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GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING MOTIVATION IN TEAMS

By

Robert Zepp

A DISSERTATION

Submitted to

The University of Liverpool

In partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

2008
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CERTIFICATION STATEMENT

I hereby certify that this paper constitutes my own product, that where the

language of others is set forth, quotation marks so indicate, and that appropriate

credit is given where I have used the language, ideas, expressions or writings

of another.

Signed
Robert Zepp
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! ABSTRACT

GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING MOTIVATION IN TEAMS

by

Robert Zepp

Motivation is a subject that has been studied for decades, however, its importance

and applicability to teams has been on the rise as organizations have been increasing

team-based work. The authors experience as a member of various professional hockey

teams has revealed the importance of motivation and the need for it to be enhanced. As a

result, this study sets out to reveal which factors influence motivation in teams and

determine how leaders can enhance motivation in teams.

A review of the literature pertaining to motivation and leadership in teams reveals

leadership factors and general factors that influence motivation in teams, team

(behavioural) processes, and outputs that are characteristic of motivated teams, as well as

contextual factors that influence all of these elements. From this information, a

theoretical model of motivation in teams is established.

In addition, semi-structured, in-depth interviews are conducted with ten team

members from the professional hockey organization EHC Eisbaeren Berlin and from the

sports and entertainment company Anschutz Entertainment Group. This data is analyzed

using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis and is used to create a results model of the

leadership factors and motivational processes influencing motivation in teams.

The comparison and discussion of the models reveals minor differences as well as

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many consistencies between them. The differences suggest that context can influence the

leadership factors and motivational processes that are applicable to the team, while the

consistencies insinuate that some factors and processes are universally applicable.

Therefore, this study reveals to leaders--through a theoretical review and the

collection and subsequent analysis of primary data--the main factors influencing

motivation in teams and provides them with guidelines they can use to enhance the

motivation within their team.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank my advisor Elspeth McFadzean for all of her support and guidance.

Elspeth, you constantly went above and beyond what was required of you to lend me a

helping hand, for that I am truly grateful. I would also like to thank the members of EHC

Eisbaeren Berlin and Anschutz Entertainment Group who graciously participated in the

interviews. Last, but not least, I would like to thank my loving wife Melissa for all of her

support, encouragement, and patience throughout this arduous process. You helped to

make my goal of achieving a MBA degree a reality.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF FIGURES................................................................................................. VIII


TABLE OF TABLES..IX
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1
1. I) RESEARCH OVERVIEW ........................................................................................... 1
1. II) IMPORTANCE OF THIS RESEARCH ......................................................................... 3
1. III) SYNOPSIS .............................................................................................................. 3
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................... 5
2. I) MOTIVATION IN TEAMS .......................................................................................... 5
2. II) CRITICAL EVALUATION OF (TEAM) MOTIVATION MODELS ............................... 8
2. III) CRITICAL EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP MODELS .......................................... 14
2. IV) RESEARCH MODEL AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS .............................................. 20
2. V) SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ 27
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY................................. 28
3. I) METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................... 28
3. II) RESEARCH DESIGN .............................................................................................. 29
3. III) ANALYSIS STRATEGY ......................................................................................... 31
3. IV) VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY.............................................................................. 32
3. V) SUMMARY ............................................................................................................ 33
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS ................................................................................................. 34
4. I) LEADERSHIP .......................................................................................................... 34
4. II) MOTIVATIONAL PROCESSES ............................................................................... 41
4. III) TEAM PROCESSES .............................................................................................. 48
4. IV) OUTPUT .............................................................................................................. 53
4. V) INTERNAL CONTEXTUAL FACTORS .................................................................... 56
4. VI) EXTERNAL CONTEXTUAL FACTORS .................................................................. 57
4. VII) RESULTS MODEL .............................................................................................. 59
4. VIII) SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ 62
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION .......................................................................................... 63
5. I) MOTIVATION IN TEAMS: A DISCUSSION .............................................................. 63
5. II) GUIDELINES FOR LEADERS ................................................................................. 70
5. III) IMPLICATIONS FOR BUSINESS LEADERS ........................................................... 78
5. IV) IMPLICATIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONS AND LEADERS ........................................ 80
5. IV) SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 83
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS...................................................................................... 84
6. I) THE RESULTS IN RELATION TO THE GENERAL RESEARCH QUESTIONS............. 84
6. II) SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................. 85
6. III) WEAKNESSES OF THE RESEARCH ...................................................................... 86
6. IV) FUTURE RESEARCH ............................................................................................ 87

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6. V) LEARNING REFLECTIONS .................................................................................... 87
6. VI) SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS .......................................................... 88
APPENDICIES ............................................................................................................... 89
APPENDIX A: HERZBERGS DUAL FACTORS ......................................................... 89
APPENDIX B: THE EMPOWERMENT CONTINUUM ................................................... 90
APPENDIX C: INTERVIEW SEED QUESTIONS ........................................................... 91
APPENDIX D: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES AND DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ........... 92
APPENDIX E: SAMPLE TRANSCRIPT USING INTERPRETIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS (STEPS 1-3) .................................................................................................. 93
APPENDIX E: CONTINUED INTERPRETIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS- STEP 4
(LISTING OF THEMES) ................................................................................................ 100
APPENDIX E: CONTINUED INTERPRETIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS- STEP 5
(TABLE OF THEMES) .................................................................................................. 102
REFERENCE LIST ...................................................................................................... 103
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TABLE OF FIGURES

FIGURE 2.1 RESEARCH MODEL21

FIGURE 4.1 RESULTS MODEL61

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TABLE OF TABLES

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TABLE 6.1 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS85

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Its a little like wrestling a gorilla. You dont quit when youre tired- you

quit when the gorilla is tired.

Robert Strauss (Actor)

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Chapter 1 Introduction

1. I) Research Overview

!! Background Information

Scholars identify motivation as something that inspires, encourages, and maximizes

potential in people to achieve great things (Buhler, 2003). The importance and relevance

of motivation within teams has been on the rise as the use of team-based work is being

increased by organizations (Cacioppe, 1999). In business, organizational downsizing and

organizations realizing that working in teams makes better use of the skills available are

two reasons for the rise in team-based work (Cacioppe, 1999). The authors experience as

a member of professional hockey teams has revealed the importance of motivation as

well as the need to enhance it. The theory supports this as Ellemers et al. (2004: 461)

state, as organizations continue to move toward group-based systems, research on

motivation within (teams) is increasingly important. Gaining an understanding for

motivation helps to energize people to work for the team as well as strengthen their

loyalty to it (Ellemers et al., 2004). The positive effects of motivation are important to

teams because they help to maximize individual and collective ability (Buhler, 2003).

This dissertation aims to ascertain how motivation can be enhanced in teams and to

develop a set of guidelines for leaders.

!! General Research Questions

This thesis will accomplish the above aim by collecting and analyzing theoretical and

primary data to answer two main research questions.

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Research Question 1: What factors influence motivation in teams?

Answering this question will determine the factors influencing motivation in teams as

well as the relationship between leadership and motivation.

Research Question 2: How can leaders enhance motivation in teams?

The research collected in regards to this question will result in a set of guidelines on how

leaders can enhance motivation in teams.

!! Overview of Research Methodology and Data Analysis

Qualitative data collection and analysis in the form of individual, in-depth, semi-

structured interviews is used. Qualitative data collected from interviews will yield in-

depth, experiential information that increases the richness of the results. The research

sample consists of ten such interviews with team members from either the professional

hockey organization EHC Eisbaeren Berlin or the sports and entertainment company

Anschutz Entertainment Group.

The data is analyzed using Langdridges (2007) Interpretive Phenomenological

Analysis (IPA). IPA provides a detailed, four-step approach to data analysis that helps

identify major themes that emerge from the interviews.

The validity and reliability of the research is ensured through four different

methods. These methods include; data triangulation, prolonged time, member-checking

(Creswell, 2003), and memos (Strauss and Corbin, 1998).

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1. II) Importance of this Research

This thesis is important because it investigates and provides answers to issues that

are becoming more applicable in the increasingly team-based business environment;

leadership and motivation in teams. The research conducted for this study will identify

the factors that influence motivation in teams and produce guidelines that can be used by

leaders and organizations to enhance the motivation of their teams.

The information that is found in this thesis is important to leaders and to

organizations because it can be used to make major improvements to motivational

deficiencies that may exist within their teams.

1. III) Synopsis

This thesis is organized using the following structure:

Chapter 2 reviews the literature on motivation and leadership in teams. An

analysis of the theory on teams, motivation, and leadership is undertaken. From this, a

research model and two research questions are developed.

Chapter 3 describes the methodology, research design, and analysis strategy. In

addition, the methods for ensuring validity and reliability are discussed.

Chapter 4 presents the primary data on leadership factors and motivational

processes that influence motivation in teams. The chapter also presents the team

processes, outputs, and contextual factors that are involved in the motivation of teams.

From this, a results model is produced.

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Chapter 5 discusses the results and reveals how they relate to the existing

literature. The chapter also presents answers to the research questions in the form of a set

of guidelines and implications for leaders and organizations.

Chapter 6 summarizes the results and presents the answers to the research

questions. In addition, the chapter discusses the weaknesses of the research and describes

some potential future research projects.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Chapter 2 provides the necessary theoretical and background information,

confirms ideas and knowledge of the subject, and identifies proven and contemporary

thinking on the subject of motivation in teams (White, 2000). Within this chapter, the

reader will find a discussion of motivation in teams, more specifically, the importance of

motivation in teams, and a definition of the terms: motivation and teams. This

chapter also contains a discussion of the importance of leadership for motivating teams,

including background information and a definition of leadership. Further, Chapter 2

contains a critical evaluation of (team) motivation models and how they are linked to

leadership. Finally, the chapter will culminate in the presentation and description of a

research model, including contextual variables, and an explanation of the research

questions.

2. I) Motivation in Teams

!! The Importance of Motivation in Teams

Motivation is a subject that has been studied for decades, however, its importance

and applicability to teams has been increasing in todays business environment as

organizations have been increasingly shifting to team-based work (Ambrose and Kulik,

1999; Cacioppe, 1999). Cacioppe (1999) states that some reasons for this include:

organizational downsizing and organizations realizing that working in teams makes better

use of the skills available. Ellemers et al. (2004: 461) further support the increasing

importance of motivation in teams by stating that, as organizations continue to move

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toward group-based systems, research on motivation within groups is increasingly

important. Ellemers et al. (2004) feel that gaining an understanding for this type of

motivation would energize people to work for the team and help workers sustain loyalty

to the team.

It is useful to define the terms motivation and teams so that it is clear what is

meant when they are referred to throughout this paper. Hughes et al. (2006: 243) state

that motivation is, anything that provides direction, intensity, and persistence to

behaviour, while Brenner (2007: 16) defines motivation as inspiring and encouraging

another person to, do a great job, to enjoy what they are doing, and to want to perform to

the best of their ability. Clearly there are many different scholarly definitions of

motivation, however, they all seem to identify motivation as something that inspires,

encourages, and maximizes potential in people to achieve great things and to perform to

the best of their ability (Buhler, 2003). The effects of motivation are important to teams

because these effects help to maximize individual and collective ability (Buhler, 2003).

This dissertation examines motivation in teams, whether in business or in sport, so it

is useful to include a definition of motivation as it relates to the workplace. Work

motivation is defined by Latham and Pinder (2005: 486) as:

A set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individuals

being, to initiate work-related behaviour and to determine its form, direction,

intensity, and durationmotivation is a psychological process resulting from the

interaction between the individual and the environment.

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In addition, work motivation recognizes the influence of environmental forces (reward

systems, nature of the work) and personal forces (needs and motives) of work-related

behaviour (Ambrose and Kulik, 1999).

It is also essential to define exactly what a team is. Kozlowski and Ilgen (2006:

79) offer a comprehensive definition of team as:

(a) Two or more individuals who (b) socially interact; (c) (possess) one or more

common goals; (d) are brought together to perform organizationally relevant

tasks; (e) exhibit interdependencies with respect to workflow, goals, and

outcomes; (f) have different roles and responsibilities; and (g) are embedded in

an encompassing organizational system, with boundaries and linkages to the

broader system context and task environment.

Throughout this paper, any reference to teams that is made implies that the team satisfies

the characteristics of the above definition.

!! The Importance of Leadership for Motivating Teams

Motivating the team is an essential part of the leaders role. The leader must

motivate the team so that each person performs well individually and as a team.

According to Brenner (2007), teams cannot be successful without the guidance and

leadership of a member who is responsible for motivating the team. Ambrose and Kulik

(1999) validate the views of Brenner by stating that one of the greatest tasks facing a

leader is motivating their employees. The leaders ability to motivate followers is critical

to the morale and performance of a team (Hughes et al., 2006). Leaders who have

knowledge of various motivational theories and methods are better equipped and more

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likely to choose the right one to motivate their team in different situations (Hughes et al.,

2006). The above views demonstrate the importance that scholars place on leadership for

motivating teams. Scholars feel that it is the responsibility and function of leaders to

motivate their followers, but what is leadership? Leadership researchers have come up

with many different definitions for what leadership is. What can be learned from the large

number of definitions of leadership is that it is very complex and involves a multitude of

factors. However, Hughes et al. (2006) feel that the definition provided by Roach and

Behling (1984) is a comprehensive one. Thus, for the purposes of this dissertation,

leadership will be defined as, the process of influencing an organized group toward

accomplishing its goals (Hughes et al., 2006: 8).

2. II) Critical Evaluation of (Team) Motivation Models

There are a multitude of motivation models provided by scholars, and there are

also an increasing number of team motivation models available since the use of teams by

organizations continues to rise (Hughes et al., 2006; USTA, 2004; Frey and Jegen, 2001;

Amabile, 1993; Amabile, 1997; Ilies et al., 2007). The study of (team) motivation and

motivation models has revealed four main factors that influence motivation in teams.

These factors are all linked to leadership and can be broken down as follows: personal

needs (compensation and opportunity); individual differences (job characteristics and job

design); cognitive; and achievement and recognition (Hughes et al., 2006; Ilies et al.,

2007; Buhler, 2003; Bassett-Jones and Lloyd (2005).

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!! (PERSONAL) NEEDS

One factor that leaders can appeal to in order to motivate their teams is the

(personal) needs of their followers. Appealing to the needs of a team member will help

them to achieve the completion of the teams goals (Hughes et al., 2006). Needs are,

internal states of tension or arousal, or uncomfortable states of deficiency people are

motivated to change (Hughes et al., 2006: 250).

One popular needs theory is Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (1954). Maslow felt

that people are motivated by five basic needs that occur in a hierarchy. The needs as they

occur from the lowest-level needs to the highest-level needs are as follows: physiological

needs, security needs, the need to belong, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs

(Buhler, 2003). The level that happens to motivate a person at any time depends on which

needs have been satisfied. According to Maslow, lower-level needs must be satisfied

before a person can be motivated by a higher-level need (Buhler, 2003). Leaders can only

be successful in motivating team members if they have taken into consideration where

each member falls on the needs hierarchy (Hughes et al., 2006; Buhler, 2003). Leaders

must ensure the lower-level needs of followers are satisfied before they can move on to

satisfying the self-esteem or self-actualization needs of team members in order to

motivate them (Buhler, 2003). Thus, leaders should do all they can to help followers meet

their lower-level needs because if a team members needs are not met, then they may

decide to undertake actions or behaviours that are not directed towards the

accomplishment of team goals (Hughes et al., 2006).

There are many different examples of personal needs that can be met, two of

which include compensation and opportunity. Compensation can be considered a lower-

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level need because compensation is used to fulfill the physiological needs of people.

Horowitz et al (2003). uses compensation as example of something that can appeal to the

lower-level needs of team members, but also to their higher-level needs by providing

compensation in reward form to recognize the success of employees. According to

Horowitz et al. (2003), compensation can include cash rewards, incentives, ownership

plans, and providing competitive pay in order to recognize the success of employees.

Opportunity is a second example of a motivator that appeals directly to a persons needs.

Horowitz et al. (2003) feels that ensuring room for professional growth and providing

employees with attractive career plans can increase their level of motivation. It can be

concluded that personal needs are a factor that influence motivation in teams since

compensation and opportunity appeal to the needs of team members (Horowitz et al.,

2003).

!! INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATION

Contrary to needs theories, individual differences theories conclude motivation

levels can vary from person to person (Buhler, 2003; Buckingham, 2005; Ilies et al.,

2007; Peterson, 2007). According to individual differences theories, leaders should only

select members who possess the right skills, have a high level of achievement motivation,

the right values, and who find the work to be intrinsically motivating (Hughes et al.,

2006).

Intrinsic motivation is one example of an individual difference theory that has

been examined by many scholars (Amabile, 1993; Amabile, 1997; Frey and Jegen, 2001;

USTA, 2004). Major theories in psychology place emphasis on the intrinsic motives

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coming from within the person (Frey and Jegen, 2001; Amabile, 1997). Intrinsic

motivation is behaviour that is generated from within as a result of a person gaining

satisfaction, competence or control from doing it and the only reward the person receives

is the activity itself (Hughes et al., 2006; USTA, 2004; Frey and Jegen, 2001; Amabile,

1993). People are often intrinsically motivated when their job appeals to their values.

Those team members who are intrinsically motivated will be more determined and

motivated to accomplish the goals of the team (Frey and Jegen, 2001; Amabile, 1993).

Another function of individual differences is the characteristics of a job. Ensuring

the right employee is paired up with right job increases intrinsic motivation and

motivation as a whole (Chen and Klimoski, 2003). A job can be considered to have high

motivating potential if it is high on skill variety, task identity, task significance,

autonomy, and feedback (Chen and Klimoski, 2003). The same characteristics as above

also apply to the work that is assigned. Along the same lines as job and work

characteristics is job design. Job design is a key factor influencing motivation in todays

workplace (Gee and Burke, 2001). Ensuring that the employee is involved in decision-

making, has the opportunity to use different skills, and is involved in completing entire

tasks are key ingredients of job design (Gee and Burke, 2001). Selecting team members,

with the right skills that are conducive to the job characteristics and job design will result

in higher levels of intrinsic motivation (Gee and Burke, 2001).

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!! COGNITIVE FACTORS

A third motivation factor that influences motivation in teams is cognitive factors.

Cognitive theories are based on the idea that leaders can motivate team members by

setting goals and increasing their beliefs in task accomplishment (Hughes et al., 2006).

One proven cognitive theory is the expectancy theory. The expectancy theory is based

on two main assumptions: (1) Motivated performance is a result of choice; (2) people will

do what they believe provides them with the highest rewards. The expectancy approach

indicates that people will be motivated to do a task if three conditions are met:

1. The task can be performed with the appropriate effort.

2. They will be rewarded for doing it.

3. They value the reward.

(Hughes et al., 2006)

Since people are motivated by their expectations and values, leaders can influence

follower motivation levels by; articulating expected outcomes, clarifying links between

effort and rewards, providing training, coaching, and feedback to followers, and placing

strong emphasis on leader-follower communication (Hughes et al., 2006). Further,

leaders must have strong interpersonal communication skills, feedback, and coaching

skills if they want to successfully implement these theories (Hughes et al., 2006). It has

been shown that expectations and values of team members are not only influenced by

leaders, but are a factor that influences team motivation as well (Brenner, 2007; Gee and

Burke, 2001; Spiers, 2007; Horowitz et al., 2003).

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!! LEVEL OF EMPLOYEE ACHIEVEMENT AND RECOGNITION

Another factor influencing the motivation of teams is the level of employee

achievement and recognition (Rantz et al., 1996; Basset-Jones and Lloyd, 2005). One

important motivation theory that is centered on employee achievement and recognition is

Herzbergs Dual-Factor theory. Herzberg stated that employees are influenced by

motivator factors and by hygiene factors (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005). Motivator

factors result in growth and satisfaction and are intrinsic to the job while hygiene factors

are extrinsic to the job and result in dissatisfaction and avoidance (Rantz et al., 1996;

Buhler, 2003; Amabile, 1993). Dissatisfaction factors will temporarily move employees,

but will not motivate them, thus, motivation/satisfaction factors must be employed (Rantz

et al., 1996; Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005; Amabile, 1993). See Appendix A for a list of

Herzbergs Dual Factors.

It is up to the leader of a team to decide if they want to move or motivate their

employees. It is important to realize a motivated employee can work much longer than a

moved one on their own initiative (Rantz et al., 1996; Buhler, 2003). Herzberg believes

the only way to truly motivate all employees whether in a team setting or not, is to give

them challenging work and place them in situations that involve them assuming

responsibility (Rantz et al., 1996).

A leader is more effective when they use many motivational techniques and team

members are more likely to have positive attitudes at work if they believe their work is

important (Hughes et al., 2006). Herzbergs Dual Factor Theory demonstrates that the

opportunity for advancement and achievement recognition influences motivation.

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2. III) Critical Evaluation of Leadership Models

The critical evaluation of various leadership models reveals a variety of

leadership factors that influence motivation in teams. This section describes the

leadership factors and demonstrates how they are linked to motivation. The major

leadership factors influencing motivation are: the leaders ability to empower their

employees, recognizing the individuality of team members, communication, the design

and implementation of reward systems, and leader-follower interaction.

!! ABILITY TO EMPOWER TEAM MEMBERS

The leaders ability to empower team members is a major leadership factor that

influences the motivation in teams. Kirkman and Rosen (1999) define empowerment as,

increased task motivation resulting from an individuals positive orientation to his or her

work role. Brenner (2007) recognizes the positive effects that the leaderships

empowerment of employees can have. Brenner (2007) and Guzzo and Dickson (1996)

feel that employees can be motivated by asking for their input and help in the decision-

making process. According to Chen et al. (2007), Kirkman and Rosen (1999), and Chen

and Klimoski (2003), psychological empowerment of teams is a multilevel construct

which includes:

A) Impact: The degree to which employees feel their work affects their organization.

B) Competence: The perceived ability to accomplish tasks.

C) Meaningfulness: The intrinsic caring about work tasks.

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D) Choice: The perceived self-determination or autonomy at work (Chen et al.

(2007: 332) and the degree to which team members experience freedom,

independence, and discretion in their work.

E) Potency: The collective belief of a team that they can be effective.

Empowerment is a key ingredient in building a highly motivated and high-

performing team. The Empowerment Continuum (Hughes et al., 2006) provides the

characteristics of empowered employees compared to unempowered employees (see

Appendix B). The characteristics of empowered employees are much more conducive to

strengthening and maintaining motivation than the characteristics of unempowered

employees. Further, research at the team level reveals that leadership behaviours directed

towards the team impacts the level of team empowerment. It is expected that leaders who

create a more motivating environment through empowerment will forge more positive

relationships with team members (Chen et al., 2007). These members will be more likely

to trust and respect leaders who are able to delegate authority and important tasks

(Peterson, 2007). Since researchers such as Peterson (2007) draw positive correlations

between empowered teams and increased motivation in those teams, it can be concluded

that the leaders ability to empower their team members is an important leadership factor

that influences the motivation of teams.

!! RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUALITY OF TEAM MEMBERS

Each member of a team finds different factors such as; job characteristics, rewards, or

job design motivating and each member handles and deals with situations differently.

Thus, it is important for a leader to know each team member (USTA, 2004; Chen et al.,

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2007; Buhler, 2003; Buckingham, 2005). Chen et al. (2007) and Buckingham (2005)

acknowledge the leaders recognition of the individuality of team members as an

important leadership factor that influences motivation. Chen et al. (2007) and

Buckingham (2005) feel that leaders should realize the importance of recognizing

individualism in their teams as this recognition saves time, holds individual team

members accountable, and helps to build a sense of team. Peterson (2007) also feels it is

important for leaders to recognize differences in others by providing a more personalized

approach to motivation. Peterson (2007) states that individual differences between team

members can come from a variety of contextual factors such as an individuals culture,

experience, education, personality, and profession. Knowing what motivates individual

members of a team allows leaders to connect their team to responsibilities or assignments

that increase their personal motivation (Peterson 2007; Ilies et al., 2007). Since

motivation in teams can be increased by recognizing the individuality of team members,

it can be concluded that a leaders ability to take the individuality of team members into

consideration and apply it to their leadership style is a factor influencing motivation in

teams.

!! COMMUNICATION

Communication is an important leadership factor that influences the motivation of

teams as it is vital to keep the team informed (Horowitz et al., 2003). Communication

helps to build the focus of team members and provides them with a clear idea of their

roles and expectations. Communication helps team members to understand and clarify

individual goals and team goals (Brenner, 2007). Regular communication according to

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Horowitz et al. (2003) and Spiers (2007) includes regular contact with staff, allowing for

staff decision-making, top leadership support for recognition of staff and decision-

making processes, as well as regular performance support. Spiers (2007) identifies the

ability of a leader to listen as well as their non-verbal communication skills as just as

important as verbal communication. Spiers (2007: 21) offers the following skills for

leaders to engage in effective communication: inspiration through leadership, establish

two-way dialogue, use non-verbal cues to stimulate revealing questions or answers, how

to use silence, and effective listening. The leaders ability to use such skills will impact

the motivation levels of their followers.

Since motivation levels can be positively impacted by regular and effective

communication (Brenner, 2007; Horowitz et al., 2003; and Spiers, 2007) it can be

concluded that communication does influence motivation. Thus, the leaders ability to

communicate with their team members is an important factor that influences motivation

in teams.

!! LEADER-FOLLOWER INTERACTION

The ability of a leader to interact with their followers and the quality of those

interactions is another leadership factor that influences the motivation of teams. Leader-

follower interaction is a broad category that includes skills such as: the ability to inspire,

the leader as a role model, inclusiveness, and the social identity created for the team by

the leader (Brenner, 2007).

It is important for a leader to be a good role model and have a positive influence

over the team (Brenner, 2007). The leader should exhibit a strong work ethic, attitude,

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and behaviour, because these things are contagious for the team (Brenner, 2007). Leaders

will be able to enhance motivation if they boost the self-esteem of team members and

make them feel a part of the team (Brenner, 2007). By acting as a role model and being

an inspiring presence, leaders will have a positive influence on the motivation of the team

(Brenner, 2007).

Chen and Klimoski (2003) point out that research shows that team members who

believe their leader-member exchange have the following characteristics are more

motivated: the leaders ability to maintain high-quality social exchanges that exemplify

high levels of mutual trust, respect, and loyalty (Chen and Klimoski, 2003). Inclusiveness

is the aim of a leader to provide a culture that everyone feels they are a part of (Spiers,

2007). Thus, an inclusive environment is another factor of leader-follower interaction that

positively effects motivation in teams.

Further, the social identity approach is a characteristic of leader-follower

interaction that influences motivation. Ellemers et al. (2004: 462) feel that, a concern for

the collective self provides a much broader and more powerful source of group-based

motivation. The leaders emphasis of the social identity approach can energize people to

work for the group and help workers to sustain their loyalty to the team while enhancing

motivation (Ellemers et al., 2004). The social identity approach occurs when people view

themselves as part of a collective, or as a team, and are motivated differently than they

are as individuals (Ellemers et al., 2004). When leaders take actions that cause

individuals to identify with the team, the members will be more motivated to focus their

energy on team tasks because those who identify with the team will constantly work for

that team (Ellemers et al., 2004).

18 !
Effective leader-follower interaction in the form of being an inspiring leader and

role model, building trust and loyalty, and creating an inclusive, strong, social identity

has positive effects on the motivation of teams (Brenner, 2007; Chen and Klimoski,

2003; Spiers, 2007; and Ellemers et al., 2004). Thus, it can be concluded that leader-

follower interaction is a leadership factor that influences the motivation of teams.

!! DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REWARD SYSTEMS

The leaders design and implementation of reward systems is another critical

factor influencing motivation in teams. Team incentives and reward systems are generally

considered to be necessary for optimal team performance and motivation (Hoffman and

Rogelberg, 1998; Cacioppe, 1999). If team work is not recognized by the leader and by

the organization, then members will not see their work as valued by either party

(Hoffman and Rogelberg, 1998). Rewards are one of the most clear ways leaders can

deliver messages about what is important (Cacioppe, 1999). Team-based rewards are

rewards given to the entire team or are divided equally between team members with

strategies to implement the rewards that are constantly monitored and adapted to stay in

line with business strategies, goals, and organizational culture (Cacioppe, 1999). The

effective design and implementation of reward systems, particularly, team-based reward

systems help to motivate team members, enforce roles and behaviours that are needed,

and encourage teamwork (Cacioppe, 1999).

19 !
2. IV) Research Model and Research Questions

The research model (Figure 2.1) was developed from the above evaluation and

includes both general and leadership factors that influence motivation. It can be

concluded from the above discussion that the following general factors influence the

motivation of teams: personal needs, individual differences, cognitive factors, and the

level of achievement and recognition that team members receive. It can also be concluded

that the following leadership factors influence the motivation of teams: the leaders

ability to empower employees, the recognition of individuality in the team,

communication, design and implementation of reward systems, and leader-follower

interaction. The model also provides a definition of motivation, behavioural factors of

motivated teams, outputs of teams, and some major contextual factors. These are

described in more detail below.

20 !
FIGURE 2.1 RESEARCH MODEL

21 !
TEAM: Behavioural Factors of Motivated Teams

It is important to examine the various behavioural factors that are characteristic of

motivated teams to understand some main ways motivation is reflected by the team.

Some behavioural factors of motivated teams include: proactivity, job satisfaction,

organizational commitment, cohesiveness, teamwork, and collective initiatives (Kirkman

and Rosen, 1999; Buhler, 2003; Cacioppe, 1999; Peterson, 2007). This list includes

behaviours that were prevalent in the literature and consistent with the authors

professional experience working in teams.

1.! Proactivity:

Proactivity is defined as actions, effecting environmental change through their

scanning for opportunities, showing initiativesolving problems, and persevering until

changes are made (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999: 62). Teams that are empowered, and

consequently motivated, are more likely to take action to solve problems, to improve the

quality of their work, and expend more effort than those who are not motivated (Kirkman

and Rosen, 1999; Buhler, 2003).

2.! Job Satisfaction

Research has shown that more empowered, and thus, more motivated teams

experience higher levels of job satisfaction at the individual level. The more meaningful

the team member perceives the job to be, the higher job satisfaction they will experience

(Kirkman and Rosen, 1999).

22 !
3.! Organizational Commitment

Organizational commitment is the level of loyalty that the employee has to the

organization, its vision, and its goals. According to Kirkman and Rosen (1999), more

empowered and motivated employees display higher levels of organizational

commitment.

4.! Cohesiveness, Team Work, and Collective Initiatives

Cacioppe (1999) states that cohesiveness is a behavioural factor exhibited by

motivated teams. Cohesiveness occurs in a team when motivated members are linked by

the belief that their success depends on one another. Cohesive teams are likely to stick

together through difficult situations as well as in good situations and are much more

supportive of one another than non-cohesive teams. Also, a motivated team environment

fosters teamwork and collective initiatives which aid in the achievement of common

goals (Peterson, 2007; Cacioppe, 1999).

!! OUTPUT: Team Outputs

Now that some major behavioural factors of motivated teams have been

established, it is useful to examine some of the major outputs of teams. Four main team

outputs include: productivity, quality of customer service, project success factors, and

performance (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999; Ambrose and Kulik, 1999; Amabile, 1993;

McFadzean, 1997; Peterson, 2007). Similar to the behavioural factors of motivated

teams, these outputs were prevalent in the literature and are intended to provide an

overview of some of the main outputs of teams.

23 !
1.! Productivity & Performance

Empowerment and effective motivation have been associated with increased

productivity in teams (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999). Research has shown that employees

who are actively involved in decision-making and who find their jobs to be meaningful

display increased levels of productivity (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999). According to

Ambrose and Kulik (1999) and Amabile (1993), team performance is a function of ability

and motivation. Teams that are cohesive, motivated, and have strong support systems

experience enhanced productivity (McFadzean, 1997). Highly motivated teams are more

likely to achieve greater performance levels and success than teams with low motivation

levels.

2.! Quality of Customer Service

Consistent links have been established between more motivated teams and higher

levels of quality and customer service. Motivated teams often take the initiative to handle

and resolve customer complaints with greater care, which leads to higher levels of

customer satisfaction (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999).

3.! Project Success Factors

Motivation can have a direct impact on project success factors which include

whether or not the project is: on time, within budget, of a high quality, and if it meets or

exceeds customer expectations (Peterson, 2007). Motivated teams achieve project success

factors more frequently than low-motivated teams as they are more motivated to

complete projects with a higher quality (Peterson, 2007).

24 !
!! CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

Now that the main leadership and motivation factors influencing motivation in

teams have been described, and the behavioural factors and outputs of motivated teams

have been discussed, it is important to describe the internal and external contextual

factors that influence these variables. The list of contextual factors includes some factors

found in the literature that affect teams.

1.! Internal Contextual Factors

Four main internal contextual factors were identified during research: pay level,

job design characteristics, team structure, and teamwork (Horowitz et al., 2003; Latham

and Pinder, 2005; Amabile, 1997; Hart et al., 2004; Chen et al., 2007).

The pay level of a team member influences the general factors found in the

research model. Horowitz et al. (2003) feel that an employee with an already high level

of compensation results in further compensation being less motivating than intrinsic

factors.

Job design characteristics are another internal contextual factor. A team members

motivation can be low depending on whether the characteristics of a persons job, their

values, and their personality complement each other (Latham and Pinder, 2005; Amabile,

1997). If they do not complement each other, then motivation can be low, if they do

complement one another, motivation can be high (Amabile, 1997).

Team structure itself is an internal contextual factor because workers can engage

in social loafing when involved in team tasks (Hart et al., 2004). Social loafing is, a

reduction in an individuals motivation and effort when working collectively as compared

25 !
to either working individually or coactively (Hart et al., 2004: 984). Further, team work

is also an internal contextual factor because within teams motivation can be contagious as

individual members may be more motivated to perform when other members of the team

share the same enthusiasm (Chen et al., 2007). They can also be more confident to

perform their own roles if they believe in the capabilities of their team members (Chen et

al., 2007).

2.! External Contextual Factors

The literature review revealed three generic external contextual factors that influence

the variables in the research model: cultural factors, industry type, and person-context fit

(Latham and Pinder, 2005; Ambrose and Kulik, 1999; Horowitz et al., 2003).

Latham and Pinder (2005) point out that the cultural background of a person

affects three areas of their motivation:

(A) Their self-concept (beliefs, needs, and values)

(B) Norms about work ethic and the nature of achievement.

(C) Environmental factors (education, socialization experiences, and political/legal

systems)

Further, Silverthorne (Ambrose and Kulik, 1999) concluded that factors influencing

motivation can vary according to culture (Vecchio, 2006). Given these facts, it becomes

clear that culture is an external contextual factor affecting all facets of team motivation.

Horowitz et al. (2003) states that the ability to motivate team members and the

effectiveness of the motivation strategies differs according to industry type as workers

from different industries are motivated by different factors. Also, the person-context fit is

26 !
a key external contextual variable. The relationship between individual variables (needs,

values) and the individual and organizational outcomes are reliant on various

environmental factors such as; the job, the organization, and the culture (Horowitz et al.,

2003).

!! RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Based on the theoretical model and that this dissertation aims to ascertain how

motivation can be enhanced in teams and to develop a set of guidelines for leaders, the

following research questions were developed in order to accomplish these aims:

1. What factors influence motivation in teams?

2. How can leaders enhance motivation in teams?

2. V) SUMMARY

The theoretical model of motivation in teams demonstrates the leadership factors

and general factors influencing motivation, the main behavioural factors and outputs

associated with motivated teams, as well as the contextual factors that influence all of the

above variables. In order to properly answer the research questions, qualitative data in the

form of semi-structured interviews will be collected, analyzed, and utilized to form a

real-world practical model of motivation in teams. Chapter 3 discusses the research

design and methodology used to collect the primary data.

27 !
Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology

Now that a literature review has been conducted regarding motivation in teams

and a theoretical model has been developed, it is necessary to collect primary data and

use it to build a real-world, practical model for motivation in teams. Chapter 3 describes

the methodology used as well as the reasons for this. The chapter then proceeds to

describe the research methods and the research sample. The chapter also includes a

discussion of the analysis strategy and the methods that are used to ensure validity and

reliability.

3. I) Methodology

Qualitative data collection and analysis are used for this dissertation. Qualitative

data is the most applicable to this study because it gathers rich data in the form of the

attitudes, feelings, and motivations of the subjects (McDaniel and Gates, 2007). The

attitudes, feelings, and emotions of the subjects can yield in-depth, rich answers to the

two primary research questions: (1) what factors influence motivation in teams? And (2)

how can leaders enhance motivation in teams?

Drawing upon the personal experiences of the subjects through interviews

produces richer data than quantitative research making it more useful to the development

of a real-world, practical model. It is argued that no two situations are the same and

every phenomenon is unique (White, 2000: 28). Thus, the research is important because

it occurs in a real-life setting by investigating peoples experiences in teams, with leaders,

and how they are best motivated (White, 2000). The experiential, in-depth and content-

28 !
based research that is gathered from qualitative data provides the richness needed to form

a real-world, practical model of motivation in teams.

3. II) Research Design

Individual in-depth interviews are used to collect the qualitative data. These

individual interviews are semi-structured in the sense that a number of prescribed or seed

questions are asked (McDaniel and Gates, 2007; White, 2000). Once a seed question is

asked, the interviews assume a discussion form, with the interviewee directing the

conversation with a number of follow-up questions to uncover key contextual

information or to elaborate on important topics (White, 2000; McDaniel and Gates,

2007).

The seed questions for the semi-structured interviews are developed based upon

the theoretical model that was formed in Chapter 2. These questions are created to draw

upon the four main areas of the theoretical model namely, general motivation factors,

leadership factors, team (behavioural factors), and output. The seed questions draw upon

the interviewees experiences in teams of high and low motivation as well as their

experiences of good and poor leadership (see Appendix C for a copy of the seed

questions). It was intended that the interviewees responses to the seed questions would

yield primary data to the four major categories of the research model.

The interviews take place in private, one-on-one settings which range from offices

to hotel rooms. Ten interviews are conducted and lasted from thirty minutes to an hour.

All of the interviews are recorded on a digital voice recorder so that they can later be

converted into transcript form.

29 !
The interviewees are generally from two companies, EHC Eisbaeren Berlin and

Anschutz Entertainment Group. EHC Eisbaeren Berlins roots extend back to a time

when they were the 15-time East German Ice Hockey Champions Dynamo Berlin

(Eisbaeren Berlin, 2008). Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Eisbaeren have been one

of the few organizations from the East to establish themselves in Germanys top ice

hockey division. The Eisbaeren are one of the premier ice hockey clubs in Germany

having won the championship three of the past four seasons (Eisbaeren Berlin, 2008).

Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG) meanwhile is one of the worlds leading sports

and entertainment presenters (AEG, 2008). AEG owns a collection of companies such as

the Staples Centre, O2 World London and Berlin, and ice hockey franchises such as the

Los Angeles Kings and EHC Eisbaeren Berlin.

It is important to understand that within a professional hockey organization, there are

leaders who are responsible for leading teams of athletes on the ice as well as leaders

leading work teams in the office. The captain, a player recognized by the team for

possessing strong leadership skills, and the coaches lead the athletes, while a CEO and a

general manager are responsible for leading the office team and hiring the players.

These subjects are chosen for their experience working in teams and their position

as either a team member or team leader. All of the subjects are involved in the

professional ice hockey industry in one capacity or another. See Appendix D for a

detailed listing of the interviewees, their roles, and demographic information.

30 !
3. III) Analysis Strategy

The data is analyzed using Langdridges (2007) Interpretive Phenomenological

Analysis (IPA). This analytical approach is taken since the interviews are conducted in

order to gain insight into the world of the interviewees. IPA is useful in accomplishing

this because it involves a detailed examination of transcripts in order to identify major

themes that emerge from the interviews (Langdridge, 2007).

Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis involves five stages in the analysis of

interview transcripts. The first stage is the transferring of the audio files into verbatim

transcripts. The second stage involves the reading and re-reading of the transcript and

adding comments on to the left-hand margin. These comments include summaries,

associations, and interpretations of the data (Langdridge, 2007). The third stage is

comprised of recording the emerging themes on the right-hand margins. The initial notes

are transformed into more meaningful statements that are broader and more theoretically

significant (Langdridge, 2007). The fourth stage includes the listing of themes. Common

links are identified and reordered by the analyst in a more analytical and theoretical way

(Langdridge, 2007). The final stage involves the analysts creation of a table of themes

arranged in a coherent order. The relevant themes are named and linked to the originating

text while some themes may be eliminated if they are irrelevant or insignificant

(Langdridge, 2007). Once all of these stages have been completed for one interview, then

the analyst can move on to the next interview (see Appendix E for an example of IPA

used in this study).

31 !
3. IV) Validity and Reliability

According to Creswell (2003: 195), reliability and generalizability play a minor

role in qualitative inquiry, while validity is a strength of qualitative research. Validity

considers if the research design fully addresses the research questions and objectives of

the study (White, 2000).

The strategies that are used in this study to ensure the validity of its research and

findings are: triangulation, member-checking (Creswell, 2003), and memos (Strauss and

Corbin, 1998). Triangulation is the concept of examining evidence from different data

sources and using it to build justification of themes (Creswell, 2003). Data triangulation

is a form of triangulation that involves the use of some data collection from different

sources over different time scales. Since there is a nine month time restriction in which to

complete this dissertation, the use of differing time scales is not completely possible;

however, it has been compensated for by interviewing a variety of professionals in

different stages of their careers as well as ensuring a 50/50 split between interviews with

leaders and interviews with followers. Thus, a form of data triangulation is one method

used to ensure validity. Member-checking is also used to ensure that information and the

resulting model makes sense to the interviewees and that they agree with it (Creswell,

2003). Finally, memos are used to create a paper trail of the thought and analysis used to

build the results model (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). Appendix E includes examples of this

paper trail as all five stages of IPA are recorded for each interview. These documents are

referred to during the construction of the results model and are used to ensure that the

author does not bias the analysis.

32 !
3. V) Summary

The aforementioned research methodology, research design, analysis strategy, and

validity and reliability strategies describe the tools that are used to collect the primary

data and analyze it. Qualitative data yields rich, in-depth information while semi-

structured interviews allow for seed and research questions to be asked and for the

conversation to openly flow so that additional, important information can be revealed.

Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis is a very comprehensive qualitative analysis

technique that ensures themes from the most obvious to the hidden are revealed while

data triangulation, member-checking, and memos are used by this study to strengthen the

validity of the research. Chapter 4 presents the results and builds a practical model based

upon the qualitative research that is conducted.

33 !
Chapter 4 Results

Chapter 4 presents the data on the leadership factors and general motivational

processes that influence motivation in teams. The chapter also discusses the team

processes and the output of teams that the primary data illustrated as being prevalent in

motivated teams. The internal and external contextual factors that affect the above

variables are also highlighted. Finally, Chapter 4 presents a results model based upon the

findings of the primary data.

4. I) Leadership

The results show that leadership is a key element in motivating teams and is also

the foundation of teams. The primary data analysis reveals the major leadership factors

influencing motivation in teams as: developing talent, communication, developing

respect, and developing relationships.

!! DEVELOPING TALENT

The interviewees suggest that talented teams produce expectations that need to be

fulfilled. The results suggest that talented teams are more likely to fulfill these

expectations. Team Member 4 illustrates this by stating,

That (previous) year was a tough year for Mannheimthey went out and signed a

lot of the top players from around the league so my first year going there all the talk

was Mannheim was the team to beat, we had huge expectations and we performed

right up to them(we were) winning hockey games.

34 !
The fulfillment of these expectations leads to celebration. In professional hockey,

celebration follows victory and takes the form of cheering, hugging, providing each other

with positive reinforcement, and re-living the excitement of the game with each other at a

team dinner. The positive feelings experienced during celebrations produces cohesion

and a boost in the spirit and attitudes of the team. As a former member of a talented and

successful team, Team Member 4 states,

The morale is always better on a team that wins.

After having experienced these celebrations and a strengthening in the

cohesiveness and morale of the team, team members are left with the desire to win and

fulfill expectations once again. Team Member 5 demonstrates this by stating,

When you do it (win the championship) you wake up the next morning and say,

lets do that again.

Thus, leaders who have talented teams will have teams that are motivated to

succeed and fulfill expectations.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that a lack of talent decreases the

expectations of the team as the teams ability to fulfill high expectations is hindered by a

lack of talent. Team Manager 2 illustrates this by stating,

We hit a bump in the road, we lost a lot of talent in the team which is hard to

replace instantly, but we knew it was going to be a tough roadwe needed to

overachieve and not underachieve, but we underachieved.

The acceptance of these lowered expectations and the inability to achieve high

expectations results in more frequent defeat. Loosing creates a negative work

35 !
environment. Team members become disgruntled and frustrated at one another and the

team experiences a drop in morale. Team Member 3 demonstrates this by stating,

I was mad at the coach and the organization, I was frustrated and afraid, I did

not want to be there. The whole team, we played so bad, it was a nightmare.

Also, as team members are unable to rejoice victories and the achievement of common

goals, a loss of cohesiveness is experienced. For example, Team Member 3 states,

If you dont have (the achievement of common goals) you have a team that is not

cohesive.

The lack of cohesiveness and loss of morale creates contentment and willingness of the

team to accept failure as they are no longer passionate about achieving goals. Since there

is very little to celebrate about, players adopt the mindset of there is always next year.

Team Manager 2 for example, states,

(We) lost focus and were willing to have a hard year.

Leaders who have acquired a lack of talent have teams that are not motivated to

succeed.

!! COMMUNICATION

The interviewees suggest that leaders who effectively communicate with their team

members produce clearly defined organizational and individual expectations and roles.

Team Member 2 illustrates this by stating,

The coaching staff (sat) down with each player individually and (told us) what (we)

needed to do for the team.

36 !
Clearly communicated expectations and roles provide team members with the clarity they

need to focus their energies on fulfilling them. When team members are informed of the

importance of their role and contributions to the team, feelings of worth are created

among the team members. For example, in professional hockey when a member of the

coaching staff informs a player either publicly or privately about their importance to the

team or compliments them on their attributes, team members feel a sense of pride, and

dedication to their jobs. Team Member 2 illustrates this by stating,

The guys took pride in their roles, there was no complaining, they just went out

and did it.

Consequently, these strong feelings of pride, worth, and dedication among team

members lead to a boost in team morale and confidence as individual members become

increasingly sure of their abilities and the importance of their contributions to the team. It

can be concluded that leaders who clearly communicate will have teams who are

motivated to make their valuable contributions to the team.

Conversely, leaders who do not clearly communicate with their team members do

not have clearly established expectations and roles. Team Coach 2 for example states,

When I reflect back... it was a lack of input from the coachI would ask what I

needed to do to make itone time when I went (and asked) they were offended.

These poorly defined expectations and roles produces uncertainty and a lack of focus

within team members. Professional hockey is an uncertain industry in which the careers

of players are quite often uncertain. If a team members role within the organization and

what is expected of them is not effectively communicated, team members experience

feelings of ambiguousness and a loss of value as they are left to ponder their future. It is

37 !
difficult for an individual to recognize within themselves what they need to improve upon

or how they can better fulfill their role within the organization. Team Coach 2 highlights

this by stating,

(Leaders) take it for granted that (individuals) have (an) understanding about

themselves (but) it is hard to see yourself from the inside.

Leaders who do not communicate have team members that feel ambiguous,

disconnected from the team, and experience a drop in morale. In other words, a lack of

cohesiveness, a drop in morale, and decreased motivation are products of the negative

emotions that arise from a lack of communication. Therefore, leaders who ineffectively

communicate have teams that are not motivated.

!! DEVELOPING RESPECT
The interviewees suggest that leaders who gain the respect of their team members are

able to influence motivation through their actions. Leaders who take on extra work,

perform difficult tasks, and undertake the same duties as group members can inspire their

team to follow them. As Team Member 4 states,

Our captain was the truest competitor; he was decently skilled, but worked harder

than anyone else on the teambecause of that, his words, his voice carried more

presence in the locker room. Anything he asked other players to do, he was doing

himself or morehe was a big reason for the success that the whole organization has

had.

In other words, by acting with enthusiasm and integrity, leaders are able to motivate their

team.

38 !
The interviewees also suggest that a leader who has the respect of their team has

the ability to inspire through their words. Leaders who are able to deliver inspiring

messages in a timely fashion induce feelings of passion and belief within the team. These

feelings of passion and belief increase the confidence, boost the morale, and motivate the

team to achieve its goals. As Team Member 5 states,

Motivational people, leaders, say the right thing to get the most out of people at the

right time. I have had leaders who have been able to do that at the right time.

Leaders who have gained respect will have a team that is inspired and motivated

to follow their lead to accomplish team goals.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that a leader who is unable to develop respect

produces an uninspired and fractured team. A leader whose actions are self-centred and

who is inert is unable to develop the respect of their team. As Team Member 1 states,

The worst I have had is a leader who is lazy and selfish and should not be in that

roleLeadership is contagious you see your leader doing (something), then you

feel that you can get away with it as well.

A hockey team that is uninspired lacks enthusiasm, is unwilling to take on extra work,

and does not perform the difficult tasks- such as; conditioning workouts, blocking shots,

or being committed to team defensive systems- that are required to accomplish team

goals. Team Member 3 was a member of an uninspired team and illustrates the above

points by stating,

I was not happy to be in the dressing room, it was the only time in my 15

professional years that I wanted to go to practice and be home as soon as I (could). It

was not fun to be with the guys.

39 !
The above feelings and behaviours are products of a leaders inability to develop

respect. The presence of these feelings and behaviours can fracture a team. In other

words, by acting with a lack of both enthusiasm and integrity, leaders are unable to

motivate their team. It can be concluded that leaders who do not develop respect will not

have a motivated team.

!! DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS

The interviewees suggested that leaders who develop relationships produce a more

prepared and involved team. When players feel more involved, they also feel that their

contributions to the team are important, and as a result they take pride in their jobs and

are prepared to fulfill their roles. As Team Member 2 states,

Everyone (knew) their role, we were well prepared individually.

When leaders develop strong relationships, their team members feel a greater

sense of commitment, devotion, and importance to the organization. Team Manager 3

illustrates this by stating,

I sat down with everybody and listened to their stories and told everyone what I

expect and made it quite clear, most of the people wanted to join, not many people

wanted to leave.

Developing relationships adds a personal element to professional hockey, which is a

business that can be quite cold at times. The feelings of pride, commitment, devotion, and

importance that result from a leader developing strong relationships unites team members

and increases their motivation. In other words, team members who feel a personal

40 !
connection to the leader and/or to the organization are more motivated to contribute to the

team.

Conversely, the interviewees suggested that leaders who do not develop relationships

produce a team that lacks commitment from individual members. Team Coach 1 for

example states,

As a coach I kept preaching the teamthat was a mistake that I made. I had to

understand every individual and understand how to pull their string and bring them

over to the teams side.

In professional hockey, when team members are not appealed to at an individual

level, they feel like a commodity. Professional hockey is a competitive industry, thus, the

absence of a personal connection leaves team members with the feeling that they are

expendable.

When individual members feel expendable, they are not motivated to achieve

goals and are not happy about the success of a team that they feel does not care about

them. For example, Team Coach 1 states,

We had situations where I had to ask the guys to stand up and cheer when we scored

because guys we (were) not legitimately happy for each other when someone scored.

Leaders who do not develop relationships create a team that is not motivated to

accomplish team goals.

4. II) Motivational Processes

The results indicate that motivational processes are key factors that influence the

motivation of team members. The primary data analysis reveals the major motivational

41 !
processes influencing motivation in teams are: intrinsic motivation, opportunity,

organizational support, and compensation.

!! INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
The interviewees suggest that intrinsic motivation in a team produces dedicated and

satisfied team members. Team members are dedicated and satisfied when they are

intrinsically motivated because they truly enjoy what they do and gain satisfaction from

the work itself. These team members experience longevity in the business because they

are driven by factors such as; the opportunity to advance and improve oneself and the

enjoyment derived from the job. As Team Member 1 states,

If you play at a high level, any professional level, you cannot just play for the

money; otherwise you would not be there. Obviously when you are a kid growing up,

you are playing for the love of the game, you still need that as a professional. For me

personally, I have been a professional for fourteen years and I am still playing

because of my love for the game.

In professional hockey, those who play the game because they love it, put in the

extra work to improve themselves and to achieve team goals. Team Member 2 illustrates

this by stating,

I think personally, (I) would not play this game if it was not funfun is why we

are in this gameI would have to put that at the top of my list. Internal

motivation comes first.

Team members who derive pleasure from the game itself are dedicated to

improving themselves and the team, and experience satisfaction from performing their

42 !
roles. These behaviours and feelings create strong morale and motivation to improve

within the team.

In contrast, the interviewees suggest that a team without intrinsically motivated

members will be disinclined and dissatisfied. For example, Team Member 3 points out,

In my job, one of the things I talk about concerning motivation and one of the things

I regret in my hockey career was that I was not able to motivate myself in that

situation. I was not able to show what I (could) do, I was so negative. I quitI just

quit! It was the first time in my whole life when I did not want to play, it was a

nightmare.

These feelings of disinclination and dissatisfaction contribute to a team members

inability to perform and their loss of will to compete. In hockey, if team members are not

intrinsically motivated, especially in adverse situations, their ability to persevere

diminishes which contributes to poor results and feelings of resignation, defeat, and

apprehension. As Team Member 3 states,

I felt anger, I was afraid of making mistakesI was mad at the team and the way

they treated us, I was mad at the coach and the organization. I was frustrated, and I

was afraid, I did not want to be there. The whole team, we played so bad, it was a

nightmare.

The lack of success and negative emotions lower the morale of a team, contribute to a

loss of confidence, a lack of cohesiveness, and decrease the motivation of a team. Thus,

teams lacking intrinsically motivated members have low levels of motivation.

43 !
!! OPPORTUNITY

The interviewees suggest that ample opportunity within teams creates aspiration and

conviction within the members. In professional hockey, team members can be presented

with opportunity such as; being able to strengthen their reputation. For example, Team

Member 4 illustrates this by stating,

For me coming over here (to Europe) there is not much known about (me) and its

(my) personal chance to create a name and identity for (myself) and I think thats

what motivated me.

Other forms of opportunity that exist within the sport include; the opportunity to succeed,

to make more money, to assume a larger role within an organization, or to transfer to a

larger organization. As Team Member 4 states,

Being my first year and not going to one of the top teams, that was my personal

motivation to say, hey there is a player that is playing for a mediocre, (non) playoff

team. To be able to move to a better team or make more money, or to win more, was

my motivation.

When presented with opportunities, team members aspire to capitalize upon them

and are confident in their abilities to do so. These feelings of conviction and aspiration

lead to an increased sense of confidence, inspiration, and motivation to take advantage of

these opportunities.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that a lack of opportunity produces feelings

of insignificance among the team members and makes them feel that their jobs are trivial.

In hockey, team members who are not provided with personal development opportunities

experience situations such as; a lack opportunity for advancement, not being able to

44 !
assume a larger role or not being presented with the opportunity to be successful and

advance in their work. Team Manager 3 for example, was involved in a situation where

team members were faced with a lack of opportunity. Team Manager 3 states,

You have to give people a vision or something that is worth striving for. It is not

about promotion or demotion, it is about how you can and what you do to achieve

something that is important to yourself and to the company and therefore creates

something that is worth striving for and getting out of bed for.

A lack of personal development opportunity results in feelings of insignificance

as employees are under the impression that their jobs are trivial. Teams that feel

insignificant and unimportant are not cohesive and are not motivated to contribute to the

achievement of team goals.

!! ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT

The interviewees suggest that organizational support results in teams that are talented.

In professional hockey, this support often takes the form of the organization contributing

to the team financially so that the team consists of talented members. Team Member 2 for

example states,

In Mannheim the players were quite motivated by the belief that we were equipped

to win a championship.

As mentioned earlier, talented teams produce expectations which are more likely to be

fulfilled due to the presence of talent. As a result, teams are more confident and

motivated in their ability to achieve goals. For example, Team Member 2 states,

45 !
I think that the organization equipping the team with the best players enhanced

this belief and created a strong, attainable goal for the team.

Another form of organizational support that occurs in professional hockey is

creating a first-class environment by; having a luxury arena and locker room, and having

an experienced and dedicated medical and training staff. This form of organizational

support creates feelings of significance and prominence within the team. As Team Coach

1 states,

The organization was very classy, we were treated first class. We felt like we

were part of something really important.

Team members that feel significant and prominent experience a boost in morale,

confidence, and motivation to contribute to the team.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that a lack of organizational support

produces a lack of loyalty and commitment. Professional hockey jobs are notoriously

insecure. The competition is very fierce and the short-term nature of the contracts results

in high employee turnover. Thus, a lack of organizational support further diminishes the

loyalty and commitment of organizations. For example, Team Member 3 states,

To start the year we were in first then we lost a lot. The president and the coach of

the organization began to panic and started throwing guys off the team and putting a

lot of pressure on the team.

This lack of support results in the team members being less committed to the organization

and its goals. As Team Member 3 states,

46 !
The team kind of broke and the motivation after that was really poor. Some

really good team guys got thrown off the team and were replaced by guys that we

didnt like and in the end we had a terrible season.

Poorly committed teams are also less cohesive because they are not united by common

goals and are less motivated to work towards these goals.

!! COMPENSATION

The interviewees suggest that well compensated teams produce expectations and

opportunity. Professional hockey contracts are performance driven. More often than not,

a player who makes more money than another player has performed at a higher level and

is expected to perform at a higher level. Team Members who are better compensated than

their colleagues are also usually the members with greater responsibilities such as; more

ice time, being on the ice at critical junctures in the game, and having higher expectations

to score. Team Member 4 for example states,

Subconsciously...money does play a factor. Someone out there by giving you the

money is saying that you are supposed to perform better than this guy It would be

similar to a sales person having a sales quota and them getting a higher percentage

the more sales they get. Obviously it has to be a huge driving force for someone like

that (and it is) for an athlete as well.

The statement that is made by the organization ensuring team members are well

compensated gives members confidence in their ability and boosts their morale. When

team members fulfill expectations, they are then rewarded with greater compensation and

a new set of expectations. In other words, high levels of compensation result in high

47 !
levels of motivation because team members want to continue to experience the feelings

of confidence and satisfaction that are associated with increased compensation.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that poor compensation produces the

inability of team members to satisfy their needs which leads to feelings of despair. There

are extreme cases of professional hockey teams that are unable to compensate their teams

in a timely fashion. Some reasons for this include; a lack of success on the ice, a lack of

fan or corporate support, or a struggling economy. Team Manager 2 provides an example

of this by stating,

The motivation was low here when they didnt pay anybody. The Eisbaeren

didnt have Anschutz behind the club and it was run by people who didnt know

how to run an organization. We were 8 or 9 months without seeing any money, it

was tough. You know, I had three kids at home.

The inability to fulfill their needs and not being rewarded for their contributions results in

team members experiencing the negative emotions of despondency, gloom, and

hopelessness. These negative emotions contribute to decreased morale, lower confidence,

and a lack of motivation to contribute to an organization that is not fulfilling the needs of

its members.

4. III) Team Processes

The results reveal that the behavioural processes exhibited by teams include: their

perception of work, cohesiveness, team confidence, and commitment.

48 !
!! PERCEPTION OF WORK
The interviewees suggest that high motivation produces gratification and satisfaction

within the team. Professional hockey team members that are motivated to perform their

roles and accomplish team goals gain a greater sense of satisfaction and gratification

from doing their jobs. For example, Team Member 2 states,

I felt that it was easier to do your job especially if you are competitive and want to

win and will do anything to winAlso, you wake up in the morning looking forward

to going to the rink as opposed to not looking forward to going to the rink.

Motivated teams are united in their goals and are confident in their abilities which

creates a more positive and pleasurable work environment. As Team Member 2 states,

High motivation made my job feel less like a job.

The members of motivated teams have a positive perception of work because of

the feelings of unity, confidence, satisfaction, and gratification that they experience.

Conversely, the interviewees reveal that low motivation produces feelings of

discontent and uneasiness within a team. Hockey teams that are plagued by low

motivation have little cause for celebration and get away from working towards common

goals. As a result, negative emotions such as discontent and uneasiness arise. For

example, Team Manager 3 states,

Generally speaking, low motivation creates unrest and not being satisfied

neither with (oneself) or with the situation, nor with the job.

These negative emotions can quickly consume a team. As Team Manager 3 states,

49 !
It is usually that you cannot grab it, it is not one thing that bothers people, it is

this overwhelming feeling that everything is unsatisfactory where people dont

like thework they are doing.

The feelings of discontent and uneasiness that are produced by low motivation

contribute to a negative work environment and the teams negative perception of work.

!! COHESIVENESS

The interviewees suggest that high motivation produces dedication and confidence. In

highly motivated hockey teams, players are confident in, and dedicated to achieving team

goals. Team Member 5 for example states,

As far as motivation as a teamthere was no way that we were going to loose. We

were so motivated, everyone work(ed) together and nothing (could) stop (us).

Witnessing the commitment, focus, and sacrifice of other team members instills the

confidence that they are contributing to team goals. These feelings, which are products of

high motivation, result in strong team cohesion.

The interviewees also suggest that cohesion influences motivation. The

interviewees illustrate that high cohesion produces feelings of belonging and

commonality. Often, hockey teams are able to build a sense of togetherness through

planning off-ice activities such as team dinners. Teams who successfully build

togetherness produce feelings of belonging and commonality. As Team Member 1 states,

Our leaders off the ice tried to make sure that we did as much as

possible(together) and I think that affected us on the ice, we played for each other

(these actions influenced motivation).

50 !
These feelings unite team members both on and off the ice and they become more

motivated to contribute to the team.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that low motivation produces hostility and

frustration. Frustrated hockey teams quite often engage in finger pointing which causes

hostility between team members. Team Member 1 for example states,

I think that everyone felt the same. A lot of negative talk towards everything,

coaches, each other, behind peoples backs, they were turning on each other.

Negative feelings of frustration and hostility decrease the morale and cohesiveness of the

team.

The interviewees also illustrate that a lack of cohesiveness produces a lack of kinship

and brotherhood. A hockey team is less able to overcome adverse situations when

feelings of kinship and brotherhood are absent. As Team Member 3 states,

It is always easy when you are winning, but when (we) start(ed) to loose a fewIt

just killed us, we didnt have the team (unity) to pull us out.

The inability to overcome adverse situations results in a teams lack of success. This lack

of success decreases the morale of the team and the teams motivation to achieve

collective goals.

!! CONFIDENCE
The interviewees suggest that high motivation produces commitment and focus.

When hockey teams are motivated, they channel their physical and mental energy

towards achieving those goals. As team members witness each others dedication and

commitment, their belief in achieving those goals grows. As Team Member 5 states,

51 !
(High motivation made us feel) a confidence and a cockiness that is

contagious,even if you doubted it, you started to believe that it was going to

happen.

As the belief of team members increases, they become more confident that they will

achieve their goals.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that low motivation produces a lack of

cohesiveness. Professional hockey teams that suffer from a lack of cohesion do not work

together to achieve common goals. In other words, individual interests take over. As

Team Member 1 states,

The confidence was low because of the negative energy from within the team. It

did not seem we were playing for each other, it was not a fun year at all.

As individualism encompasses the team, members experience a loss in confidence in the

teams commitment and their ability to achieve goals.

!! COMMITMENT
The interviewees suggest that high motivation produces satisfaction and gratification

within a team. Professional hockey teams that have members who are more satisfied and

receive gratification from their work are more willing to do what it takes to achieve team

goals. As Team Member 5 states,

We had a lot of guys filling in roles they were not used to, (to) do whatever it took to

win the championship.

In other words, highly motivated teams are more committed to achieving team goals.

52 !
Conversely, the interviewees reveal that low motivation produces detachment and

dissatisfaction. Professional hockey team members suffering from low motivation

become increasingly individualistic in their focus and are distracted by influences such

as, the media and the fans; that they otherwise would not be distracted by. For example,

Team Manager 2 states,

(In situations of low motivation, teams) fall apart in terms of team thinking and

concentrating on the task at hand, and (by) outside factors (that) influence

motivation.

In other words, poorly motivated teams experience a lack of commitment to

organizational goals.

4. IV) Output

In professional hockey, output is measured in terms of how productive players are

(statistics) and how successful the team is (wins, losses, and championships). The

interviewees suggest that productivity and success are outputs that are either influenced

by motivation or influence motivation.

!! PRODUCTIVITY

As previously illustrated, the interviewees suggest that high motivation produces

commitment. Motivated and committed professional hockey teams have a high level of

desire to accomplish goals and are very intense. This commitment results in higher

productivity. As Team Member 1 states,

53 !
There were a lot of great (individual) seasons that year. We had three first-team

all stars and two second-team all stars.

In other words, as a result of their commitment and desire, highly motivated teams are

productive.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest poor motivation produces a lack of

commitment and apathy. Poorly motivated professional hockey teams are not committed-

in terms of their actions and emotions- to achieving team goals. This apathetic behaviour

results in a teams lack of production. As Team Manager 3 states,

In sports teams (productivity) is a lot easier to measure, you dont score goals

and you dont sell tickets.

In other words, poorly motivated team members experience a lack of production.

!! SUCCESS

The interviewees show that high motivation produces desire. Teams who are

motivated have the desire to achieve collective goals. It is this desire that results in their

belief and commitment to team systems. As the team begins to perform actions that are

necessary to achieve team goals, they achieve success. Team Manager 1 for example

states,

Without this motivation we maybe would have beaten CzechoslovakiaWe were

playing against the national programs from other countries and won it all. It was the

first and only time, (in) 99 years of the Spengler Cup that the Americans won.

As the team begins perform the actions that are critical to achieving team goals, they

achieve success. Thus, motivated teams are also successful ones.

54 !
Conversely, the interviewees suggest that poorly motivated teams produce

conflict. Teams experiencing conflict also experience emotions such as frustration and

anger. Teams who feel this way are less motivated to achieve team goals. As Team

Member 3 states,

The motivation was not thereWe gave up and quit, we did not come back in

any games, we were arguing and fighting with each other.

Teams that are less motivated to achieve team goals often experience a lack of success.

The interviewees also demonstrate that successful teams produce confidence.

Confident teams believe they will succeed and often do succeed. As teams begin to

experience success, the morale on the team increases along with the motivation to

experience those feelings once again. As Team Member 1 states,

We won the whole thing and we knew we were going to and that was the big

differenceIn the playoffs we were down 3-0and we came back and won.

In other words, successful teams are also motivated by their success.

Conversely, the interviewees reveal that a lack of success produces a lack of

focus. When teams struggle to win hockey games their focus on collective goals waivers

because they are no longer confident in the teams ability to succeed. For example, Team

Manager 1 states,

(Due to our lack of success) the focus suffered, (we lost) track of what (we) were

there for.

Along with this loss of confidence and belief, teams are less motivated to work towards

collective goals.

55 !
4. V) Internal Contextual Factors

The results suggest that reward systems and expectations are internal contextual

factors that influence motivation in teams.

!! REWARD SYSTEMS

The results suggest that strong reward systems produce unity. Professional hockey

teams often establish team reward systems. These rewards are distributed equally to the

team for achievements such as; wins or championships. For example, Team Coach 1

states,

We were all rewarded the same, with the same amount of money after each game.

These team rewards build cohesiveness as members unite their efforts to achieve rewards.

As Team Coach 1 states,

It took away a lot of the jealousy and individualism.

Teams that unite around strong reward systems are also more motivated to continually

achieve them.

Conversely, weak reward systems produce a lack of expectations. Organizations

that have weak reward systems indirectly communicate to their team that expectations are

low. As a result of these low expectations, teams are not motivated to achieve higher

success partially because they will not be rewarded for it. For example, Team Member 4

states,

The motivation would have had to come from management making a monetary

(commitment) to the team above what the players had because we were not a team

that had real big bonuses for getting there.

56 !
Thus, teams with weak reward systems are poorly motivated.

!! EXPECTATIONS

The interviewees suggest that expectations produce confidence. Hockey teams who

have high expectations have a strong disposition that is geared towards achieving those

goals. As Team Member 4 states,

(In teams with high) expectations, goals are different and (the) mentality going into

those goals is different.

In other words, high expectations result in confidence and motivation to celebrate the

fulfillment of these expectations.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that low expectations produce complacency.

Teams that have low expectations become complacent once they have fulfilled them.

Team Member 4 for example states,

That is part of the reason that we did not do well going into the playoffs, it was

our lack of expectations and motivation towards (the) goals that we should (have)

had.

In other words, teams are not motivated to achieve higher expectations than the low ones

that have been previously established by the team.

4. VI) External Contextual Factors

The results reveal that cultural differences and competition are external contextual

factors that influence motivation in teams.

57 !
!! CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

The interviewees suggest that cultural differences produce varying inclinations.

Professional hockey is truly an international sport. Teams frequently consist of players

from Europe and North America. These diverse teams contain varying inclinations. Team

Coach 1 for example states,

In Canada there are so many kids fighting for a small number of jobs that when you

dont make it, you dont blame the coach, you look at yourself and wonder what you

can do better. There is that sense of (competition). In Germany, there are not the

same number of people competing for jobs. When they get into competition they point

fingers. There is not that mentality (that) when you are in a competition you have to

emerge from that struggle.

Since team members possess varying inclinations, they are motivated by different factors.

In other words, teams that are culturally different will have varying levels of motivation.

!! COMPETITION

The interviewees suggest that strong competition produces a yearning for more. In

professional hockey, strong competition results in teams yearning to be victorious over

the competition. Team Member 5 for example states,

I think the highest motivation was the year after we lost in the finals. It was very

tough to sit on the ice and watch the other team lift the trophy. The next season we

probably had 90% of the players back and when we got to the same point, motivation

was so high, nobody was going to take that, nobody was going to put themselves

through that again.

58 !
The yearning and desire to succeed motivates teams to triumph over the competition.

Conversely, the interviewees suggest that competition can also produce resentfulness.

A great deal of internal competition exists in professional hockey as players vie for more

ice time or the opportunity to play at top levels. This fierce competition can produce

resentfulness within a team. Team Coach 1 for example states,

There was jealousy over why certain players got called up and this would result in

for instance, guys not passing the puck because they wanted to score so that they

could get called up.

Resentfulness and envy prevent a team from being cohesive and from being motivated to

achieve collective goals.

4. VII) Results Model

The results model (Figure 4.1) was developed from the primary research and is

based upon the leadership factors and motivational processes that influence motivation in

teams. It can be concluded from the above discussion that the following leadership

factors influence the motivation, behavioural processes, and output of teams: developing

talent, communication, developing respect, and developing relationships. It can also be

concluded that the following motivational processes influence the motivation,

behavioural processes, and output of teams: intrinsic motivation, opportunity,

organizational support, and compensation. The model also provides the behavioural

processes of teams that are influenced by motivation and influence output (perception of

work, confidence, and commitment) and cohesiveness, the behavioural process that is

59 !
affected by and affects motivation and output. The two-way relationship between

cohesiveness and motivation is supported with evidence in the cohesiveness section of

this chapter and is illustrated by arrows running between the variables in the Results

Model (see Figure 4.1). The model demonstrates the output (productivity) that is

influenced by motivation and behavioural processes and the output (success) that is

influenced by and influences behavioural processes and motivation. The two-way

relationship between success and motivation is supported in the success section of this

chapter and is illustrated by arrows running between the two variables in the Results

Model. The model also reveals some major internal contextual factors (reward systems

and expectations) and external contextual factors (cultural differences and competition)

that influence motivation in teams.

60 !
FIGURE 4.1 RESULTS MODEL

61 !
4. VIII) Summary

The results model illustrates the leadership factors and motivational processes

influencing motivation, the behavioural processes and outputs associated with highly and

poorly motivated teams, as well as the contextual factors that influence motivation in

teams. Chapter 5 discusses the results, shows how they relate to the existing literature,

and presents a set of guidelines and implications for leaders regarding how motivation

can be enhanced in teams.

62 !
Chapter 5 Discussion

Chapter 5 provides a discussion of the results and their relation to the existing

literature. There are many similarities as well as some minor differences between the

results model and the theoretical model. It was expected that there would be some minor

differences between the models which can be largely attributed to the context in which

the results were gathered (these details will be elaborated upon in this chapter). In this

chapter important and interesting findings and similarities are discussed and related to the

model. Further, this chapter includes a set of guidelines for enhancing motivation in

teams as well as information on what organizations/leaders need to do in order to

implement the guidelines.

5. I) Motivation in Teams: A Discussion

There are two parts of the results model that are different from the theory, these

are: developing talent, and developing respect.

!! Empowerment/Developing Talent

The literature does not identify talent as being necessary to or having a strong

influence over motivation in teams. However, it does point to the leaders ability to

empower employees as being a critical factor influencing the motivation in teams because

the characteristics of empowered employees are conducive to strengthening the

motivation in teams (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999; Chen et al., 2007; Chen and Klimoski,

2003; Peterson, 2007). The literature suggests that when leaders delegate, ask for and use

63 !
employee input and enhance the sense of personal control within team members, they are

more likely to experience, meaning, input, and autonomy in their work due to an

increased sense of responsibility (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999: 60). This sense of

empowerment positively influences the motivation of team members and is a key

ingredient in building a highly motivated and high-performing team (Peterson, 2007;

Kirkman and Rosen, 1999; Chen et al., 2007). While the literature does not identify talent

as being influential in the motivation of teams, it does identify empowerment as

necessary not only for increasing motivation, but also for increasing team performance

(Peterson, 2007).

Interestingly, the results did not identify empowerment as a major element

influencing motivation, which may be a factor that is specific to sports teams. If a sports

team member is empowered by receiving more ice time, or with more on-ice

responsibility, they may experience an individual boost in motivation, however, as a

result of their increased role, the role of another member of the team is decreased and

their motivation will likely be as well. Thus, contrary to Chen et al. (2007), who states

that empowering the team also empowers the individual, in professional sports, when an

individual is motivated through empowerment, another individual is de-motivated

through a lack of empowerment. Team Member 5 illustrates this by stating,

The goaltender we had was mad that the General Manager didnt have the

confidence that he was good enough to do the job and brought in (another

goaltender)What motivates some of (the team) doesnt motivate everyone.

Contrary to the literature, the results identify developing talent as being necessary to

motivating teams. This is specific to sports teams where talent plays a major role in the

64 !
success of a team. A team may initially be motivated and not talented, but as the season

progresses, they will not achieve results, which as the interviewees suggest, will

eventually decrease motivation. Team Manager 2 illustrates this by saying,

You can have a highly motivated team that is not talented and doesnt go

anywhere.

Developing talent is necessary in sports because as the results show, talent increases

expectations and chances for success which contributes to motivated teams.

!! Empowerment/Developing Respect

Another interesting difference that occurred between the models involves empowerment

and developing respect. Peterson (2007) suggested that empowered employees are more

likely to trust and respect leaders who are able to delegate. According to the theory,

empowerment enhances motivation because it creates the feeling among employees that

their work affects the organization, is important to the organization, creates the feeling of

autonomy, and makes employees feel important (Chen et al., 2007; Kirkman and Rosen,

1999; Peterson, 2007).

Employees develop respect and trust for leaders who empower them and they are

more motivated to perform their duties as a result of the above feelings that are created

through empowerment (Peterson, 2007). Conversely, the interviewees suggest that

leaders in professional hockey develop respect through their actions as opposed to

through empowerment. This can be attributed to the roles in professional hockey being

clearly defined and that there is little room for the delegation of authority and important

skills. A leaders ability to take on extra work and perform difficult tasks can inspire

65 !
employees to follow them. The results suggest that a leader who acts with integrity and

enthusiasm develops the respect of their team through their actions and motivates the

team as a result.

Despite the differences discussed above, there are many similarities between the

theory and the results model which include: communication, intrinsic motivation, reward

systems, cultural differences, and opportunity.

!! Communication

Communication is a leadership factor that is clearly identified by the literature and by

the interviewees as being influential in the motivation of teams. Brenner (2007) and

Horowitz et al., (2003) identify communication as being essential to keeping members

informed, building their focus, and clarifying their roles and organizational expectations.

The results agree with this theory as Team Member 2 explains,

(As a result of effective communication) the guys took pride in their roles.

The above examples illustrate that the theory and the interviewees suggest effective

communication results in the clear definition of roles and expectations which increases

feelings of pride and satisfaction in team members and motivates them to do their job.

Within professional hockey, communication is important so that each team member is

aware of what job they do, how their performance impacts the team, and the expectations

the organization has for the team. These factors are important so that the team member

can better harness their energy and use it in a more focused way. Without this

communication, players can have difficulty fulfilling their roles at a high level and

understanding their place within the organization. As Team Coach 2 states,

66 !
It is hard to see yourself from the inside.

Thus, the theory and the results reveal that communication is an important factor

influencing the motivation of teams.

!! Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is identified by the literature and the interviewees as a

motivational process that influences motivation in teams. Frey and Jegen (2001) and

Amabile (2003) suggest that team members who are more intrinsically motivated will

also be more motivated to accomplish the goals of the team. The comments of Team

Member 1 link the importance the interviewees placed on intrinsic motivation with the

theory,

I have been a professional for fourteen years and I am still playing for the love of

the game.

The literature is consistent with the theory because motivation is important within the

context of professional hockey as it is with any job because a person will perform at a

higher level if they gain satisfaction from doing it (Hughes et al., 2006; USTA, 2004;

Frey and Jegen; 2001; Amabile, 1993). Intrinsic motivation encourages people to

undertake tasks with greater effort. For example, a professional hockey player who is

intrinsically motivated will work harder during off-ice training, practicing, and in games.

In elite competition, this greater effort provides an edge that can be the difference

between a goal and a save or a win and a loss. Intrinsically motivated team members are

also encouraged to undertake the more unpleasant tasks that are vital to success. For

example, in professional hockey this may involve fitness training, on-ice conditioning, or

67 !
video analysis sessions. While these tasks may not be enjoyable, they are critical to the

prolonged success of an athlete.

In summary, intrinsically motivated team members will undertake unpleasant tasks

and exert greater effort because of their love for what they do. Also, the level of

satisfaction that a team member is experiencing has a direct impact on their motivation to

accomplish the goals of the team (Frey and Jegen, 2001; Amabile, 1993). Thus, it can be

concluded from the theory and the results that the intrinsic motivation of team members

impacts the motivation of the employees to accomplish team goals.

!! Reward Systems

The theory and the results were consistent in terms of reward systems. The key link

between the literature and the results is the importance of organizations taking a team

approach to rewards (Cacioppe, 1999). As Team Coach 1 states,

We were all rewarded the sameit took away a lot of the jealousy and

individualism.

Reward systems are important in professional hockey because if created and applied

correctly, they provide team members with a goal to unite around and to be motivated to

achieve (Cacioppe, 1999). In other words, they can provide extra incentive for employees

to achieve team goals.

Both the literature and the results suggest that reward systems designed to have

team-based incentives help to enforce team roles and behaviours (Cacioppe, 1999;

Hoffman and Rogelberg, 1998). Thus, it can be concluded that reward systems influence

the motivation of teams.

68 !
!! Cultural Differences

Interestingly, the theory and the interviewees are consistent in their views that culture

is a contextual factor influencing the motivation in teams. Todays global marketplace

consists of multicultural workforces. Thus, culture, which affects three areas of

motivation; self-concept, norms, and environmental factors, is becoming increasingly

influential (Latham and Pinder, 2005). Culture is just as prominent in the context of

professional hockey since hockey is an international business with teams, management,

coaches, and players from Europe and North America. Culture is very influential in the

motivation of a team (Ambrose and Kulik, 1999). Team Coach 1 demonstrates the role

culture plays in the motivation of teams by illustrating differences in the reactions of two

cultures when they were faced with competition:

When they get into competition, they point fingers. There is not that

mentalityyou have to emerge from that struggle.

It can be concluded that in the international business of professional hockey as well as in

other global industries, culture is a major factor influencing motivation in teams.

!! Opportunity

The theory and the interviewees revealed a link in the influential role opportunity

plays in the motivation of teams. The literature reveals the importance of opportunity

when discussing the needs of team members. Horowitz (2003) identifies opportunity as a

motivator that appeals directly to a persons needs through providing opportunities such

as room for professional growth and attractive career plans. Similarly, the interviewees

highlight the influence opportunity has on motivation as Team Member 4 states,

69 !
For me coming over here (Europe) there is not much known about you and its

your personal chance to create a name and identity for yourself.

This statement reveals that the results are consistent with the literature in the sense that

opportunity creates aspiration and conviction within hockey team members. Opportunity

is important within professional hockey because players and coaches are hoping to

advance themselves to higher levels of play, pay, and/or to better teams. As Team

Member 4 states,

To be able to move to a better team or to make more money, or to win more, was

my motivation.

Team members motivated by opportunity work harder to achieve team success which

usually equates to personal success. For example, Team Member 1 states,

I definitely feel that if your team succeeds then as an individual you will also

succeed.

It can be concluded from the above discussion that opportunity influences the motivation

in teams.

5. II) Guidelines for Leaders

The second research question asked; How can leaders enhance the motivation in

teams? The following discussion reveals a set of guidelines for how leaders can enhance

motivation in teams which were developed from the theoretical and results models.

70 !
!! THE ABILITY TO HIRE

The interviewees suggest that since strong talent enhances motivation, the leader of a

team needs to ensure that the organization recruits the necessary talent. Thus, the ability

to hire becomes critical. This ability can be developed in a number of ways. First, it is

important to hire team members of good character and talent. These talented and

character people are characterized by traits such as; intrinsically motivated, honest, and

possessing leadership skills. Team Manager 2 for example states,

You only look for guys that have character, have pride, have desire, talentyou

assume they are highly motivated.

A second way to develop the ability to hire is to ensure the organization possesses

a strong recruiting staff that assists in finding the desired people. For example,

professional hockey teams have scouting crews who are responsible for identifying

potential team members. A leader who utilizes the expertise of such a staff is another way

to develop the ability to hire. As Team Manager 2 states,

We have the L.A. scouting crew that we use, that way you dont have an agents

paper coming over the fax saying, skates well, shoots well, passes well, should

have been in the N.H.L.

Third, a leader must focus upon the needs of the team and ensure these needs are

addressed through hiring. This way the talent required to fill specific roles will be

acquired. As Team Manager 1 states,

The most important thing as a leader is picking the right people to work for

youI know exactly what I need for each position and I make sure I...find the

right people.

71 !
By hiring talented people of strong character, utilizing a recruiting team, and

addressing team needs through hiring, a leader can enhance the motivation of their team.

!! THE ABILITY TO LEAD BY EXAMPLE

Since developing a strong sense of respect enhances motivation, the leader needs to

ensure they lead their team by example. The literature and the results suggest that this

ability can be developed by empowering employees and being conscious to do and say

the right things. First, leaders are able to gain the respect of employees through

empowerment (Chen et al., 2007). Empowered team members are more likely to trust and

respect a leader who delegates authority and important tasks (Peterson, 2007). In this

sense, the leader is setting a good example for team members by showing they are

inclusive and can create such an environment.

Secondly, the ability of a leader to lead by example can be developed through doing

and saying the right things. A leader who is able to inspire team members through their

words and deliver leadership and success through their actions has a strong ability to lead

by example. For instance, Team Coach 1 states,

(The leader) found a way to read situations. They said the right things at the right

time (and) did the things that needed to be done for the team.

A leaders ability to survey the environment and then act in a way that sets a good

example (working hard, doing things people dont want to) inspires and motivates others

to follow their lead.

72 !
!! PROMOTE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

Since strong intrinsic motivation enhances motivation in teams, the leader needs to

promote intrinsic motivation so that it remains high. Thus, promoting intrinsic motivation

among team members is important because those who are intrinsically motivated strive

inwardly to be competent and self-determining in their quest to master a task (USTA,

2004). A leader can promote this intrinsic motivation in a number of different ways

which include (USTA, 2004):

1. Using verbal and non-verbal praise.

2. Involving team members in decision-making. For example, in professional hockey

this may include allowing team members to make decisions regarding practice and

training schedules or allowing team members to make decisions regarding on-ice

systems.

3. Ensuring goals are realistic and tied to performance and not only to outcome. This

can be achieved by evaluating the talent on a team and making an unbiased

assessment of the teams goals.

A leader who effectively promotes intrinsic motivation through methods such as the

ones listed above will enhance the motivation of their team (Frey and Jegen, 2001;

Amabile, 1993).

!! THE ABILITY TO EFFECTIVLY COMMUNICATE

Since effective communication enhances motivation, the leader needs to ensure that

they effectively communicate with their team, thus, the leaders ability to communicate

becomes critical (Horowitz et al., 2003; Brenner, 2007; Spiers, 2007). This ability can be

73 !
developed and strengthened in a number of ways. First, leaders should engage in regular

communication with their team members. Regular communication consists of regular

contact with staff, allowing for staff decision-making, as well as regular performance

support (Horowitz et al., 2003; Spiers, 2007). Regular contact with the staff involves the

leader being on the front-lines, visible to employees, and engaging in conversation to

field team member questions or concerns (Horowitz et al., 2003; Spiers, 2007). Allowing

for staff decision-making entails allotting team members the freedom to take charge and

make decisions regarding practices, fitness training, or basic strategy (Horowitz et al.,

2003; Spiers, 2007). Regular performance support involves the leader providing team

members with frequent feedback concerning the strengths of their performance as well as

how they can improve (Horowitz et al., 2003; Spiers, 2007).

A second method for leaders to develop effective communication is to be conscious

that they listen well and make use of non-verbal communication. This involves leaders

developing the following skills: establishing two-way dialogue, using non-verbal cues to

stimulate revealing questions or answers, the use of silence, and effective listening

(Spiers, 2007). Third, leaders need to clearly develop and communicate roles and tasks.

This can be accomplished by establishing a simple, but consistent way of communicating

and reminding employees. Team Manager 1 provides an example of this by stating,

We make sure that we have our flip charts and that (they) are somewhere where

everyone sees it, reads it, and I make sure I never throw those away.

By establishing a simple, clear, and consistent system, listening, and making use

of regular and non-verbal communication, leaders are able to ensure their communication

is effective and misunderstandings are limited.

74 !
!! THE ABILITY TO FOSTER COHESIVENESS

Since cohesiveness is a product of motivation and also enhances motivation, the

leader needs to ensure that the team is united. Thus, the leaders ability to foster

cohesiveness becomes critical (Cacioppe, 1999; Peterson, 2007). The interviewees

suggest this ability can be developed through the use of team building exercises and

through increasing the significance of interpersonal relations.

The leaders implementation of team building activities is one way that cohesiveness

can be strengthened. Team building activities can take on many forms such as; team-

based excursions, team meals, or team meetings. However, the most important element of

these activities is that team members are brought together and have the opportunity to

build relationships with one another and are clearly informed of the goals of the team. For

example, Team Member 4 suggests,

Team building activitiesare really popular right nowYou have to get the team

together and talk about the goals for the teamget them to talk to each other, (and)

get them to know each other.

A second way to develop the cohesiveness of a team is by the leader placing a greater

emphasis on interpersonal relationships and helping employees to see themselves as part

of a bigger picture (Rantz et al., 1996). Leaders should stress the importance of team

work and team problem solving through their actions, memos, and meetings (Rantz et al.,

1996). Leaders can stress the importance of team work through their actions by getting

involved in work teams and delegating responsibility throughout the team. Leaders can

also achieve this through memos or by providing team members with literature that

identifies the importance and benefits of team-based work. Also, leaders can conduct

75 !
meetings that discuss the importance of team work and provide ways that employees can

engage in it. These methods will help to positively influence employees views of

interpersonal relations and will result in higher levels of motivation (Rantz et al., 1996).

!! THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEAM REWARD SYSTEMS

Since team reward systems produce unity and enhance motivation, the leader needs to

ensure that effective reward systems are implemented. Thus, the ability to implement

team reward systems is important (Cacioppe, 1999; Hoffman and Rogelberg, 1998). This

ability can be developed in a number of ways. First, the rewards should be team-based

because they build cohesiveness and unite the efforts of the team. For example, Team

Coach 1 states,

We were all rewarded the same, with the same amount of money after each game.

There are also a number of factors that a leader must consider to determine a

reward system that is suitable for their team. These factors include; the stage of team life-

cycle, team reward and recognition strategies, what the rewards should provide

(direction, support, or celebration), and the culture of the team (Cacioppe, 1999). The

leader must consider the stage of the teams life-cycle to determine which rewards are

suitable for a team (Cacioppe, 1999). For example, it is important to focus the group and

give it energy in the forming and norming stages while the team needs encouragement to

move to the performing stage and celebration and acknowledgement during the ending

stage (Cacioppe, 1999). Team reward and recognition strategies should be considered

because rewards can range from intrinsic to extrinsic and it must be determined which are

the most appropriate. Rewards and recognition can be used in teams to provide: direction,

76 !
support, reinforcement, or celebration (Cacioppe, 1999). Also, it is important that reward

systems fit within the mission, vision, values, goals, and competitive atmosphere of the

organization (Cacioppe, 1999).

Some other important guidelines that should be followed to develop the leaders

ability to implement reward systems include:

1. Having a clear purpose for the rewards.

2. Communicating the rewards and their connection to the results.

(Cacioppe, 1999)

For instance, rewards should reward teams for their success. For example, in professional

hockey, this could include rewarding the team equally after wins or as a team progresses

through the playoffs. As Team Coach 1 states,

Everybody got the same it was not based upon individual bonuses but was based

upon team bonusesthe same amount after each game.

If the key factors for successful team reward systems are met, rewards become a

critical tool for leaders to enhance motivation in teams (Cacioppe, 1999).

!! UNDERSTAND AND EDUCATE THE TEAM ON CULTURAL


DIFFERENCES

Since cultural differences influence motivation in the sense that different members

are motivated differently, the leader needs to ensure that the organization is aware of

these differences. Thus, the ability to understand and educate the team on these

differences is critical. This ability can be developed through cross-cultural training

programs which are designed to educate one culture how to interact effectively with and

about the nuances of another culture (Vecchio, 2006).

77 !
These types of programs have varying degrees of sophistication. Simple forms

include lectures and meetings that educate multicultural teams on each others cultures

(Vecchio, 2006). A more sophisticated technique called the culture assimilator provides

the subject with instant feedback on their answers to hypothetical situations involving

culture (Vecchio, 2006). Another technique that can be used is simulation training which

involves the trainee realizing subtle differences between cultures as well as learning that

what is accepted in one culture may be unacceptable in another (Vecchio, 2006).

The above methods can assist leaders in understanding and educating team members

on cultural differences that may exist within teams.

5. III) Implications for Business Leaders

The guidelines in the previous section focus primarily on professional sports,

however, many of these guidelines can be applied in the same way to business

organizations. These include: the ability to lead by example, the ability to effectively

communicate, the ability to foster cohesiveness, and understanding and educating the

team on cultural differences. Despite these similarities, some of the guidelines can be

applied to businesses but take on a slightly different slant. These include: the ability to

hire (developing talent), promoting intrinsic motivation, and the implementation of team

reward systems.

The ability to hire, focuses primarily on hiring practices and buying talent.

Businesses do not necessarily develop their talent in the same way as professional sports

organizations. A comparison of the literature and the results suggest that business leaders

more frequently develop talent through education, training, and experience than sports

78 !
leaders do (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999; Chen et al., 2007). By enrolling employees in

appropriate training and providing them with responsibility and the ability to make

decisions, business leaders are able to develop their talent (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999).

In order for business leaders to ensure their team members are intrinsically

motivated, the key is for leaders to identify what tasks intrinsically motivate their

employees and provide them with the opportunity to do them (Hughes et al., 2006). In

business organizations, opportunities exist to match a team members interests to their

tasks. For example, an employee may by intrinsically motivated to deal with the public

while another may prefer being behind a desk calculating numbers. It is vital for a

business leader to communicate with team members to discover their interests and match

them accordingly (Hughes et al., 2006).

While the factors and guidelines that are necessary for the implementation of team

reward systems are similar in business and sports, business teams should be rewarded

differently than sports teams. Business leaders should reward team work; otherwise team

work will not be seen as important (Hoffman and Rogelberg, 1998). According to

Hoffman and Rogelberg (1998), business leaders must consider two basic factors when

implementing a team-based reward system: team interdependence concerns and team

type (full or part-time). For example, leaders of high interdependence, full-time teams

should consider team-goal based or team skill incentive systems with equal distribution

among members while leaders of low interdependence teams should consider a

discretionary bonus system with equitable distribution among members (Hoffman and

Rogelberg, 1998).

79 !
5. IV) Implications for Organizations and Leaders

Now that the guidelines for enhancing motivation in teams have been presented, it

is important to discuss what organizations and leaders need to do in order to implement

the guidelines.

!! FINANCIAL INVESTMENT

In order for leaders to finance guidelines such as; team reward systems, team building

activities, or cultural training, the organization needs to allocate sufficient funds to these

areas. Without the funding, the guidelines mentioned above cannot be implemented.

Team Manager 3 who-has been a leader of a team that was restricted by a lack of

financial resources-illustrates this by stating,

In these situations (the team) could have improved further if the business and the

economics would have been more favourable and (we) would have been able to pay

more money.

In order for teams to implement new systems or to pay for training, they must ensure they

are sufficiently funded. Finances are also critical to the hiring of talented individuals.

Generally speaking, the more talented the person is, the more money it takes to acquire or

retain them. Team Manager 1 illustrates this point by stating,

It is not important how much money he gives out for the whole team, but it is

important what he does with each penny.

Sufficient financial investment is required to implement many of the guidelines.

80 !
!! EXTRA TRAINING

Extra training is required to implement guidelines such as; fostering cohesiveness,

understanding and educating the team about cultural differences, and for the ability to

lead by example (Cacioppe, 1999; Rantz et al., 1996; Kozlowski and Ilgen, 2006).

In order to ensure the team is cohesive, the organization needs to provide its leader

and team members with extra training. The organization should include training in

interpersonal and teamwork skills to get the team members to feel as though they are a

part of something important (Cacioppe, 1999; Rantz et al., 1996). Extra training is also

required because in Western society we educate children and hire, train, and reward

employees primarily as individuals (Kozlowski and Ilgen, 2006). However, we maintain

a strong belief that individuals thrown together to form a team with, little thought

devoted to team composition, training and development, and leadership, will be

successful (Kozlowski and Ilgen, 2006). Extra training is required to counteract this

deficiency and train teams to think and act collectively (Kozlowski and Ilgen, 2006).

Extra training is also required to help leaders and team members understand cultural

differences that exist within the team. Cross-cultural training programs must be created

and implemented by businesses to teach team members about cultural differences and to

teach members of one culture to interact effectively with members from another

(Vecchio, 2006).

Finally, extra training is required to educate leaders on how to effectively lead by

example. Organizations must ensure team leaders receive adequate training so that they

81 !
are able to understand and display appropriate leadership behaviour (Kirkman and Rosen,

1999).

!! RESTRUCTURING

Restructuring is another element that must be utilized by organizations so that leaders

can implement effective communication systems, team-based rewards, and promote

intrinsic motivation (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999; Cacioppe, 1999; Gee and Burke, 2001).

Leaders and organizations need to restructure existing communication systems and

methods if they hope to replace them with more effective ones. For example, the leader

or the organization can modify social structures to allow for more team member access to

each other and establish more communication across teams (Kirkman and Rosen, 1999).

Leaders who are hoping to establish team-based rewards that previously were not in

place need to restructure their reward systems. The plan, type, criteria, and use of the

reward systems all need to be restructured (Cacioppe, 1999). Teams that are

implementing new reward systems need to review and evaluate the reward system

following its restructuring (Cacioppe, 1999).

Leaders and organizations who are undertaking the promotion of intrinsic motivation

within their team may need to restructure job design. Leaders can restructure job design

based on factors that are geared toward realizing the untapped skills of employees (Gee

and Burke, 2001). Also, restructuring jobs to ensure that employees are involved in

decision-making and have the opportunity to use different skills and receive feedback are

elements that can be restructured to promote intrinsic motivation (Gee and Burke, 2001).

82 !
!! TIME

Time is a critical element that is required for the implementation of any of the

guidelines (Hoffman and Rogelberg, 1998). Time is required to establish new systems, to

complete training programs, and to acquire additional finances (Hoffman and Rogelberg,

1998). Leaders and organizations are often under time constraints to implement new

systems or to complete training exercises; hence the importance of time to achieving

these ends (Hoffman and Rogelberg, 1998).

5. IV) Summary

As expected, there are minor differences between the results model and the

theoretical model which can largely be attributed to the context (professional hockey) that

the interviewees are all involved in whether in a management, coaching, or playing

capacity. The discussion reveals that despite the minor differences, the results and

theoretical models are consistent in many ways. These links demonstrate the strong

influence of the above factors in the motivation of teams. From these models, the

research questions are answered, and a series of guidelines and implications for

organizations and leaders are developed. Chapter 6 provides the conclusions that have

been drawn from this study.

!
!
!
!

83 !
Chapter 6 Conclusions

Chapter 6 summarizes the results and presents answers to the research questions.

In addition, it discusses the weaknesses of the research, the learning reflections, and

describes some potential future research projects.

6. I) The Results in Relation to the General Research Questions

This study set out to answer two main research questions. These questions and

their answers are summarized below.

!! Research Question 1: What factors influence the motivation in teams?

The theoretical model and the results model reveal a variety of leadership factors and

motivational processes that influence motivation in teams. According to the models, the

major leadership factors influencing motivation in teams are: the ability to empower

employees, developing relationships (leader-follower interaction), communication, the

design and implementation of reward systems, team member recognition, developing

talent, and developing respect. The models also reveal the main motivational processes

that influence motivation in teams which include: needs, intrinsic motivation (individual

differences), cognitive factors, opportunity, level of employee achievement and

recognition, organizational support, and compensation.

84 !
!! Research Question 2: How can leaders enhance motivation in teams?

A set of guidelines for how leaders can enhance motivation in teams are developed

from the theoretical and results models. These guidelines include; the ability to hire, the

ability to lead by example, promoting intrinsic motivation, the ability to effectively

communicate, the ability to foster cohesiveness, the implementation of team reward

systems, and understanding and educating the team on cultural differences. These

guidelines are developed from the discussion and are based upon interesting and

important points, similarities, and differences in the models. In order for these guidelines

to be implemented, leaders and organizations need additional financial investment, extra

training, restructuring, and time.

6. II) Summary of Conclusions

TABLE 6.1 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS

GLUIDELINE SUMMARY

1. The Ability to Hire Ensuring that talented and character


individuals are hired.

2. The Ability to Lead by Example Doing and saying the right things to inspire
and gain the respect of team members.

3. Promoting Intrinsic Motivation Through a variety of methods such as;


praise or responsibility.

4. The Ability to Effectively In order to avoid misunderstandings and


Communicate conflict and to ensure roles and goals are
clearly defined.

5. The Ability to Foster Cohesiveness Stressing team work and interpersonal


relations to promote unity and the
achievement of collective goals.

85 !
6. The Implementation of Team Reward Rewarding each member of the team
Systems equally for accomplishing team-based
goals.
7. Understanding and Educating the To help bridge the cultural divide that may
Team on Cultural Differences exist within teams and to learn how
different cultures are motivated.

6. III) Weaknesses of the Research

There are a few weaknesses in the methodology of this study that should be

discussed. First, this study used a small sample size which is limited in the sense that it is

not appropriate to make generalizations for a wider population based on this data (White,

2000). These generalizations are difficult to make because the analysis relies heavily

upon subjectivity and interpretation (McDaniel and Gates, 2007). A second limitation is

the guarded nature of professional athletes. Professional hockey players are generally

very cautious and reluctant when conducting interviews. This characteristic may have

limited the focus and richness of the data that was collected. For example, many

references were made to the team and we when the questions being asked were

actually in regards to their personal feelings. A third limitation of the research involves

gender. All of the interviewees were male, thus, generalizations are difficult to make for

the entire population when only male subjects were interviewed.

Despite these weaknesses, the data that was collected and analyzed was credible

as several methods were undertaken to ensure validity. Data triangulation in the form of

consciously interviewing subjects at different stages in their career in order to

compensate for the lack of differing time scales was used (Creswell, 2003). Member

checking was also used to ensure the information and results model were congruent

86 !
(Creswell, 2003). Memos were also used such as the one included under Appendix E

(Strauss and Corbin, 1998).

6. IV) Future Research

The first type of future research that could be conducted involves gaining insight

into how the weaknesses of this study could be reduced or negated. For example, in order

for the data to be generalizable, further research would need to be undertaken which

would focus of the main deficiencies. The results model would be need to be measured

across different industries. In order to achieve this, a quantitative questionnaire could be

used to evaluate the different leadership and motivation variables described in the

models. This research would need to be conducted randomly to ensure that both males

and females were included in the response.

A second type of research that could be conducted is a future study that examines

the relationship between motivation and the success of the team. The results of the thesis

suggest that motivation not only influences success, but success influences motivation as

well. It would be interesting to elaborate upon this finding and determine if it is true

within a broader scope. This study could be conducted by using qualitative data through

interviews and gathering a larger sample size that is representative of different industries.

6. V) Learning Reflections

From the authors experience, professional hockey is not considered to be a

traditional business environment. However, this study reveals that many leadership

factors and motivational processes discussed in the literature (based on traditional

87 !
business environments) are linked to many of the factors in the results model (based on

professional hockey). This indicates that perhaps the two business environments are not

so different after all.

In addition, a great deal was learned about collecting, interpreting, and conveying

the results of rich, in-depth, qualitative data. This was the most frustrating aspect of the

study, but in the end proved to be the critical ingredient to building a compelling

argument.

6. VI) Summary and Concluding Remarks

This project effectively answered the research questions and produced a set of

guidelines for how leaders can enhance motivation in teams. Although the study

contained some weaknesses, the richness of the qualitative data is revealed in the

consistencies between the models. Even though the consistencies were strong, the

differences are applicable within professional hockey. Further research can be undertaken

to reduce or negate the weaknesses and to examine the interesting relationship between

motivation and success. Business organizations and professional sports organizations in

particular can use this thesis to gain an understanding of how teams are motivated and to

enhance the motivation of their teams.

88 !
APPENDICIES

APPENDIX A: Herzbergs Dual Factors

HYGIENE FACTORS MOTIVATORS

Supervision Achievement

Working Conditions Recognition

Co-Workers The Work Itself

Pay Responsibility

Policies/Procedures Advancement & Growth

Job Security

(Hughes et al., 2006: 285)

89 !
APPENDIX B: The Empowerment Continuum

EMPOWERED EMPLOYEES UNEMPOWERED EMPLOYEES

Self-determined Other-determined

Sense of meaning Not sure what they do is important

High competence Low competence

High influence Low influence

(Hughes et al., 2006: 273)

90 !
APPENDIX C: Interview Seed Questions

1. Have you been in a team where motivation was low?

2. Can you give me an example of this?

B) *How did this situation of low motivation make you feel?


*How did this situation of low motivation make others feel?
*What factors contributed to this low level of motivation?
*How did this situation impact the behaviour of the team?
*What effect did this low level of motivation have on the output of the team?

3. Have you been in a team where motivation was high?

4. A) Can you give me an example of this?

B) *How did this situation of high motivation make you feel?


*How did this situation of high motivation make others feel?
*What factors contributed to this high level of motivation?
*How did this situation impact the behaviour of the team?
*What effect did this high level of motivation have on the output of the team?

5. Have you been in a team where leadership was poor? If so, how did this poor
leadership influence motivation?

6. Have you been in a team where leadership was good? If so, how did this good
leadership influence motivation?

7. In the example you gave me of poor motivation, if you were the manager/leader, what
would you have done in order to improve motivation?

*Why do you think these ideas would have improved motivation?

8. In the example you gave me of high motivation, what actions or elements influenced
motivation?

9. Do you think motivation could have been improved further? If so, how would you
have achieved this?

91 !
APPENDIX D: List of Interviewees and Demographic Information

Interviewee Age Gender Profession and Number of Number of Educational


Organization Years in Years in that Background
that Organization
Profession
Team 35 Male Professional 14 1 High School
Member 1 Hockey Player, Graduate
EHC Eisbaeren
Berlin
Team 26 Male Professional 6 1 High School
Member 2 Hockey Player, Graduate
EHC Eisbaeren
Berlin
Team Coach 38 Male Assistant 11 (player) 7 High School
1 Coach, EHC Graduate
Eisbaeren 4 (coach)
Berlin
Team 40 Male Sports 4 4 University
Member 3 Psychologist Graduate
(Masters in
Psychology)
Team Coach 52 Male Head Coach, 18 2 High School
2 EHC Eisbaeren Graduate
Berlin

Team 58 Male CEO Finance, 11 13 University


Manager 1 EHC Eisbaeren Graduate,
Berlin BBA, MBA
Team 52 Male CEO & 8 13 High School
Manager 2 Director of Graduate
Sports EHC
Eisbaeren
Berlin
Team 34 Male Professional 12 2 University
Member 4 Hockey Player, Graduate,
EHC Eisbaeren Plastics
Berlin Engineering
Team 35 Male Professional 15 8 High School
Member 5 Hockey Player, Graduate
Captain,
EHC Eisbaeren
Berlin
Team 44 Male Geschaftsfuhrer 8 8 University
Manager 3 (President & Graduate,
CEO), BEd (North
Anschutz American
Entertainment Studies,
Group Sociology)

92 !
APPENDIX E: Sample Transcript Using Interpretive Phenomenological
Analysis (Steps 1-3)

Interviewee: Team Coach 1


Profession: Assistant Hockey Coach, EHC Eisbaeren Berlin
Date of Interview: 28/03/2008

Q1. Have you been in a team where motivation was low?

T.C.1 Yes.

Q2. Can you give me an example of this?


A lack of
Poor mentality T.C.1 Ive led a team where the motivation was low. It was the Oberliga intrinsic
associated Eisbaeren team. The mentality was obviously the problem. The mentality of the motivation
with poor resulted in the
motivation. young German kids that I have obviously never seen before, it was my second year overall lack of
Motivation coaching and it seemed that they had everything, or it was that they were being team
low b/c they paid, some of them more than their parents and the motivation was low because motivation.
felt that
they felt like they deserved chances. That was a theme that I kept hearing with
they deserved
everything, them. It was why dont I get a chance, and I wanted them to work for these
they were chances and I wanted them to be motivated to get to the next level. That was a
entitled to it, tough motivational year.
not willing to
work for it. Feelings of
R.Z. How did this situation of low motivation make you feel? frustration
Very were felt
frustrating and T.C.1 The feelings that I felt, a lot of it was frustration, a lot of it was a big which quickly
challenging challenge to try and motivate these kids because you have a group that you have to turned to
situation. anger.
Tried to ID try and motivate and then you have the individual. I would try and pick out some
leaders and of the leaders that I thought were leaders and tried to find what motivated them so
find that I could pull their strings and it was frustrating and challenging. I felt a lot of
motivations.
feelings.
Frustration
turned to anger
trying to figure I felt that along with the frustration, when the frustration gets high it becomes
out mentality anger to try and understand the mentality why they were not motivated and the
of team. opportunity that they had that they were not taking advantage of. So it was a trying Team mates
felt angry and
Frustration couple of years. frustrated
expressed, with one
feelings of R.Z. How did this situation of low motivation make others feel? another.
giving up.
N.A.s as well,
mentalities T.C.1 Some members of the team expressed frustration, it was almost a fight that
and they felt they could not fight, it was as thought they were almost giving up. There
motivations were also Canadian kids on the team, so you were dealing with different
varied
mentalities with this team and they could not understand it, it was different cultures
depending on
culture. Team and they could not understand why the motivation for these kids was not there. So
mates felt they were experiencing the things I was feeling, they were feeling anger and
angry and frustration at their team mates and they also took it as a challenge because I was
frustrated with challenging them to challenge their team mates.
each other.

Culture a R.Z. From your experience, does culture play a role in influencing how you
major factor in motivate someone?
motivation. As
a leader, you
must learn to T.C.1 Yes, in this situation the culture played a huge role. You had the Canadian
overcome it. mentality and the German mentality and you had to try and bring these guys

93 !
The feeling of together. It is still a challenge today, but you find different ways to do it and you The feeling of
striving for striving for
learn as the leader of the group how to deal with certain situations. The situation
more was more was
lacking, we were in, the kids signed two or three year deals and were making money and lacking,
contentment were comfortable. They did not feel that they had to listen to me as the leader contentment
was felt. because they felt that they were doing fine. was felt.

There was a feeling of striving for more that was lacking, and being not satisfied
and wanting to prosper beyond what you are already at. They did not have that, as I Money is a
already said, some of them were making more than their parents had ever made motivator, as a
Money is a and to get them to buy into the idea that there is more out there is tough, everyone result of
motivator, the cultural
team was has their own motivation. influences, the
treated great players
and became Money is obviously a motivator and these kids were getting paid and were treated became
content. content.
like rock stars and felt that they did not have to listen to their leader, I do not think
having a German leader would have achieved any different results. Handing out
Money has a false hope and
negative R.Z. What factors contributed to this low level of motivation? praise
influence, so negatively
do outside influences
influences. T.C.1 I would say money had a negative influence, I would say the outside motivation.
The players influences were negative, outside influences being their parents, their friends, the
were fed false fans, these were all negative influences because when you are a top player at your
praise and age group in Germany, you are treated differently, you are treated like you are a
hope from
outside rock star, your parents, friends, and fans keep telling them how good they are and
influences. telling them they deserve a shot and that they are great, there are a lot of outside
influences that affect these young kids negatively.

I would say that we as the Eisbaeren also built a negative influence, being that our
coach who was coaching the top club at the time his favourite thing to do was to
QUOTE pull these kids out in the paper and say how great they were and how they were QUOTE
going to the NHL and in turn was giving them false senses of security. It was
unwarranted and exaggerated positive reinforcement which affected these kids
negatively. Positive reinforcement must be within the realm of reality.
Cliques R.Z. How did this situation of low motivation impact the behaviour of the Cliques of
formed similarly
consisting of team? motivated
similarly team members
motivated T.C.1 I would say that groups and cliques formed. Some of the groups were the form.
people.
guys who wanted to play hard, then you had the cliques that thought they were
Finger getting screwed and the ones who didnt want to work anymore and that ones that Finger
pointing, had contracts. That is what I saw happening in this group because of all of this. pointing,
resentment, a resentment, a
lack of You also have guys who think the grass is greener on the other side and who dont lack of
personal personal
accountability. want to work for success. I saw a lot of finger pointing; it was the coachs fault, accountability.
Gossip, why arent I being given an opportunity. There was a lack of personal Gossip,
negative talk, accountability. There was a lot of gossip and a lot of negative talk about other negative talk,
and jealousy people; you could see the group trying to self-destruct really. Jealousy was another and jealousy
occurred. occur in teams
big problem in the group. Guys were jealous about not only playing time, but about with low
equipment and things like that. motivation.
As a team,
expectations
R.Z. What effect did this low level of motivation have on the output of the
were not met. As a team,
Results, team? expectations
productivity, are not met.
and focus T.C.1 Ultimately we did not achieve what we were capable of achievingand Results,
suffered. that was the bottom line. As individuals, we had some guys achieve what they were productivity,
and focus
capable of achieving, but as a team we did not achieve what we were capable suffer.
ofultimately.

94 !
The results and productivity suffered as a result. The focus suffered, you loose
track of what you were there for. The guys didnt achieve nearly what they could
have.

I think that in this situation with the mentality, I am a big preacher of the team
mentality and then everyone will be taken care of as individualsthat is how it is
in Canada. While in Germany everyone is worried about themselves and everyone
is worried about individual goals, they are put up on a stage more than team goals
are for instance. I think that this is a product of the culture and their upbringing,
being raised in a certain society and it reflects in how these guys act. It is all about
the individual, this is the situation that occurred in the team and it 100% hindered
the motivation of the team.

As a coach, I kept preaching the team. As the leader, you have to come around to
my way of thinking, but I tried to understand and adapt to their way of thinking
and that was a mistake that I made. I had to understand every individual and
understand how to pull their sting and bring them over to the teams side. We had
situations where I had to ask the guys to stand up and cheer when we scored
because guys were not legitimately happy for each other when someone scored. It
was a very challenging situation, it is something that me as a Canadian could not
understand it.

I had to deal with the anger and almost hate of those individuals who would not be
happy for members of the team.
It is important It is important
to get to know R.Z. Do you think treating each member of the team as an individual first has for leaders to
the team to an effect on motivation? get to know
better team members
understand as individuals
T.C.1 I think it does, I think that you have to find a way. As I got to know the
each and
individual. group, it got better as the years went on because I found a way to motivate each understand
individual. Some needed to be yelled at, some needed to be petted. There was what
jealousy over why certain players got called up, and this would result in for motivates
instance, guys not passing the puck because they wanted score so that they could them.
get called up. At that time with the coach of the parent club, he was pulling kids up
for the wrong reasons, not because they deserved it, but because of potential. You
have to have a healthy competition.
Contextual Contextual
factor: In Canada, there are so many kids fighting for a small number of jobs that when factor:
CULTURE you dont make it, you dont blame the coach you look at yourself and wonder CULTURE
what you can do better. There is that sense of concurrence. In Germany, there are
not the same number of people competing for jobs. When they get into competition
they point fingers, there is not that mentality of when you are in a competition
there is that struggle and you have to emerge from that struggle. They want to
emerge without a struggle. That is what we have done well in Berlin over the last
little bit, is to create that competitive environment so that the players have to work
harder to achieve their goals. It is still not where it needs to be here in Berlin, but it
is a lot better than anywhere else in Germany.

Q3. Have you been in a team where motivation was high?

T.C.1 Yup.

Q4. Can you give me an example of this?

T.C.1 I played on a team that was a group of guys where the chemistry was

95 !
unbelievable and the morale was very high, the motivation was extremely high and
it was exciting.

These R.Z. How did this situation of high motivation make you feel?
situations do In highly
not occur motivated
T.C.1 It makes you feel great! It is not a situation that you are in, it is an ideal
often, when it teams, people
does, it feels situation, and you are not in these situations a lot as a guy in sports. It was a whole feel a part of
great. team, we felt like we were a team, the motivation was high, we were happy for something
each other, genuinely happy for each other. important and
You feel a part enjoy going to
of something work.
big, important, I felt that I was a part of something, a piece of that team, I enjoyed what I was
and enjoy doing, I enjoyed my co-workers, it was all positive, there wasnt a negative thing
going to work. about it.

R.Z. How did this situation of high motivation make others feel?

T.C.1 They felt the same way.


Leadership
and how they R.Z. What factors contributed to this high level of motivation? Leadership
construct the and their
group. T.C.1 The main factors were our leader and how they put the group together. The ability to
chemistry was unbelievable and the team goals were extremely attainable. We had structure the
Attainable team are keys
team goals and team bonuses and after each win we got the exact same amount of money, it took to motivation.
fair team away the jealousy side of things.
bonuses. Attainable
team goals and
The environment that we were in, we had a luxury locker room, we had a luxury
The facilities fair bonuses
(locker room arena which was like an NHL facility. These things motivated us to want to be are key
and arena) there first of all and to want to be around each other. The organization was very motivators.
were luxury. classy, we were treated first class. We felt like we were part of something really
Classy QUOTE
important. We had a first class leader and a first class organization we had a huge
organization,
first class fan-base, and we were treated like rock stars in the town. It was a really positive Organizational
treatment of experience. support and
the employees. the treatment
R.Z. How did this situation of high motivation impact the behaviour of the of employees
QUOTE are all
team? motivators.

Cohesiveness T.C.1 The situation impacted the behaviour of the team in that we were close-knit
occurred, Cohesiveness
because of the whole situation because of the no jealousy. It resulted in everyone
everyone was resulted as
working pulling on the same line; it was something that I had never felt on the professional everyone was
towards side of things. I had felt that on the amateur side of things, like when we were kids focused on
common because there was no money or big contracts involved. We were a unit and because attaining team
goals. of this we way over achieved. goals.

R.Z. What effect did this high level of motivation have on the output of the
team?
Team
motivation and Motivation is
cohesiveness T.C.1 We overachieved. We were a bunch of East-Coast slugs that competed and high in teams
resulted in beat the top European teams because of that cohesiveness. There was no jealousy; with good
overachieving. it was all about the team. The reasons for that were: the chemistry was chemistry and
The chemistry who are
unbelievable, we were all treated equally, no matter who werea first liner or a
was great, rewarded the
everyone was slug, plus we all were rewarded the same, with the same amount of money after same.
treated equally each game. Even though it was not a lot, you were excited when your buddy scored
and were or you wanted to throw yourself in front of a puck to be the hero so all of the guys Motivation
rewarded the got some money. results in
same. cohesiveness
and
In this case, the extra money was a big positive. overachieving.

96 !
Money was a
R.Z. What were the factors that made this money such a motivator?
motivator in Money can be
this case a motivator if
because T.C.1 I think it was because everybody got the same, it was not based upon it is
everyone got individual bonuses but was based on team bonuses. It took away a lot of that administered
the same and it properly.
jealousy and individualism and it was really unbelievable what that did for our
was a team
bonus. It was team. It was our GMs decision to do this. He said that he wanted everybody to do Money was a
not the this. We did our 50 dollar dance after every game, it was unbelievable, it made for motivator in
amount, it was a great atmosphere. this case
the thought the because
team could everyone got
achieve it R.Z. Do you think that you were more motivated because you were making the same and
together. more money? it was a team
bonus. It was
not the
T.C.1 It didnt matter the amount. It was just the thought that we could all achieve
amount, it was
it together and that it was exciting. That played a big role; I dont think that it was the thought
the amount. the team could
achieve it
together.
Q5. Have you been in a team where leadership was poor? If so, how did this
poor leadership influence motivation?
Leadership is
the biggest T.C.1 Yes. I think leadership plays the biggest role in motivation. When it is a Leadership is
motivator. bad leadership it influences motivation in that you are not getting the motivation the biggest
Leaders help factor in
stimulate from the leader, you are having to create that yourself and that is something that motivation.
motivation, b/c not everyone can doto create their own motivation. I think that if not everyone is
not all can motivated, then you are not going to have the results that you need. I think that a Leadership is
motivate the biggest
good leader can motivate people so that they are all motivated towards a common
themselves. motivator.
Leaders goal. Leaders help
motivate stimulate
people I think that when leadership is poor, not everyone is motivated, there are fewer motivation, b/c
towards a not all can
goals, and the goals turn individual.
common goal. motivate
Good leaders themselves.
can motivate If the leader is not a good motivator, in that he does not recognize what each Leaders
individually. person needs to be motivated, then you have to do or say whatever it takes to get motivate
that person motivated. people
towards a
common goal.
R.Z. Do you think that the leader needs to be accountable for their actions? Good leaders
can motivate
individually.
T.C.1 Yes, I think that there are different types of leaders and different ways of
motivating.

R.Z. What would you consider to be the most effective and the least effective
ways?

The most T.C.1 I would say the silent leader who does not back it up through actions is the
effective least effective. I think that the most effective is a leader who backs up their words Leaders who
leader is the and holds people accountable, and backs it up through their actions. lead by
one that backs example are
up their words the most
with their I think the least effective leader is not necessarily that they are silent, but it is effective. They
actions and because they are not able to back up what a leader needs to possess. That is the back up their
holds team words with
work ethic, the team first mentality, it is some of these situations that if the leader
members actions and
accountable. can not back that up or show that, they are not a good leader. hold people
accountable.
Leaders have outside influences such as: fans, money, etc. are some things that
should not influence the way they lead the team.

97 !
Q6. Have you been in a team where leadership was good? If so, how did this
good leadership influence motivation?
They were
able to read Good leaders
situations, T.C.1 It influenced motivation by being a positive influence in that they found a read situations
saying and way to read situations. They said the right things at the right time, did the right and do and say
doing the right the right
things that needed to be done for the team, backed up his actions by doing things
things at the things at the
right time. that most people are not willing to do (throwing yourself in front of a puck), and right time.
those are some of the things that the leader needs to do.
A leaders
actions are Leaders need to do the dirty work, not only just the work that is fun. I think that a A leaders
contagious. actions are
They can leaders actions are contagious. I think that you can influence and motivate contagious.
influence and someone to do those actions if you are willing to do those yourself, and the They can
motivate opposite is true as well. As a leader, not only can you gain respect for doing these influence and
someone to motivate
things, but you can also quickly loose respect for not doing these things.
follow if they someone to
are performing follow if they
them as well. Q7. In the example you have me of poor motivation, since you were the leader, are
looking back, what would you have done to in order to improve motivation? performing
I had to gain them as well.
credibility by
ensuring those T.C.1 If I could have controlled the situation, I would not have had guys get
getting called up because of certain situations (not because of the size of their contract or Properly
promoted who their parents were) but because they deserved it. Also, because I was a leader, rewarding and
deserved that I lost some credibility because these guys were getting called up and I allowed it. providing
promotion. opportunity to
Rewarding the They were looking at me and going hey? Because we were on a team, I could not the deserving
right players just throw my leader under the bus, I had to back them and take some people is key
would have accountability and responsibility for what was going on. for leaders
established my trying to
credibility. motivate their
R.Z. Why do you think these ideas would have improved motivation? team.

T.C.1 They would have improved motivation because it would have given me
some credibility and it would have made the players realize that they get rewarded
for team play. That would have been motivation for these guys, not the selfish,
individual goals, but the team goals. It would have been better to reward the right
players, not the ones with the biggest contracts, or the coachs favourite. We were
bringing players up for the wrong reasons.

Q8. In the example you gave me of high motivation, what actions or elements
influenced motivation?
Motivation is
contagious. T.C.1 It is contagious, it rubs off. All this stuff goes back to the things you say,
Saying and are you saying the right things, are you doing the right things, are you doing what Motivation is
doing the right you say, are you saying what you do. contagious.
things as a Saying and
leader and as doing the right
an The actions that the organization took were how they set up the team bonuses, how things as a
organization they treated us. Everything they did was built on team success, there was nothing leader and as
are important. individual. The roles were clearly defined, everyone knew their roles and they were an
accepted, if you didnt you were outthat is something else that the leader did, organization
are important.
they created a plan, and that is what made it a well-oiled machine.

Q9. Do you think motivation could have been improved further? If so, how
would you have achieved this?
Motivation
could not have T.C.1 I dont think so, in that situation they did it exactly how they needed to be Motivation
been improved done and the results proved itthe results spoke for themselves. I think the factors could not have
further, the were the character of the individuals and can you get them to buy in. It all comes been improved
results spoke further, the
for down to hiring the right people and the leader did this. The leader is paramount to results spoke
themselves. the situation. for themselves.

98 !
The leader is very important to forming the team structure, but every individual is
The leader is The leader is
paramount in equally important. There is no way that the leader can form it without every paramount in
the hiring of individual buying in. The followers have to be willing to buy in, and that is what the hiring of
the right does not happen very often and that is why when it does happen it is something the right
individuals individuals
pretty special and you can achieve success. If you dont have one of those
and forming and forming
the team elements, you do not have the harmony that you need to achieve that. It is such a the team
structure. balancing act, it is crazy. structure.

QUOTE QUOTE

A strong END OF INTERVIEW


leader is A strong
needed in leader is
order for the needed in
right team order for the
members to right team
buy into team members to
goals and buy into team
visions. goals and
visions.

99 !
APPENDIX E: Continued
Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis- Step 4 (Listing of Themes)

1. A lack of intrinsic motivation resulted in the overall lack of team motivation


(M.F.).

2. Feelings of frustration were felt which quickly turned to anger (Team). Team
mates also felt angry and frustrated with one another (Team).

3. The feeling of striving for more was lacking, contentment was felt (Team).

4. Money is a motivator, as a result of cultural influences, the players became


content (M.F.).

5. Handing out false hope and praise negatively influences motivationQUOTE


(L.F.)

6. Cliques of similarly motivated team members form (Team).

7. Finger pointing, resentment, a lack of personal accountability. Gossip, negative


talk, and jealousy occur in teams with low motivation (Team).

8. As a team, expectations are not met. Results, productivity, and focus suffer
(Output).

9. It is important for leaders to get to know team members as individuals and


understand what motivates them (L.F.).

10. Contextual factor: CULTURE *see transcript*

11. In highly motivated teams, people feel a part of something important and enjoy
going to work (Team).

12. Leadership and their ability to structure the team are keys to motivation (L.F.).

13. Organizational support and the treatment of employees are all


motivatorsQUOTE (M.F.).

14. Cohesiveness resulted as everyone was focused on attaining team goals (Team).

15. Motivation results in cohesiveness and overachieving (Output).

16. Money can be a motivator if it is administered properly. Money was a motivator


in this case because everyone got the same and it was a team bonus. It was not the
amount, it was the thought the team could achieve it together (M.F.).

100 !
17. Leadership is the biggest factor in motivation. Leadership is the biggest
motivator. Leaders help stimulate motivation, b/c not all can motivate themselves.
Leaders motivate people towards a common goal. Good leaders can motivate
individually (L.F.)

18. Leaders who lead by example are the most effective. They back up their words
with actions and hold people accountable (L.F.)

19. Good leaders read situations and do and say the right things at the right time. A
leaders actions are contagious. They can influence and motivate someone to follow
if they are performing them as well (L.F.).

20. Properly rewarding and providing opportunity to the deserving people is key for
leaders trying to motivate their team (L.F.).

21. Motivation could not have been improved further, the results spoke for
themselves (Results).

22. The leader is paramount in the hiring of the right team members and forming
the team structure (L.F.).

23. A strong leader is needed in order for the right team members to buy into team
goals and visionsQUOTE (Conclusions).

101 !
APPENDIX E: Continued
Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis- Step 5 (Table of Themes)

JEFF TOMLINSON: TABLE OF THEMES (Corresponding number from Step 4 in


brackets)

!! MOTIVATION FACTORS

*Intrinsic Motivation (1)


*Compensation (4, 16)
*Organizational Support (13)

!! LEADERSHIP FACTORS: Introduction (12, 17)

*Ability to Praise (3, 20)


*Ability to Recognize Individuals (9)
*Leading by Example (18, 19)
*Ability to Hire and Structure a Team (22)

!! TEAM (BEHAVIORAL FACTORS)

*Cohesiveness (2, 6, 7, 14)


*Contentment (3)
*Approach to Work (11)

!! OUTPUT

*Results/Productivity (8, 15)

!! RESULTS

*Cannot be improved further (21)

!! CONCLUSIONS

*Leadership/Follower Buy-In (23)

102 !
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