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Plagiarism Notice for APU and Staffordshire

University
The following Investigation Report has been completely
outsourced and it is not suitable for any academic use.
This investigation report has been fully outsourced and submitted to Mrs.
Yusnita Binti Yusof. The student does not have adequate knowledge of
both software development and theory aspect of this thesis which can be
evaluated through plagiarism meeting sessions with the student.
In order to acquire for information and proof of plagiarism (such as the
material, logs, etc.) please directly contact VPouya@Yahoo.com.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgement...................................................................................................... 2
Chapter 1: Introduction to the study.............................................................................4
1.1 Project Background............................................................................................. 4
1.2 Problem Context................................................................................................. 5
1.3 Rationale.......................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Potential Benefits................................................................................................ 8
1.4.1 Tangible benefits........................................................................................... 8
1.4.2 Intangible benefits......................................................................................... 8
1.5 Target Users....................................................................................................... 9
1.6 Scope and Objectives........................................................................................... 9
1.6.1 Aims.......................................................................................................... 9
1.6.2 Objectives.................................................................................................... 9
1.6.3 Deliverables............................................................................................... 10
1.6.4 Nature of Challenge..................................................................................... 11
1.7 Overview of this report and Project plan..................................................................11
1.8 Project Plan..................................................................................................... 12
Chapter 2: Company background and structure............................................................14
2.1 Company background......................................................................................... 14
2.2 Company Structure............................................................................................ 14
2.3 Products and Services offered by APU....................................................................15
2.3.1 Services offered by APU that uses the system......................................................15
Chapter 3: Literature review..................................................................................... 16
3.1 Introduction..................................................................................................... 16
3.2 Domain Research.............................................................................................. 16
3.2.1 Online Ordering.......................................................................................... 16
3.2.2 Online Queueing......................................................................................... 17
3.2.3 Online Food Spotting.................................................................................... 17
3.3 Technical Research............................................................................................ 18
3.3.1 Similar Systems.......................................................................................... 18
3.3.2 Architecture............................................................................................... 23
3.4 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 26
Chapter 4: Business Case.......................................................................................... 27
4.1 Description of the Current System.........................................................................27
4.2 Description of the Proposed System.......................................................................28
4.3 How does the proposed system addresses Porters Five Forces......................................29

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4.4 Cost Benefit Analysis......................................................................................... 32
4.4.1 Return on Investment.................................................................................... 32
4.4.2 Payback Analysis......................................................................................... 33
4.4.3 Present Value Analysis.................................................................................. 34
Chapter 5: Development Methodology.........................................................................35
5.1 Selected System Development Methodology............................................................35
5.2 Explain each phase of the system development methodology chosen...............................36
5.3 Justification..................................................................................................... 39
Chapter 6: Primary Research..................................................................................... 40
6.1 Introduction..................................................................................................... 40
6.1.1 Questionnaires............................................................................................ 40
6.2 Questionnaires Design........................................................................................ 41
Chapter 7: Requirements Validation............................................................................45
7.1 Analysis of Data............................................................................................... 45
7.2 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 66
Chapter 8: Conclusions and Reflections.......................................................................67
References:............................................................................................................. 68

Acknowledgement
I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave me the possibility
to complete this report. A special thanks to our final year project coordinator, Mr. Dhason,
who had given us suggestions, tips, and encouragement especially in writing this report.

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I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the important role of my supervisor,
Mrs. Yusnita Binti Yusof for providing me with a lot of assistance throughout the progress of
completing this investigation report.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to the study
1.1 Project Background
Food and Beverages Queue Purchasing system for any restaurant especially for new
established restaurant is very complex and complicated. Basically, this Food and Beverages
Queue Purchasing System is a sub system which has to be integrated and operated as a part of
whole operational system. Apart from that, this is a system where purchasing of food items
like steaks, burgers, noodles, bakery and dairy products, seafood are conducted virtually. In
other words, this means that when a person arrives at the cafeterias only to find out that
he/she needs to wait as there are other people queuing using their gadgets, the World Wide
Web (www), and other methods to enter a virtual queue prior to arrival. During the wait, the
persons are free to roam and will only get notifies at their gadgets when his/her food
approaches.

So, as a student in A.P.U, the developer has realized that the cafeterias or the restaurants
either in both the main building or in Enterprise 3 is not running properly and is not as
efficient as what you think. With my specialism in Business with Information Technology
(BIT), the developer hereby to create a system that is being mainly developed for A.P.U
students, lecturers and even staffs. This system is known as Food and Beverages Purchasing
System. This Food and Beverages Purchasing System is generally an internet-based website
that works well on both Wi-Fi and cellular data. One of the main features in this system is
convenient, fast and easy to use format. It has almost all of the benefits that a student,
lecturers or even staffs would definitely want.

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1.2 Problem Context
Ever since queue ticketing system has been created, it eventually allows multiple transaction
profiles to be handled fairly and impartially for all waiting customers (Crowd, 2011).
However, this also brought limitations to the system.

Integrating a new system into an existing one is the most troublesome part for most
organization. It is because that each system is developed under different platform, techniques
and by different personnel. As a student, the developer would said that A.P.Us cafeteria is
currently using the traditional linear queueing system which involves a single cashier or
service counter and a single line. Normally, students are supposed to stand in a single line to
wait for their turns either to pay or to order. However, when there are more and more students
coming in, this would eventually leads to a delay during the whole processes. This delays are
somehow refers as waiting. Waiting is psychologically painful because it causes us to
renounce more productive and rewarding ways of using our time and because it may increase
the investment that we have to make to obtain a product or service (Schwartz, 1975).
According to a study conducted by (Bernd H. Schmitt, Columbia University), the study of
waiting and delays may affect consumers' perception of the quality of a service as well as
their overall evaluation of the service.

The next problem faced by most of the students in A.P.U were the environment of the
university. As A.P.U was located in a small environment with not much restaurants compared
to Taylors and Monash universities. So, students would normally spend their time in
cafeterias chilling and lounging around. This would definitely causes other students having
difficulties to find a place to settle and have their lunch.

Next, the developer have also noticed students nowadays have difficulties in choosing what
to eat during lunch. This is because one of the main reason which I have mentioned earlier
was due to the small environment which A.P.U was located and due to a limited choices of
restaurants.

Other than that, A.P.U consists of 3 main buildings with three different faculties:-Faculties of
Business, Faculties of Engineering and Faculties of Computing. As these three faculties were
all located in 3 different places, so we as a student understands the struggle walking and
taking vans from one building to another during hot and rainy seasons. Besides that, we also
knew that food in A.P.U cafeteria (main building) is overpriced. For example: Plate of rice
with a chicken and two sausages costs around RM8.50. So, if students were caught in a heavy

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rain during lunch time or the food is too expensive. Chances of not walking from one
building to another and skipping their lunch are extremely high.

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1.3 Rationale
The project that is being proposed is titled An Online Food and Beverages Queue
Purchasing System. This is the proposed solution to solve the above problems. This online
food and beverages queue purchasing system will be a web application which allows
students, lecturers and staffs to purchase, to make orders, to do food spotting as well as
online-queueing via an online portal. By using this system, APU cafeteria will definitely
improve on its services. The main advantages would be queueing without wasting time.
Furthermore, by implementing this system in APU cafeteria, this would leads to lesser
misunderstanding between the students and the workers working in the cafeteria as all
preferences are specified directly by the students, so there is no room for confusions or
misunderstanding. Other than that, using this system also benefits the cafeteria as they are
able to save money on printing the menus as well as having a flexible way in changing their
menus as often as they need. The system will also be able to notify the students, lecturers or
staff when his/her food approaches. This will definitely reduce the workload of the cafeteria
workers. Students, lecturers or staffs who are satisfied with the efficiency of getting things
done will surely come back to the cafeteria again. According to a study done by (Ismail and
Mohd Shah, 2014), shown that repeat customers are largely influenced by their direct
experiences of dining at the particular restaurant. Most of these repeat customers are more
likely to have a good experience during their visit.

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1.4 Potential Benefits
For the outcome of the web application, it gives two types of benefits which are classified
into 2 types: Tangible and Intangible benefits. The tangible benefits refers to things that can
be control by the developer and on the other hand, intangible benefits refers to things that
cannot be control by the developer and require more user feedback. Below the developer has
listed both the tangible and intangible benefits of the online food and beverages queue
purchasing system

1.4.1 Tangible benefits


a) When systems are automated this benefit is obvious as automation can save manual
process time. Therefore, it leads to productivity gain which allows the cafeteria
workers to do more work.
b) APU cafeteria does not need to hire more workers for the sake of helping the
businesses which able to save up money and time.
c) APU cafeteria does not need to print out menus for the sake of presenting the food
and beverages.
d) Reduce the workload of cafeteria workers. Cafeteria workers no longer needed
manually to take down the orders of the students, lecturers and staffs as orders are all
made through online.

1.4.2 Intangible benefits


a) Students, lecturers and staffs orders are much clearer and concise as their preferences
are specifically made through online, so this leads to lesser misunderstanding and
confusions.
b) Helping students, lecturers or staffs saving their time which is a valuable thing, rather
than waiting in a line to order his/her foods.
c) Food spotting services provided for students, lecturers or staff to track out the nearby
restaurants and where are the exact places to find it.
d) Much convenience for students, lecturers and staff to order their food online during a
rainy season and on the other hand, delivering of foods is also provided.

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1.5 Target Users
The main focus of the system is to allow students, lecturers or staffs to purchase their food
and beverages virtually. In other words, he/she would be given 3 options to either place their
order online from the website, to place their order through online queueing or to do a quick
food-spotting with geo-location. This actually ease the students, lecturers and staffs as they
are free to roam around and at the same time to ease the frustrations of students, lecturers and
staffs who needs a precise direction on where and what to eat during their lunch session. This
web based application system works well on both Wi-Fi and cellular data and can only be
used by students, lecturers and staffs from A.P.U.

1.6 Scope and Objectives


1.6.1 Aims
To create the propose system that allows students, lecturers or even staffs to purchase
their foods and beverages virtually at the palm of their hand.
To create the propose system that no longer require physical queuing line.
To create the propose system that enables you browse images of food instead of
reviewing the restaurants.

1.6.2 Objectives
To develop a website that allows students, lecturers or staff to purchase food and
beverages online or virtually.
To conduct online queueing where students will be notified via an online ticket which
are required to be identified upon arrival.
To enable real time food spotting/ guiding and where are the exact places to find it.
To enable food delivery system for users (integrated with all of the cafeterias in APU).

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1.6.3 Deliverables
The Food and Beverages Queue Purchasing System allows students, lecturers or staffs to
order food online as long as their electronic gadgets are connected to the Internet (Wi-Fi or
Cellular Data). By using this system, students or lecturers from one building no longer
needed to travel from one place to another just for the sake of purchasing food or for the sake
of queueing. After ordering their foods from the website, students or lecturers are given the
options to deliver their food or an online-queueing. By delivering their food, a delivery fees
will be charged and on the other hand, online-queueing where the students or lecturers are
free to roam around and will only get notifies at their gadgets when his/her food approaches.
Apart from that, students, lecturers or staff would also be able to use the feature of food
spotting which were developed into the system where real time food spotting / guiding are
enable and where are the exact places to find (Phil Lempert, 2013).

A) Below are the cores functions of the system will be achieved before delivering:-
Allow students, lecturers or staffs to login and logout from the system.
Allow students, lecturers or staffs to search for the types of food available from the
system.
Allow students, lecturers or staffs to a comment or feedback into the system.

B) Besides that, the additional features of the system are as follows:-


Allow students, lecturers or staffs to purchase food and beverages online or virtually.
Allow students, lecturers or staffs to use the feature of food spotting and where are the
exact places to find it.
Allow students, lecturers or staffs to que online where there is no longer physical
queueing.
Enable students, lecturers or staffs orders being delivered to them.

C) Apart from that, special features of the system will be added if there is extra time:-
Allow students, lecturers or staffs to keep track of their food orders.
Record user actions with a logs file.

1.6.4 Nature of Challenge


First of all, fulfilling user browsing experiences will be the main challenges in developing my
project. One of the main reason is due to different users viewing the web application in

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several different screen resolution and in several different browsers. The next challenge
would be due to time constraints. As a final year student, we were given a period of 9 months
to complete our project. Therefore, if time were not being managed properly, the quality of
the project as well as the researches will be affected. Other than that, choosing the right
programming language is also another factor that would affect in developing my project. This
is because that if the programming language were wrongly chosen or which you are not
familiar with, it will eventually doom your project to almost certain failure or make the rate
of success much more difficult. Lastly, documentation skills also refers to a challenge in
developing and structuring my project. As a developer, its always important to have reliable
documentation to guide throughout our work as we may be sometimes supporting multiple
applications at the same time. So, with good documentation skills works can be done
efficiently and effectively.

1.7 Overview of this report and Project plan


Overview of the report will briefly describe what each chapter will be covering:-

i) Chapter 1 is about the introduction to the study. Basically, it includes project


background information on the proposed system, project context, rationales and
Potential benefits. Potential benefits includes tangible and intangible benefits.
Other than that, it also consists of target users, scope and objectives, aims,
objectives, deliverables and lastly the nature of challenges faced by the developer.
ii) Chapter 2 describes the company that will be going to use the proposed system.
Meanwhile, an organizational chart will also be shown who the users are that will
be affected by the system.
iii) Chapter 3 contains a literature review which gives explanation of the technology to
be used by the developer and how each one assists one another. Besides that, the
developer also discuss the similar system that are currently available in the market.
iv) Chapter 4 describes the current system business models, business environment,
industry forces and competition. Besides that, it also describes the proposed
system which consists of how the new proposed system addresses the SWOT
analysis, PEST analysis or PORTERs FIVE analysis. Along with that, it also
includes cost calculation and return analysis.
v) Chapter 5 discuss the methodology that the developer plans to apply during the
system development. Justification about the researchers choice and the overview
of diagrams concerning the methodology will be shown. Other than that, the

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developer will further explains how the chosen methodology will be applied
during the system development.
vi) Chapter 6 explains the primary research where data gathering and analysis. The
design of the research which includes the questionnaires and their objectives are
also stated in his chapter.
vii) Chapter 7 describes the analysis of data and how various research methods affect
the decision to either retain the requirement or making chances.
viii) Chapter 8 concludes about the proposed system. It summarizes the achievement in
this project and at the same time, future areas or future improvements are also
suggested.

1.8 Project Plan


The project plan is the important tool to keep the project on course at all times and submitting
the project on date before the due date. With this project plan, it ensures that all activities are
fairly done accordingly throughout the project without missing any of the topics related to the
projects.

In this project, the developer would be using Microsoft Project and the name of the project
plan created by the developer is known as a Gantt chart. A Gantt chart is used to display
information about various types of tasks or phases of the project, for example: how the tasks
are being related to each other and how long does each task are needed to progress.

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Figure 1.0: Gantt Chart

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Chapter 2: Company background and structure
2.1 Company background
The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU) is located in Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. Originally established as the Asia Pacific Institute of Information
Technology (APIIT) in 1993 and the Asia Pacific University College of Technology &
Innovation (UCTI) in 2004. APU is amongst Malaysias Premier Private Universities, and is
where a unique fusion of technology, innovation and creativity works effectively towards
preparing graduates for significant roles in business and society globally. With an
international student community from more than 110 countries studying in its Malaysian
campus, APU offers a truly cosmopolitan learning environment which prepares students well
for the global challenges which lie ahead.

2.2 Company Structure


APUs structure consists of 4 different faculties, namely: School of Computing and
Technology, School of Engineering, School of Business & Management and School of
Accounting, Finance and Quantitative Studies. All of these faculties, two is located in the
main campus, one would be located in Enterprise 3. The distance between these two
buildings is very near. The last faculties would be located in Mines. To travel to Mines,
students were allowed to take the APU shuttle bus service to get there and it's free.

Next, APU have 3 cafeterias: - 1 located at the main campus and 2 at enterprise 3.

Cafeteria 1: Located at the ground floor of main campus. In this cafeteria, it serves self-
service mixed rice, and many kinds of dishes. Besides that, students were also able to order
other ala carte food such as fried rice and noodle as well. The prices are still considered
reasonable. In this cafeteria, many kind of dishes are being served during the morning, but
will left not much till lunch time.

Cafeteria 2: Located at the ground floor of enterprise 3. In this cafeteria, it serves mostly
Malay foods such as Roti Canai and Nasi Lemak.

Cafeteria 3: Located at the first floor of enterprise 3. In this cafeteria, the food being served
is almost similar with the one above. However, it does serves some Arabian food as well as
Malay foods. The food in this cafeteria is somehow expensive compared to the other 2
cafeterias.

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However, if students were still not satisfied with all of the cafeterias inside TPM. There is
still another large food court inside TPM, namely: Technoflex Food court. This food court is
near to enterprise 1 / 2 and sells a variety of dishes including Arabian and Western food.

2.3 Products and Services offered by APU


APU offers a broad range of programmes such as Computing, Technology and Engineering,
as well as programs in Business, Accounting and Banking & Finance.

Besides that, APU also offered a specialized Language Centre, Asia Pacific Language
Centre (APLC). APLC offers a wide range of quality English language courses which are
specifically designed to improve English in a warm, friendly and professional learning
environment. It is APUs aim to nurture and encourage innovation through our programmes,
with the intention of producing individuals who will learn, adapt and think differently in new
and better ways.

2.3.1 Services offered by APU that uses the system


Here at APU, not only the educational experiences were being offered by the university but
also includes a wide range of social, sporting, academic facilities and cultural activities on
campus. For example: auditoriums and classrooms, convenience shop, IT and engineering
labs, library, shuttle bus services, cafeteria and etc.

Cafeteria, popularly considered the best food outlet in the whole Technology Park Malaysia
(TPM). The cafeteria serves a wide range of halal Asian and western food. It is located on the
ground floor adjoining the Social Space and is frequently patronised by employees from our
neighbourhood companies in TPM. The cafeteria is opened from 7:30 AM to 7:45 PM. It is
also popular with part-time students who can get meals before going for evening classes.

As a student, I would said that APUs cafeteria is currently using the traditional linear
queueing and traditional ticketing system which involves a single cashier or service counter
and a single line. For example: To order food, students are supposed to stand in a single line
and after that workers in the cafeteria will give you a piece of paper which is also known as a
ticket, that consist of a waiting number. This number ticketing system dispense one ticket at a
time and leave the ticket to be pulled when a new student order his/her food. Meanwhile, to
organize the line of students as they wait to be served. After that, the waiting number will be
displayed on a small television and students are require to collect his/her food at the counter.

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Therefore, to avoid this kind of complicated system, a new proposed system must be
developed to address the current situation. This new proposed system is known as the Food
and Beverages Purchasing System. It is convenient, fast and easy to use format. It has almost
all of the benefits that a student, lecturers and staffs would definitely want.

Chapter 3: Literature review


3.1 Introduction
The literature review basically refers to the overview written of major writings and other
sources on a selected topic. Sources covered includes journal articles, books, government
reports, Web sites, etc. In each sources, the literature review usually provides a description,
summary as well as an evaluation. It is usually presented as a distinct section of a graduate
thesis or dissertation (Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., & Sutton, A., 2012).

A literature review contains a critical analysis and the integration of information from number
of sources, as well as a consideration of any gasps for future research (Manalo & Trafford,
2004).

3.2 Domain Research


3.2.1 Online Ordering
As stated by Chris Cornell, 2009, he mentioned that nowadays people are living in a world
where living is an issue, as they dont have any time to even live. Besides that he also
mentioned that this had gave birth to the e-commerce where people felt happy to follow the
click and order procedure. This as well applied to the food industry. According to Cowen and
Company, they had also conduct another research. In this research, mentioned that online
ordering now represents 30% of the daily takeaway ordering. The main reasons provided by
Cowen and Company through online ordering are convenience. To proof how convenience
online ordering is, Gloriafood has conducted a study. According to this study, it shows that
69% of customers order food online using mobile phone whether they stuck in traffic, riding
a bus or on a break. Anyone can easily place an order, as opposed waiting until to get home r
starting to call. Through online ordering, there would be no misunderstandings and
frustrations. On the other hand, through phone conversations, misunderstandings can be
happen quite easily. Usually due to the noise, either in a restaurant or on the other end of the
line, all it takes is a mistakes that frustrate the customer and to compromise the order.

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However, through online ordering, customers can specified directly make their preferences.
Therefore, there is no room for confusions or misunderstandings.

Next, according to Lin Grensing-Pophal, 2013, mentioned that the CEO of Bostons Pizza
(Andrew Borsk), mentioned that the decision of moving to online ordering was due to the
reason of customer-focused decision. They knew that had to be in the online game because
world is changing rapidly and that is where customers nowadays are heading to. Borsk also
mentioned and at the same time adding points as an added benefit to online ordering. He
mentioned that that, When somebody self-selects their food it is less likely for
miscommunication versus talking to a server where things can get missed or misheard.

3.2.2 Online Queueing


According to Perry Kuklin, director of Marketing and Business Development for Lavi
Industries, a leading provider of public guidance and crowd control solutions, including
stanchions, in-line merchandising, and electronic queuing, mentioned that: Most people feels
like waiting in line is a waste of precious time. And the annoyance and boredom that can build in
customers who must wait is dangerous for any business. Results in a long line can lead to losing
customers as well as to damage the businesss reputation. Kuklin also stated that Start of a
transaction is the end of the wait This can be as simple as filling out paperwork before reaching
the counter, looking at a menu while waiting, etc. So, why not let your customers browse the
website or other promotional offers while they wait for a specific campaign? Or, let them peruse
the menu while waiting to book a table online?

3.2.3 Online Food Spotting


According to a report by Nations Restaurant News, found that diners are more likely in using
technologies as it relates to their dining. Other than that, according to Kevin Kent, 2016
stated that mobile-local network xAD and call measurement provider Telmetrics have also
conducted a study and in this study shows that through mobile search behaviour, people are
more likely to search the Internet for food using their phones or tablets. At the same time,
these mobile-local network provider and call measurement provider also added that people
who search for food online has a 90 percent conversion rate. The study has also confirmed
that location and decision timing indeed have a significant influence on mobile purchase
behaviour, it also revealed distinct behavioural differences between people who are searching
for restaurant information and those who are looking for travel information or automotive

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services information. Restaurant consumer activity is much more locally driven and far more
urgent than these two other categories.

According to a statement by Marissa Tarleton, chief marketing officer, North America at


RetailMeNot, mentioned that as consumers get helps for dining choices with their mobile
devices, it is imperative that restaurants market to diners via mobile.

She also added that mobile marketing technology is a form powerful medium when comes to
serving the right dining content, in the right location and at the right time. When done well,
mobile has the ability to drive more diners to their doors and keep them coming back.

3.3 Technical Research


Firstly, the aim of this project is to develop a web based system for food and beverages online
queueing as well as to order-purchase food online. It is a system which gives user 3 options
either to place their order online from the website or to place their order online through
online-queueing or to do food spotting. The reason to develop this web-based system is due
to the problem faced by the cafeteria in the restaurant. The problems would be long queueing
issues, difficulties in finding places to eat, low place sitting for students during lunch time.
Therefore, this system will help and overcome all mentioned problems which students,
lecturers and staffs are currently facing.

3.3.1 Similar Systems


In this segment, similar systems that are already available for users to download and use will
be discussed. The systems mentioned are as follows: McDonald, Foodspotting,
SmartQueueing, and Mobile-Q.

Below are some examples of food restaurants which have already been using the similar
system and how does the similar system operate.

a) McDonald's Organisation
In 1940, Richard and Maurice McDonald started their business as a barbecue
restaurant. In 1948, hamburgers was later used as a production line principles. In
1955, businessman Ray Kroc joined the company as a franchise agent. He then
subsequently purchased the chain from the McDonald brothers and oversaw its
worldwide growth. Today, McDonald's Organisation is the world's largest chain of
hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 68 million customers daily in 119
countries.

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Online ordering system for McDonald
According to Paypers, McDonalds France has developed an online platform,
which include an ordering system and a wallet. This is to provide consumers a
customized ordering experience, so they can have their food and eat it exactly
what they want according to their preferences. This platform is available online
and as a mobile application app (Robbie Pyburn, 2015). By doing so, consumers
can access the information wherever they are. The app homepage allows
customers to view all McDonalds branches in the particular area. Customers can
then select which branch they wanted to order from, place their order and pay
online in advance using Worldline Wallet. Then the customers will receive a
unique QR code that can be used in the particular McDonald restaurant on the
same day, either to pick up or to dine in. During the process, the app will collect
customised data on the customer, which will be used for targeted customer offers
and cross-sales in the future (Robbie Pyburn, 2015).

Figure 2.0: McDonalds Mc Do Ordering App

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b) Foodspotting
Foodspotting is a visual guide to good food and where the exact places to find it.
Instead of reviewing the restaurant, you can recommend dishes and see what food
spotters recommend wherever you go (Phil Lempert, 2013). The main feature of
this application is allowing users to recommend specific menu items using photos
so that other can see those menu items not just deciding on where to eat, but what
they want to order. When you first open Foodspotting, you will be presented with
a food photo. This actually is a great move to the apps developers. Showing what
the app is about is a much pleasant experience rather than being asked to create an
account and login before you can familiarize yourself with anything. The photo
which you are greeted is actually just the first dishes captured by smartphones of
hungry people just like you.
The tiny globe on the top right corner will allow you to look at snapshots of food
on a map. You can tap on any dish that looks appetizing to find out more about
that particular meal and restaurant. Tapping the more info button will provide
you with information regarding how many people recommend the particular dish
and how many others would like to try it. Photography skills can be rated and if
the food photographer was feeling extra frisky that day, you might just find a
mini-review to accompany the photo of the food.

Figure 3.0: Food Spotting

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c)

Mobile-Q
Mobile-Q is a third-generation queuing system that enables customers to get a
ticket at the nearest branch through their smartphones and remotely queue for their
turn while continuing their activities. This ticket solution eliminates crowds and
improve customer flows by allowing customers to join queue before they arrive.
Meanwhile, customers are also able to real-time queueing information to keep
track of their turn.
Mobile-Q also enables customers to enter queue or book appointment with just a
few clicks. This mobile queueing app provide real-time service tickets for desired
service locations and shows the estimated waiting time. This is to ensure that
customers dont miss their turns. The main feature of Mobile-Q are to eliminate
crowded areas and physical waiting line. Other than that, Mobile-Q also provides
SMS notifications and online booking appointment. Mobile-Q is an integrated
queue management software that meets the demands of the new digital customers.
It is easy, convenient and saves customers precious waiting time.
It is perfect to:
Give appointments to manage customer traffic
Deliver targeted messages and offers to customer
Collect customer feedback about service experiences
Provide real-time queuing information to customers

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Figure 4.0:

Mobile-Q

3.3.2 Architecture
a) McDonald's Online Ordering System

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Figure 5.0: Architecture of McDonalds Online Ordering System

The figure above shows an architecture of McDonalds Online Ordering System. Firstly, the
customers go into McDonalds official website. After registering, the customers will be
directed to a page where they are able to browse the menu by selecting category buttons.
Once the customers select an item, they can now customize their food according to their
personal preferences. After that, customers can then proceed with checkout and a booking
number will automatically be provided. This booking number are given for the ease of
customers to track their food (Matthew Volenec, 2012).

b) Foodspotting

Figure 6.0: Architecture of Foodspottings system

The figure above shows an architecture of Foodspotting system. To satisfy the cravings of a
growing class of food lovers who value good food over service, cost and ambience,
Foodspotting will be a visual local guide that lets you find and rate dishes, not just
restaurants. To create this rich collection of foods and where to find them, Foodspotting will
harness foodspotters desires to collect, compete and be good at something. As a multi-

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channel platform that spans web, mobile and real life, Foodspotting integrates seamlessly
with existing behaviours while adding a game-like dimension to them. At the same time,
foodspotters can show off their sightings across social networks, participate in food
scavenger hunts, earn and award blue ribbons to dishes they love and become dish
champions.Restaurants can just as easily post specials, menu updates and communications
to the public foodstream by paying a small fee. Lastly, foodseekers can find whatever
theyre craving and see whats good at any restaurant. They can find and follow dishes,
restaurants and trusted foodspotters to stay on top of the latest sightings and specials.

c) Mobile-Q

Figure 7.0: Architecture of Mobile-Q queueing system

The figure above shows an architecture of Mobile-Q queueing system. Firstly, customer
enters a virtual queue by taking a ticket using mobile queueing app. Then, while waiting to be
served, customers are engaged using digital signage solutions and informational queue
displays with promotional messages and queue information. Then the workstation terminal
software and hardware is used by customer service personnel to call customers, transfer them
and provide service. Once served, the customer records their experience through feedback
units. Lastly, managers access real time business intelligence reports and dashboards through
a centralized reporting system ensuring all service levels are met.

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3.4 Conclusion
In conclusion, each system stated above have their own uniqueness and strengths that would
greatly improve the future of online food and beverages queue purchasing system. With
McDonalds online ordering system, it enables the customers to order at any point of the day.
This gives the customer a larger time framework to work with and has helped the restaurants
to increase their sales many times. Other than that, with McDonalds online ordering system,
all you need to know is one website address and for the restaurant owners(McDonald), all
they have to do is display their menus on the websites and the customers will automatically
come to them. In other words, this online ordering system is ease of use. Whereas for
Foodspotting, it helps connect eaters with good food. Foodspotting is powered by people who
take pictures of their food, so deciding where to go and what to get is as easy as browsing
images of dishes at local restaurants. Lastly, as for Mobile-Q, it function as a platform in
managing queues and have the expertise to transform the frenzied service areas into smartly
designed modules to streamline customer flows and helps to manage queues efficiently.

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Chapter 4: Business Case
4.1 Description of the Current System
The current system in APUs cafeteria is currently conducting its work manually which
means that all activities taken place in that cafeteria is using the traditional way such as
counting for stock, transaction activity involving getting money from the students, queueing
which particularly involve a single line and a cashier, taking order manually from the students
and all other daily works which takes place in the restaurant. By using the manual current
system, it will result to human errors as well as data inaccuracy which will bring losses of
business to APUs cafeteria.

Currently, as a students in APU, the developer had did some research on the workflow of
APUs cafeteria staffs. The APUs cafeteria staffs are finding their job getting bored because
of the environment surrounded by them and sometimes due to the overloading of work as all
activities are conducted manually. Therefore, it makes their work hard and at the same time,
to finish it on time as well as getting it perfectly done the way it is supposed to be done.
Besides that, the researcher had also found that the cafeterias staffs are sometimes not being
friendly to the new students of APU. Students who were not from Malaysia are getting much
expensive foods compared to those students who were from Malaysia. For example: 2
different chicken dishes and 1 vegetable costs about RM 9-10.

Next, another problem of the current system faced by most of the students, lecturers and
staffs were the environment of the university. As A.P.U was located in a small environment

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with not much restaurants compared to Taylors and Monash universities. Therefore, students
have difficulties in choosing what to eat and would normally spend their time in cafeterias
chilling and lounging around. According to the journal of Evaluation of Food Choice
Behaviour in Development and Validation of Health and Taste Attitude Scales stated that food
choices is a process that includes various factors that made it very complex. Besides that, it
also stated that food choices of an individual are more likely to be affected by internal and
external factors. Internal factors include psychological factors of an individual to make foods
choices. This statement was then again supported and stated that food choices will be affected
by the food, the individual as well as the environment.

4.2 Description of the Proposed System


The proposed system being offered to APU cafeteria will overcome the limitation of the
current system by the following points:-

It will be convenient to the students, lecturers, staffs as well as the employees of


the cafeterias.
The proposed system will be convenient to students, lecturers, staffs as well as the
employees of the APU cafeterias as currently the employees of the cafeterias find it
difficult to work because of overloaded of work. One good example would be taking
order manually from the students which may sometimes leads to data inaccuracy. This
often happens when taking too much order from the students at the same time during
peak hours. Standing on the students, lecturers and staffs point of views, they would
find the proposed system convenient and amazing as currently they will spent a long
time in queueing while ordering their food but the proposed system enables them to
order online directly from the proposed website. Besides that, if the students, lecturers
and staffs felt like taking a lazy day off, they could just surf the website, order their
food through online and request for a delivery service which the current system did
not have such services.

Saves students, lecturers and staffs time


The proposed system would also save students, lecturers and staffs time as the current
system is using the traditional line queueing which involves a single counter and a

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single line. Normally, students stand in a single line to wait for their turns either to
pay or to order however in this proposed system, students order their food through
online and will be notified through their gadgets when his/her food approaches.
During the process, student are free to roam around. Besides that, this proposed
system also provide useful information to students, lecturers or staff by showing how
many people are in the queue and the estimated time how long each person has been
in the queue. By doing so, this would even provide additional benefits to the students,
lecturers or staff as it enables to fully utilize their time instead of waiting continuously
for the sake of ordering their food.

Automated foodspotting
The proposed system also contain a feature that the current system is lacking off. This
proposed system enables students, lecturers and staffs to find dishes online instead of
reviewing a restaurant. The features is known as foodspotting. Foodspotting makes
finding food easier by letting you see the food around you. As mentioned in Chapter
2, there were 3 cafeteria in APU: - 1 located at the main campus and 2 at enterprise 3.
However, eating the same dishes over and over again will eventually makes the
person sick. According to a study conducted by Marygace Taylor, found that people
who ate the same food over and over again were likely to be less healthy than those
who ate a variety of food. With the proposed system offered to APU cafeteria, this
actually provide students, lecturers and staffs an opportunity to search for nearby
restaurant and to discover what are the desirable dishes for them out there. Besides
that, if any of the students, lecturers or staffs are some so-called foodseekers and
have difficulties in choosing what to eat during lunch. By using this proposed system,
it eventually helps these foodseekers to browse their cities and regions to see which
restaurants are the best and nearest around them.

4.3 How does the proposed system addresses Porters Five Forces
In 1979, Porter's Five Forces Model were developed by Michael E Porter of Harvard
Business School. The model were being developed as a simple framework used to assess and
evaluate the strengths and competitive position of a business organisation.

Competitive intensity and attractiveness of a market are two main factors that determine the
five forces which the theory is being based on. In a real life business situation, Porters five

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forces help to identify where power lies. This benefits in understanding both the strength of
an organizations current competitive position, and the strength of a position that an
organisation may look forward to move into.

Below is a diagram showing the Porters Five Forces:-

Figure 8.0: Porter Five Forces Model

Bargaining power of suppliers


Suppliers provide the raw material needed to provide a good or service. In other
words, a strong relationships with suppliers must be maintained. Depending on the
market dynamics, suppliers may be in the position to control terms, set prices and set
availability timelines (Martin, 2014). Besides that, powerful suppliers have the ability
to increasecosts without affecting their own sales volume or reduce quantities that
they sell. For example: For APU cafeteria, the fewer the supplier the more power the
get in supplying foods to the students, lecturers and staffs. In other words, because of
a lack of alternates, they may be able to increase prices without losing any sales.

Bargaining power of buyers

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If buyers are important to the company, they tend to have more powers over an
industry.
This may be if the industry is such that buyers either buy in bulk, or can easily switch
to another supplier (Martin, 2014). For example: In APU cafeteria, if the food and
drinks sold is similar to its competitors with no differentiation, then there are chances
that APU cafeteria may need to let the supplier dictate terms in order to avoid losing
the customer. In other words, the availability of existing substitute product, the more
bargaining power of buyers.

Threat of new entrants


A competitive threat to a business may not be from existing players currently in the
market but also potential new entrants into the market. If the business is profitable or
attractive in a long term manner, then it will be attractive to new companies. However,
if there are barriers in place, news industry can easily enter the market and change the
industry dynamics (Martin, 2014).. For example: APU cafeteria need more capital
investment in order to compete with the others cafeterias located in TPM.
Moreover, for new entrants who would also like to enter the market must have a clear
and concise strategy to overcome the situation, either with better technology or
producing high quality dishes.

Threat of substitute products


Substitute products are those that exist in another industry but may be used to fulfil
the same needs. The more substitutes that exist for a product, the larger the companys
competitive environment and the lower the potential for profit (Martin, 2014).. An
example of this is that if the substitute dishes cooked by other cafeterias is priced
lower or the substitute technology used is much advanced and was able fulfils the
needs, then it may ended up attracting students, lecturers and staffs towards it thus
reducing the sales in APU cafeteria.

Rivalry among existing competitors

One important force that Porter describes is the degree of rivalry between existing
companies in the market. If there are more companies competing with each other, the
resulting competitive pressure will mean that prices, profits and strategy will be
driven by it (Martin, 2014). For example: If all of the existing cafeterias inside TPM
was able to offer equally attractive dishes as well as the technology used as the APU

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cafeteria, then the students, lecturers and staff will go to the existing cafeterias if they
did not get a good deal from APU cafeteria.

4.4 Cost Benefit Analysis


A cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits
and costs of a project or decision (UPENN, 2007). A CBA helps predict whether the benefits
of a project or decision outweigh its costs, and by how much relative to other alternatives.

4.4.1 Return on Investment


Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Total
Costs: $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
Hardware
(Computers,
50,000 30,000 20,000 8,000 - 10,000 -
Databases, Servers,
Licenses)
Software, Installation
40,000 10,000 - - 5,000 - 1,000
fees, Updating system
System Analyst fees,
17,000 7,000 5,000 3,000 4,000 2,000 4,000
Maintenance fees
Overhead expenses
(insurance, legal fees,
22,000 12,000 10,000 7,000 6,000 4,000 2,000
telephone bills,
utilities)
Total Costs: 129,000 59,000 35,000 18,000 15,000 16,000 7,000 150,000

Benefits: $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
Reduction in
40,000 30,000 30,200 3,0000 28,000 27,000 35,000
operating costs
Reduction in hiring
20,000 19,000 2,0000 22,000 18,000 17,000 21,000
costs
Extra Sales revenue
21,000 11,000 11,500 12,000 11,900 12,000 12,500
captured
Improve efficiency, 31,200 21,200 11,800 12,000 22,400 21,700 21,500
response time and

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productivity
Total benefits: 112,200 81,200 73,500 76,000 80,300 77,700 90,000 478,700
Cumulat
Cumulat
Costs Benefits ive
ive Costs
Benefits
Year 0 129,000 129,000 112,200 112,200
Year 1 59,000 59,000 81,200 81,200
Year 2 35,000 94,000 73,500 154,700
Year 3 18,000 112,000 76,000 230,700
Year 4 15,000 127,000 80,300 311,000
Year 5 16,000 143,000 77,700 388,700
Year 6 7,000 150,000 90,000 478,700
Total 814,000 1,757,000

Figure 9.0: Return on Investment

ROI = (Total benefits Total costs) x 100 / Total Costs

ROI = (1,757,000 - 814,000) x 100 / 814,000

ROI = 115.847%

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4.4.2 Payback Analysis

Payback Analysis
600,000

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

0
Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Cumulative Costs Cumulative Benefits

Figure10.0: Payback Analysis

The figure above shows a payback analysis for Year 0 to Year 6.

4.4.3 Present Value Analysis


Present Value Table

Period 2% 14%
4% 6% 8% 10% 12%
s
1 0.980 0.961 0.943 0.926 0.909 0.893 0.877
2 0.961 0.924 0.890 0.857 0.826 0.797 0.769
3 0.942 0.889 0.840 0.794 0.751 0.712 0.675

4 0.924 0.854 0.792 0.735 0.683 0.636 0.592


5 0.906 0.822 0.747 0.681 0.621 0.567 0.519
6 0.888 0.790 0.705 0.630 0.564 0.507 0.456
7 0.870 0.760 0.665 0.583 0.513 0.452 0.400

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8 0.853 0.730 0.627 0.540 0.467 0.404 0.351
9 0.837 0.702 0.592 0.500 0.424 0.361 0.308
10 0.820 0.676 0.558 0.463 0.386 0.322 0.270
Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Total
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
Benefits: 112,200 81,200 73,500 76,000 80,300 77,700 90,000
Present Value
1.000 0.893 0.797 0.712 0.636 0.567 0.502
Factor (12%)
Present Value 112,200 72,511.6 58,579.5 54,112 51,070.8 44,055.9 45,180 437,709.8

Costs: 129,000 59,000 35,000 18,000 15,000 16,000 7,000


Present Value
1.000 0.893 0.797 0.712 0.636 0.567 0.502
Factor (12%)
Present Value 129,000 52,687 27,895 12,816 9,540 9,072 3,514 244,524
Net Present
193,185.80
Value

Figure11.0: Present Value Analysis

Chapter 5: Development Methodology


A system development methodology is a framework used to plan, structure, and control the
process of developing an information system (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services,
2005). Over the years, large variety of frameworks have been evolved, each with its own
strengths and weaknesses. One system development methodology might not necessarily be
suitable for used by all projects. Each methodologies is best suited for specific kinds of
projects depending on various technical, organizational, project and team considerations.

5.1 Selected System Development Methodology


The ideal methodology for a web based application system would be the Iterative
Development Methodology.

In Iterative methodology, processes starts with a simple implementation of small software


requirement and iteratively enhances the evolving versions until the complete system is
implemented and ready to be deployed.

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An iterative model does not start with a full specification of requirements. Instead,
development begins by specifying and implementing just part of the software, which is then
reviewed in order to identify further requirements. This process is then repeated, producing a
new version of the software at the end of each iteration of the model (Amir Ghahrai, 2008).

Following is the diagram of Iterative model:-

Figure 12.0: Iterative Model

Iterative model and Incremental development is a combination of both iterative design or


iterative method and incremental build model for development. "During software
development, more than one iteration of the software development cycle may be in progress
at the same time." and "This process may be described as an "evolutionary acquisition" or
"incremental build" approach."

The key to successful use of an iterative software development lifecycle is rigorous


validation of requirements, and verification & testing of each version of the software against
those requirements within each cycle of the model. As the software evolves through
successive cycles, tests have to be repeated and extended to verify each version of the
software.

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5.2 Explain each phase of the system development methodology chosen

Figure 13.0: Iterative Model Development Process

Iterative model consists of the following repeating four phases in sequence:

A Requirements phase, in which the software requirements are being gathered and
analysed. In order to produce a complete and final specification of requirements,
Iteration should eventually result in requirement phase (Amir Ghahrai, 2008). During
this phase, requirement involving user stating the expectations of the system are being
gathered. For example: who will use the system and how the system will be used.
After that, the analysing are being conducted by the developer to ensure that each
requirement can be included in the system without causing breaks or problems with
the system functionality (Noel Ransom, 2007).

A Design phase, in which a software solution is designed to meet the requirements.


The design may be a completely new design or an extension of an earlier design. In
system design, it is the most crucial phase in system development. It is also where
logical design are being converted into physical design (Amir Ghahrai, 2008). For
example: The programming language and the hardware and software platform in
which the Food and Beverages queue purchasing system will run are also decided.
Data structure, control process, equipment source, workload and limitation of the
system, Interface, documentation, training, procedures of using the system, taking
backups and staffing requirement are also decided at this stage.

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An Implementation and Test phase, where software is coded, integrated as well as
being tested. In this case, before implementing the new system into APUs cafeteria, a
test run must be conducted to check if all bugs are being removed. Then the output of
the test run are being compared to check if its matched the expected results (OER
Nios, 2005). After having the test run done, implementation begins. This is the stage
of a project which theory is turned into practice. For example: acquisition and
installation of hardware and software, user training, user documentation as well as the
system documentation.

A Review phase, is usually being run at the end of each project phase. In this phase,
the reviewer completes a phase review form describing the progress of the project
during the project management review. At the same time, recommending whether or
not it should be continue to the next project phase. If being approved, next project
phase can be commenced. If approved, the next project phase can begins. For
example: Risk and issues that has the highest priority in APUs cafeteria new system
must be recorded and documenting the outcome of the review, for approval.

For each cycle of the model, whether the software produced by the cycle will be discarded, or
kept as a starting point for the next cycle sometimes referred to as incremental prototyping,
a decision has to be made. Eventually a point will be reached where the requirements are
complete and the software can be delivered, or it becomes impossible to enhance the software
as required, and a fresh start has to be made.

The first three phases of the example iterative model is in fact an abbreviated form of a
sequential or Waterfall Model of development. Each cycle of the model produces software
that requires testing at the unit level, for software integration, for system integration and for
acceptance. As the software evolves through successive cycles, tests have to be repeated and
extended to verify each version of the software.

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In Iterative model, several strengths are being found within the methodology. They are:-

In iterative model, before beginning to build the product and defining the design
solution for the entire product, high-level design of the application can be created.
Later on, it also enable us to design and build a sketch version out of that, and then
evolved the design based on what had been built.

In iterative model, we are building and improving the system step by step. Hence, we
are able to track the defects or imperfection at early stages. This is to avoid the down
flow of the defects.

In iterative model, reliable user feedback are provided. When presenting the sketches
of the system to the user, we could effectively ask for their feedback and at the same
time, asking them to imagine how the product will work.

In iterative model, less time is spent on documenting and more time is given for
designing.

5.3 Justification
From the perspective of the developer, the adoption of iterative model is empowering,
enabling the developer to actively and aggressively attack project risks and challenges
in whatever was being judge to be the most appropriate manner (Ian Spence, 2005).
Managing iterations by setting clear objectives and objectively measuring results (and
not dictating activities) ensures that they are free to find the best way to deliver
results.
From a student perspective, the introduction of clear, meaningful objectives,
combined with the ability to review demonstrable results, allows those who will

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ultimately use the new software to take an active role in the project and share its
ownership with the developer. Iteration has a lasting impact upon all of the business
people involved in the project and fundamentally changes the way that they specify,
pay for, and realize the business benefits of system solutions (Kurt Bittner, 2005).

Chapter 6: Primary Research


6.1 Introduction
Primary research is defined as factual. Other than that, it also refers to a person who wrote
first-hand accounts who was part of the study. Methods used by the researchers may be differ
depending on how the experiments or study are being run but it typically follows the
scientific method. Another way to think of primary research is that it is typically an original
research (Devin Kowalczyk, 2015).

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Primary research basically focuses on the information that the researcher is collecting and not
referring to any previous works of others. In this research, the researcher will be focussing
only on questionnaires as the main source of data collection. At the same time, the researcher
will also be targeting at 200 respondents from APU which includes students, lecturers and
staffs of APU. This is because that by using questionnaires, the researchers would be able to
compile the answers of the participants in order to know how they behave or thinks. For
example: Giving out questionnaires questions to the participants to ask about their
preferences for taste, price and services. The target participants would be only focussing on
the students, lecturers and staffs of APU. Lastly, these questionnaires would be distributed to
the participants before the final analysis would be done.

6.1.1 Questionnaires
According to James P. Key, a questionnaire is a method used in obtaining the feelings,
beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or attitudes of some of individuals. Questionnaires as a data
collecting instruments, could be either structured or unstructured. The main objectives of
using questionnaires as a data collection method is to gather information about the peoples
attitudes, thoughts, as well as their behaviours.

Below section outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using questionnaires as a data
collection method:-

The advantages of questionnaires:

1. Practical-A good way to find out the attitudes, thoughts, and behaviours of a large
group of people.

2. Large amounts of information can be collected from a large number of people in a


short period of time and in a relatively cost effective way

3. Limited affect to its validity and reliability and can be carried out by the researcher or
by any number of people.

4. The results of the questionnaires can usually be quickly and easily measured.

5. Can be analysed more 'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research

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6. When data has been measured, it can be used to compare with other research methods
and can used to measure change.

The disadvantages of questionnaires:

1. There is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being.

2. There is no way of telling how much thoughts a respondent has put in.

3. The respondent may be forgetful or not thinking within the full context of the
situation.

4. People may read differently into each question and reply based on their own
understanding (interpretation of the question).

5. There is a level of researcher imposition, meaning that when developing the


questionnaire, the researcher is making their own decisions and assumptions as to
what is and is not important. Therefore may lead in missing something that is
important.

6.2 Questionnaires Design


1. How many years have you been studying in Asia Pacific University?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to know capture the demographic profile
of the participants.

2. Did you begin your college/university here or did you transfer here from another
institution?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to know if the students are familiar with
Asia Pacific University.

3. What is your classification in Asia Pacific University?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if the students are doing their
courses in Asia Pacific University. In other words, to find out if the students are
APUs students.

4. Which campuss cafeteria do you use the most?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if the students knows how

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many cafeterias are there inside TPM and how many of these cafeterias were under
Asia Pacific University.

5. How often do you visit the campuss cafeteria?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if the students had their meals
in the cafeteria or outside the campus.

6. What cultural food items would you like to eat in the cafeteria?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if the participants prefer local
foods or international foods.

7. In general, how would you describe the taste of cafeteria food?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out the thoughts of the participants
towards the foods in cafeteria.

8. In general, how do you think the cafeteria food is?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out the healthiness of cafeterias
food.

9. If you dont eat in cafeteria, why?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out the reason why students do not
have their meals in the cafeteria.

10. Is there enough variety in each weeks menu? If No, please specify.
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out how many type of dishes do
they served in each week.

11. What are the problems you faced at any other cafeterias?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out which problems does the
participants faced most likely at other cafeterias in order to correct it in APUs
cafeteria.

12. Do you think you have enough time to eat during the meal period?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out are there sufficient time for the
participants to eat during the meal period.

13. Do you think the ordering system works well?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if the ordering system in APUs
cafeteria have any issues.

14. Is there always enough food available when you order?

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Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if the amount of food being
served to the participants is it enough.

15. Approximately how many minutes does it take to get through the line?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out the estimated time of queueing.

16. Do you feel you have enough time to buy and eat your lunch?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out the estimated time to pay and to
eat the food.

17. If improvements could be made, what would be your priority?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out from the views of the
participants what can be improved in the near future.

18. What changes would you suggest to improve the food served in the cafeteria?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out what are the other ways to
improve the services of food served in the cafeteria.

19. In addition to the food itself, what changes (for instance in the cafeteria) would
improve the overall dining experience?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out the overall dining experience
and the ways to improve it.

20. How do you prefer in ordering food from APUs cafeteria?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out the patterns of the participants
whether they interest in ordering food online or going directly to the counter.

21. Do you think people fear to order online because of security?


Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if people scared to order online
because of fear of security like privacy.

22. If new system were to applied, what do you think if APUs cafeteria has its own
online food and beverages queue purchasing system? Will it be convenient for both
customers and staffs of the restaurant?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out if the proposed system will be
convenient for both customers and staffs of the restaurant.

Page | 44
23. Do you have any thoughts on how to improve/ implement a new system?
Objectives: The purpose of this question is to find out which areas needs
improvement or implementation in services of APUs cafeteria.

Chapter 7: Requirements Validation


7.1 Analysis of Data
According to Shamoo and Resnik (2003), data analysis is the process of systematically
applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap,
and evaluate data. As stated in chapter 6, the researcher will be targeting at 200 participants
which includes students, lecturers and staffs of APU. However, due to a certain
misinterpretations, the researcher was only able to target 35 participants by the whole of 200
participants. Therefore, analysis of data were conducted based on the 35 participants.

1. How many years have you been studying in Asia Pacific University?

Answers Response
1 year 14%
2 year 43%

Page | 45
3 year 29%
4 year 14%

Response
1 Year
14%14% 2 Year
3 Year
4 Year
29%
43%

Figure 14.0: Years studying in Asia Pacific University

Analysis: From the figure above, 14% responded that they had been studying in APU
for only a year and 43% said that they had studied in APU for 2 years. Next, about
29% of the students responded that they studied in APU for 3 years. Lastly, 14% said
that they were doing engineering courses and were currently in their final year.

2. Did you begin your college/university here or did you transfer here from another
institution?

Answers Response
Started here 80%
Transferred from another
20%
institution

Page | 46
Response

Started here
20% Transferred
from another
institution

80%

Figure 15.0: University status

Analysis: From the figure above, 80% responded that they had been studying in APU
since the day they joined the university. However, on the other hand, 20% said that
they transferred from another institution due to high cost of tuition fees, given
scholarships and etc.

Page | 47
3. What is your classification in Asia Pacific University?

Answers Response
Certificate 5%
Diploma 30%
Foundation 20%
Degree 40%
Masters 5%

Response

Certificate
5%
5% Diploma
Foundation
30% Degree
40%
Masters

20%

Figure 16.0: Education status

Analysis: From the figure above, majority of the students are doing their degree
compared to others. 40% of the students responded they are currently doing their
degrees. On the other hand, 30% were doing diploma and the other 20% were from
foundations. Lastly, 5% responded that that were doing their certificate and the
masters.

Page | 48
4. Which campuss cafeteria do you use the most?
Answers Response
TPM 70%
ENTP 3 20%
Mines 7%
Technoflex foodcourt
3%
(ENTP 4)
None of the above
-

Response

TPM
7%3% ENTP 3
Mines
20% Technoflex
foodcourt (ENTP 4)
None of the above
70%

Page | 49
Figure 17.0: Campuss cafeteria students prefer the most

Analysis: From the figure above, 70% of the students responded that they usually
have their meals in TPM while the second highest where students usually had their
meals would be in ENTP 3. 7% of the students said their classes are usually held in
Mines, therefore they usually have their meals there. Lastly, only 3% of the students
said that meals in TPM, MINES and ENTP 3 are incredibly terrible, so they choose to
walk to Technoflex foodcourt which is located at ENTP 4 to have their meals.

5. How often do you visit the campuss cafeteria?


Answers Response
Daily 100%
3-4 times a week -
Weekly -
Never -

Page | 50
Response
Daily
3-4 times a week
Weekly
Never

100%

Figure 18.0: Student visiting campuss cafeteria

Analysis: From the figure above, 100% of students replied that they visit campuss
cafeteria every day. As long as classes were held, they will definitely visit the
cafeteria.

Page | 51
6. What cultural food items would you like to eat in the cafeteria?
Answers Response
Chinese 47%
Mexican 15%
Malay 30%
Pakistani 3%
Indian 5%
Others -

Response
Chinese
Mexican
5%
3% Malay
Pakistani
30% 47% Indian
Others
15%

Figure 19.0: Student choices of cultural foods

Analysis: From the figure above, about 47% of the students prefer Chinese foods.
15% said they prefer Mexican. 30% said Malay and 3% prefer Pakistani food. Lastly,
only 5% of the students prefer Indian food.

Page | 52
7. In general, how would you describe the taste of cafeteria food?
Answers Response
Delicious -
Pretty Good 20%
Average 60%
Not good 20%
Very bad -

Response
Delicious
Pretty Good
20% 20%
Average
Not good
Very bad

60%

Page | 53
Figure 20.0: Taste of cafeteria foods

Analysis: From the figure above, 60% of the students said the food in cafeteria is
average. 20% said that it was pretty good and the other 20% said it was not that good.

8. In general, how do you think the healthiness of cafeteria food?


Answers Response
Very healthy -
Healthy -
A little healthy 60%
Not healthy 40%

Response
Very healthy
Healthy

40% A little healthy


Not healthy
60%

Page | 54
Figure 21.0: Healthiness of cafeteria foods

Analysis: From the figure above, 60% of the students said that the food in cafeteria is
a little healthy as there are plenty of vegetable dishes compared to meat dishes.
However, there were also 40% of the students complaining that the food being served
is not healthy at all.

9. If you dont eat in cafeteria, why?


Answers Response
Lazy 20%
No idea what to eat 30%
Prepared food from home 2%
Going out for lunch 30%
Food taste horrible 20%

Page | 55
Response
Lazy
No idea what to
eat
24% Prepared food
37% from home
Going out for
2% lunch
37%

Figure 22.0: Why students choose not to eat in cafeteria

Analysis: From the figure above, Students were giving out answers why they dont
have their meals in cafeteria. 30% of the students said that they have no idea what to
eat and the other 30% mentioned that they usually had their meals outside TPM. 20%
said that the taste of the food is horrible and some were giving out answer like lazy
as a reason why they dont have their meals in cafeteria. Lastly, 2% of the students
usually girls said that they prepared food from home.

10. Is there enough variety in each weeks menu? If No, please specify.

Page | 56
Answers Response
Yes 100%
No -

Response
Yes
No

100%

Figure 23.0: Food Varieties

Analysis: From the figure above, all of the students who did the questionnaire
questions said that they were more than enough choices in each weeks menu.

11. What are the problems you faced at any other cafeterias?
Answers Response
Food is expensive 20%
Not enough seating 10%
No problem at all 70%

ResponseFood is
expensive
Not enough
20% seating
10% No problem at
70% all

Page | 57
Figure 24.0: Problems faced by students at other cafeterias

Analysis: From the figure above, 70% of the students were happy with the cafeterias.
However 30% of the students complained. 20% said that the food in the cafeterias is
too expensive and 10% said that they could hardly find a place to sit during lunch
hours.

12. Do you think you have enough time to eat during the meal period?
Answers Response
YES 90%
NO 10%

Response
YES
10%
NO

90%

Figure 25.0: Time to eat during meal period

Analysis: From the figure above, 90% of the students said that they have more than
enough time to eat during the meal period. Only 10% of the students disagrees with it.

13. Do you think the ordering system works well?


Answers Response
YES 40%

Page | 58
NO 60%

Response
YES
NO
40%
60%

Figure 26.0: Ordering system status/performance

Analysis: From the figure above, 40% said that the ordering system works well in the
cafeteria. However, 60% of the students disagrees with it. Some complained that it
takes too long to queue as well as to order. Besides that, some even complained that
the numbering system being displayed are sometimes not functioning.

14. Is there always enough food available when you order?


Answers Response
YES 80%
NO 20%

Response
YES
20%
NO

80%

Page | 59
Figure 27.0: Food availability

Analysis: From the figure above, 80% of the students agrees that there are always
enough food when they ordered. However, another 20% of the students disagree with
the statement above. They said that food are always not enough due to very limited
and small portions.

15. Approximately how many minutes does it take to get through the line?
Answers Response
3 mins 10%
4 mins 10%
5 mins 10%
6 mins 20%
More than 10 mins 50%

Response

3 mins 4 mins
10% 5 mins 6 mins
10%
More than 10
50% 10% mins

20%

Page | 60
Figure 28.0: Students getting through the line

Analysis: From the figure above, 50% of the student waited for more than 10 mins
during a queue. However, some were saying that they waited for only 3 -6 mins to get
through the line.

16. Do you feel you have enough time to buy and eat your lunch?

Answers Response
Yes 50%
No 50%

Response

Yes No

50% 50%

Page | 61
Figure 29.0: Time availability for students to buy and eat their lunch

Analysis: From the figure above, 50% of the student agrees and the other half of the
student disagrees with that. 50% of the students disagree that there isnt enough time
to buy and to eat lunch because they said that time given in between the lunch hour
and the class starting is very short. Therefore, this causes them having not enough
time to buy and to eat their lunch.

17. If improvements could be made, what would be your priority?


Answers Response
Service 20%
Food 10%
Price 60%
Facility/Cafeteria 10%

Page | 62
Response

Service
10% 20% Food
Price
10% Facility/Cafeteria

60%

Figure 30.0: Improvements to be made

Analysis: From the figure above, 60% of the students said to change the price of the
food as it is too expensive. Secondly, 20% of the students request to improve the
services in the cafeteria. Next, 10% of the student said to improve on the foods as well
as the facility of the cafeteria.

18. What changes would you suggest to improve the food served in the cafeteria?

Page | 63
Answers Response
Add more counters 10%
Establish e-card payments 30%
Coupons 40%
Online delivery/ordering 20%

Response
Add more
counters
Establish e-card
20% 10% payments
Coupons
30%
Online
delivery/ordering
40%

Figure 31.0: Changes to improve the food served in cafeteria

Analysis: From the figure above, students had given few examples to improve the
food served in the cafeteria. For example: Adding more counters, establishing e-card
payments, using coupons and to implement online delivery or online ordering.

Page | 64
19. In addition to the food itself, what changes (for instance in the cafeteria) would
improve the overall dining experience?

Answers Response
Setting up more tables and chairs 20%
Special rooms for event gathering.
30%
E.g.: Birthday party
Setting up televisions and other
40%
electronic gadgets
Others (Design, layout, Furniture and
10%
etc.)

Response
Setting up more
tables and chairs
Special rooms for
event gathering. E.g.:
10% Birthday party
20%
Setting up televisions
and other electronic
gadgets
40%
Others (Design,
30%
layout, Furniture and
etc.)

Figure 32.0: Changes to improve the overall dining experience

Page | 65
Analysis: From the figure above, 40% of the students suggested that television should
be implemented in the cafeteria. Next, 20% of the students said that more seating
arrangement should be made as some students were not able to find a place to settle
during lunch hours. Besides that, 30% of the students stated that cafeteria should
provide special rooms for students for different types of occasions as currently the
events are all held within the same area. Lastly, 10% of the students said that to
improve the overall dining experience in the cafeteria, some designs or special layout
regarding the cafeterias floor plan could be made.

20. How do you prefer in ordering food from APUs cafeteria?


Answers Response
Counters 30%
Online delivery/ordering 70%

Response
Counters
Online
30% delivery/orderin
g
70%

Figure 33.0: Students preferences in ordering food

Analysis: From the figure above, 70% of the students prefer to order food online.
This is because that through online ordering, it makes the students to order virtually at
nay locations at any time they want. However, 30% of the students prefer to order

Page | 66
their food through the counter as it is much convenient for them as it doesnt require
them to sign up for an account.

21. Do you think people fear to order online because of security?


Answers Response
Yes 30%
No 70%

Response

Yes
30%
No

70%

Page | 67
Figure 34.0: Security issues

Analysis: From the figure above, through the data that the researcher has been
collected, there are 70% of the students are not afraid to order online because of
security. This is because that based on the perspectives on majority of the students,
they mentioned that food ordering are different compared to online buying and
selling. It basically just ordering food online rather than approaching the counter for
the sake of ordering. To them, its something new and they wished the system to be
implemented in the cafeteria. However, 30% of the students disagrees with that. They
stated that online ordering still requires your email for verification purposes.
Therefore, they have chosen not to implement online ordering in the cafeteria.

22. If new system were applied, what do you think if APUs cafeteria has its own online
food and beverages queue purchasing system? Will it be convenient for both
customers and staffs of the restaurant?
Answers Response
Yes 80%
No 20%

Page | 68
Response

20% Yes
No

80%

Figure 35.0: APUs cafeteria online food and beverages queue purchasing system

Analysis: From the figure above, 80% of the student agreed if the new system had
been implemented into APU cafeteria. It would definitely be an increase of profit in
the cafeteria. Other than that, it would definitely made the life of the students as well
as the cafeterias staff convenient and at the same time works can be done in a much
efficient way. On the other hand, 20% of the student says NO as the system its way
too complicated and troublesome.

23. Do you have any thoughts on how to improve/ implement a new system?

Page | 69
Answers Response
Observe staff works 40%
Interview staff about their work 20%
Send out questionnaire about working practices 20%
Inspecting problems that the current system
10%
created
Allocating tasks to the staff solely based on their
10%
skills and availability

Response

Observe staff works Interview staff about their


work
10% Send out questionnaire Inspecting problems that
10% about working practices the current system created
40% Allocating tasks to the
staff solely based on their
20%
skills and availability
20%

Figure 36.0: Thoughts on improving and implementing a new system

Analysis: From the figure above, majority of the students suggest that observing how
the staffs work would be the best idea to improve a new system. Secondly, 20% of the
students suggest interviewing the staffs about their work would also improve the new
system. Next, another 20% of the students suggested that by sending out
questionnaires about the staffs working practices. Lastly, 10% of the students stated
that inspecting problems that the current system creates which the solution could be
implemented into the new system. Another 10% of the student agreed that by
allocating tasks to the cafeterias staffs based on their skills and availability could also
improve in the new system.

7.2 Conclusion
Based on the analysis of the questionnaires, the researcher has realized that by using
questionnaires as a data collection method, questionnaires are able to provide a relatively

Page | 70
cheap, quick and efficient way of obtaining large amount of information from a large group
of people. However, a main problem that occurs with questionnaires is that respondent may
lie or bend the truth to look good so that they may have a positive image of themselves. For
example: One of the questions in the questionnaire is asking if the students have enough time
to buy and eat their lunch. Based on the analyse data, 50% of the students responded with a
YES and the other half of the students responded with a NO. From the statement shown,
the researcher knew that some of the students were answering the questions just for the sake
of answering. This may somehow ended with a wrong evaluation or results.

If more time were given, the researcher will fully focus on the 200 participants instead of
getting the results based on the 35 respondents. Besides that, the researcher will also believe
that the answer given by the respondents is not lying but giving out the truth. This is maybe
somehow due to the bad survey design of some questions. For example: Asking questions
regarding the taste of the food or the services which happened too long ago for accurate
memory. Therefore, people might forget and ended up with inaccurate responses because the
respondents dont remember the truth. Other than that, it may also due to the respondents
who are in a hurry or annoyed which causes them to lie or bend the truth. Lastly, the
researcher would retain the information provided by the respondents and at the same time
making changes to the design of the questions.

Chapter 8: Conclusions and Reflections


The overall conclusion of this proposed project, would be the 3 main core functions which
includes placing order online from the website, placing order through online queueing and to

Page | 71
do food-spotting. Currently, the APUs cafeteria is using the traditional way of queueing
which involves a cashier and a single line which makes the work difficult to the staff of the
restaurant. Hence, the proposed system will overcome the current problem of the restaurant.
At the same time, it will also be convenient to both the staff of the restaurant as well as to the
APUs students, staffs and lecturers. As for the staffs of the restaurant, it will definitely ease
their work and for the students, lecturers and staffs of APU, they will be updated on whats
the latest news or whats currently going on in APUs cafeteria.

Also, if more time were given to do this project, the developer will conduct more research on
online services and at the same time, developing another features for APU cafeteria which
allows students, lecturers and staffs to have an online chat services with the APUs cafeteria
staffs.

Lastly, the developer was able to obtain valuable information about the various technologies
that could benefits the proposed system. Meanwhile, the information collected from the
respondents played an important role in strengthening the purpose of having the proposed
system. During the investigation phase, the researcher was able to collect sufficient
information about the online ordering system of MCD, foodspotting as well as the Mobile-Q
queueing system.

Page | 72
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