SD-7620-10-W14 THE PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN // A12.2 // 11152015 p50