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GOEL INSTITUTE OF

TECHNOLOGY
& MANAGEMENT
FAIZABAD ROAD, LUCKNOW
SUBMITTED TO
BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION U.P
THREE YEAR DIPLOMA
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
BY
TEJ BAHADUR YADAV [163727095349]

SADIK ALI [163227095341]

VINIT KUMAR [163227095353]

MUKESH KUMAR YADAV [163227095335]


CERTIFICATE OF PROJECT WORK
This is to certify that the project entitled MULTISTOREY
BUILDING is a
bonafide record of work done by
TEJ BAHADUR YADAV [163727095349]

SADIK ALI [163227095341]

VINIT KUMAR [163227095353]

MUKESH KUMAR YADAV [163227095335]

for partial fulfillment of DIPLOMA in CIVIL ENGG. from


GITM . LUCKNOW affiliated to BTEUP

WE WISH FOR THEIR BEST FUTURE

PROJECT INCHARGE
PRINCIPAL

MR. ASIT SINGH MR.


JAINENDRA VERMA

VALUABLE CONSULTANT

LECTURER LECTURER
MISS HALEEMA NAZ

1 PREFACE

PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2

PROJECT REPORT
3

INTRODUCTION
4

SURVEY
5

DESIGN
6

ESTIMATE, RATE & COSTING


7

DRAWING
8
MR SARVESH

INDEX
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

There always remains a pleasure to achnowledge the assistance


of

Several individual in the accomplishment of our goal and


completion of the project MULTI STOREY BUILDING.

We express our sincere gratitude to our Coordinator,diploma civil


engineering,Prof. ASIT SINGH whose devotion of valuable time
from his busy schedules and his coordination lead us to complete
this project .He was extremely generous and we give our sincere
thanks to his constant support & guidance. The project owes its
existence to a number of persons of college organization,who in
some or the other way gave us their support and serice.We
express our deep sense of appreciation to all of them.

At last we are thankful to all our fellow members for providing


their exhaustive efforts and wonderful company.

Place:Lucknow TEJ BAHADUR YADAV


[163727095349]

SADIK ALI
[163227095341]

VINIT KUMAR
[163227095353]

MUKESH KUMAR
YADAV [163227095335]
DIFFERENT STAGES OF WORK
1) Reconnaissance survey of site
2) Plane table survey of site
3) Nearest plan for available material
4) Availability of labour nearby
5) Arrangement of water and
electricity on temporary basis
6) Design and drawing of construction
7) Arrangement of tool and plants
8) Marking network chart
9) Site clearance and testing of soil
10) Establishment of temporary office
11) Marking of centre line
12) Excavation of foundation
13) Brick work in foundation
14) Fixing of door and window
15) Rcc lintel over door and window
16) Marking of rcc beam
17) Marking projection
18) Work charged
19) Sultering and centering of slab
20) Form work for column and beam
21) Arrangement of labour and materials
22) Laying of lime concrt over roof sanitary
conn. And electrification
23) Whitewashing and finishi

DIFFERENT STAGES OF WORKING PROJECT


1> Rconnaissance survey of site
2> Plane table survey of site.
3> Nearest plan for available of material.
4> Availability of cheak labour near about.
5> Arrangement of water and electric
temporary baic.
6> Design and drawing of construction.

Project report
It has become the cornerstone of youth
organisations development but not the
only way to run and manage an
organisation or institution! It is one of the
tools for organising tasks and pursuing
concrete objectives and can be compared
with and distinguished from: Strategic
planning: longer term orientation and
definition of policies, activities and
organisational development. Implies a
capacity to foresee and to prepare for
structural change or adaptations over a
relatively large period of time. Strategic
planning usually affects or takes into
account structural and infra-structural
changes (or triggers them). Tactical
planning: very similar to project planning,
tactical planning refers to the various
steps and processes to reach strategic
planning goals or, generally, to steer the
organisation with a shorter period of time,
namely by adapting and reacting to
unforeseen changes or progress.
Cyclical or recurrent planning: managing
and dealing with regular events or
foreseeable in a regular basis (e.g.
activities during the holiday period,
General Assemblies, etc.) Daily
planning: dealing with actions that need
to be done immediately or in a very short
time frame. Contingency planning:
measures and actions taken or foreseen
to respond to unforeseen situations, if
and when they occur. MBO
Management By Objectives: an approach
to management of tasks and teams
consisting in focussing on objectives to be
reached, often leaving room for the teams
to decide on the best way to achieve
them (but sometimes leaving also too
little room for flexibility and adaptation!).
It is referred to in contexts of a relatively
high degree of autonomy of employees,
workers or volunteers and it is supposed
to stimulate their creativity, commitment
and productivity (it is assumed that the
objectives are agreed together). It refers
more to a style or approach in
management. MBWA: an abbreviation
created by Scott Adams, creator of the
Dilbert comic strip about management
and business nonsense. MBWA stands for
Management by Walking Around until
something eventually happens. It stands
as the probable antithesis of
management, because the latter implies
some kind of action or at least planning...
Crisis management: concerns dealing
with one crisis after another which, as
MBWA, is not exactly a very efficient way
of management. Management should
ultimately allow those in charge to
anticipate and prevent crises. Crises
management tends to lose a medium or
short-term perspective and, therefore,
influence on the course of events. In a
more positive sense, crises management
refers also to a way of dealing with
exceptional and unusual crises or
catastrophes.
Stages of a project
The stages of a construction project are presented in ISE
publication Structural design the engineers
role[1] which may be broadly summarised as follows:
Project formulation - What its for, why is it
being proposed, where is it, etc.
Assembling the data and developing the brief -
Understanding the site and context.
Scheme design - Looking at and developing
options.
Detailed design - Of the various components
and elements.
Information for construction - Drawings,
specifications.
construction.

Many of these stages include aspects of


engineering design. A characteristic of steel framed
construction is that the constituent parts of the structure
are manufactured off-site, with all the quality and speed-
on-site benefits that are associated with such a form of
construction. An implication of this, however, is that
the design must be substantially complete
before construction (steelwork fabrication) can begin. It
is therefore important that the designer follows a logical
sequence, as going back and revisiting earlier design
decisions, once other parties involved have moved on to
designing other parts of the building or manufacturing
components, can be disproportionately expensive.
[top]Basic principles of good design
Some basic choices may have a significant impact on the
ease, time and cost of both
the fabrication and construction of a steel
framed multi-storey building.
Keeping fabrication and construction in mind from the
start will lead to the best possible solution. The designer
should also avoid over-specification, a trivial example
being that corrosion protection is not needed when
steel components are used in many internal environments.
[top]Keep it simple and familiar
Steel is a versatile material. It can be used for single
storey buildings, for which its efficiency has helped it
reach over 95% market share, and it can be used for high
rise buildings, for which its high strength to weight ratio
makes it the only practical choice. Because of the different
ways that steel beams can be configured, steel structures
can be used to create flooring solutions that are
competitive for spans ranging from 6m to over 20m. When
choosing between these steel solutions, a basic principle
for the designer should always be to keep it simple, and
use solutions that are familiar not only to him/her as the
designer, but will also be familiar to the fabricator and
erector. Complexity and lack of familiarity are more likely
to result in misunderstandings or misuse, and may cost
more. Exotic solutions should only be used for exotic
applications that justify the use of non-standard and
unfamiliar solutions because of the other attributes they
bring.

Network Rail HQ, Milton


Keynes Modern office building in
Spinningfields,
Manchester
Simple and complex building solutions
[top]Lowest weight may not be best
The impact of steel weight on building cost is interesting
as there are conflicting drivers. Some things are
quantifiable in many countries labour is more expensive
than materials so adopting a larger steel section rather
than one that needs labour intensive fabrication, for
example of stiffeners, can be more cost effective. Against
this argument, using more material may be associated
with greater embodied energy and carbon. But the
considerations are more complex than that because
thicker plates also have greater resistance, for example
to localised buckling, so the use of larger sections may:
improve resilience under accidental loading,
making them particularly appropriate for key
elements to assure the robustness of a structure
against unforeseen circumstances.
facilitate design for temporary load conditions,
this avoiding the need for additional temporary
elements/sub structures during erection.
permit deliberate over-design, to
facilitate change of use in the future and so
extend the lifecycle of a structure.
require less fire protection (because heavier
sections have greater surface area/volume),
saving on both materials and cost.

The extent to which steel weight is minimised will therefore


need to be considered on a project-by-project basis taking
into account each of the above issues.
[top]Standardise

Beam to beam connections - Typical partial


depth end plate connection between beams
Closely related to familiarity is standardisation. Although
the use of standard member sizes is less important
than it used to be, given modern ways
of modelling and fabrication, there may still be benefit
in reducing the number of different member sizes used on
a project. This desire for standardisation goes right down
to the steel grade and bolt grades and sizes.
Rolled sections should only be specified in grade S355
steel (or higher grade) steel to ensure availability as well
as performance benefits. However, for the fittings
(plates used for connections etc.), many steelwork
contractors prefer grade S275 steel. Again, a key is to
avoid mixing steel grades for components that look
otherwise identical as this facilitates quality assurance.
One of the main areas where standardisation is beneficial
is the joints (or connections as they are traditionally
termed in the UK). The use of standard joints means the
design process is greatly simplified, for example because
resistances are tabulated or software can be used more
effectively, and the detailing will be acceptable to those
who will fabricate and erect the steelwork
standardisation, simplicity, familiarity.
Standard beam-to-column and beam-to-beam
simple joints adopt one of the three following options,
each with its own particular advantages and areas where it
is less appropriate:
Fin plates particularly good from
an erection point of view.
Partial depth end plates better than fin
plates for connections to column webs.
Full depth end plates particularly good for
temporary stability and offer significantly greater
tying resistance (for robustness) than partial
depth plates.
Double angle cleats are no longer commonly used
for simple connections in the UK.

Standard simple joints using end plates and fin


plates

Standard joints use standard bolts (typically either M20


or M24 Property Class 8.8), and standard plate
thicknesses (10, 12 and 15mm). Welded joints are
normally restricted to the fabrication shop, where
conditions are much more suitable. Bolted site
joints have the additional benefit of
facilitating deconstruction.
When detailing joints some other rules of thumb should be
followed:
avoid placing joints in highly stressed regions,
so that the joints remain simple (thinner
connections and less requirement for localised
stiffening).
put site joints (splices) in an accessible place.
Placing splices 1200mm above floors will avoid
erectors bending down (good from a CDM point
of view), whereas placing them at the location of
the intersection between the column and the
beam will minimise the bending moments that
will have to be resisted. Placing them 600mm
above floor level may hence be a good
compromise.
[top]Pay attention to interfaces

Adjustable bracket for a steel beam to concrete


wall connection
The steel frame itself represents only a small part of the
overall cost of a building. However, how the frame is
designed and detailed may affect the cost of more
expensive components it interfaces with. Interfaces is an
area where attention to detail can pay real dividends.
There are basically two things to consider at an interface:
The different components/materials either side
of an interface may need to satisfy
different tolerances. These tolerances may be a
function of what can realistically be achieved
and/or what is necessary for example it is not
practical to cast a concrete foundation to within
1mm of level, but cladding may need to be
placed to within 1mm (and is able to achieve
this) to avoid appearance being compromised.
An interface between components/materials is
often also an interface between design
responsibilities. Clear information transfer is
needed so the designer at each side of the
interface understands, and responds to, the
requirements of the other side. Recent moves to
using a single model, shared between the
different design teams involved in a project,
should facilitate this information transfer. One
such interface is the column base interface
where the steelwork design and the foundation
design are performed by different parties.

Column base interface


When different tolerances need to be accommodated it is
much better to achieve this through design and detailing
than through remedial work on site. So, for example, when
steelwork is to be connected to a concrete core, the use
of brackets that permit adjustments in two orthogonal
directions (through the use of slotted holes) should be
envisaged from the outset.
[top]The design process
Six steps are chosen to split the design process into a
logical sequence from early scheme
design consideration through to detailed design. They
cover:
The design process

[top]Step 1: Initial design considerations


Building specific requirements

Building shape dictated by location and


architecture
The Walbrook Building, London
(Video case study)
The basic building shape will normally be chosen, or at
least heavily influenced, by other members of the design
team. It will often be dictated by site restrictions, be they
physical or regulatory such as planning restrictions. Before
developing this basic shape into a design the engineer
should make sure he/she is aware of any project specific
requirements.
Ground conditions may have a fundamental impact on a
number of decisions:
Poor ground favours fewer, probably more
expensive per unit, piled foundations. The wider
spacing of the foundations could dictate in
a longer spanning structural frame solution.
If there are any existing foundations on a
brownfield site, or underground services to be
avoided, these may affect column positions
(possibly resulting in more widely spaced
columns, or an irregular grid pattern).

It is also worth noting that steel piled foundations (with


their number minimised by adopting a long
spanning structural frame solution), can easily be
removed at the end of building life, avoiding the knock-on
effects often found on redevelopment sites and improving
the overall sustainability of the solution.
Other aspects of a given site that may favour a certain
building frame solution include any access and height
restrictions. In a congested city centre using prefabricated
elements may be attractive, to minimise the number of
vehicles needed to bring all the materials to site. If access
routes are of limited width, or have certain other particular
characteristics, these may impact on the size of
components, or sub structures, that can be delivered. If
there is a restriction on the overall height of a building it
may favour the use of shallow floor solutions, even
though their spanning ability is less than other steel
options, to minimise floor depth and therefore maximise
the number of floors (and lettable floor space) that can be
accommodated within the overall height.
Congested city centre location
Park_House,_London
In addition to any peculiarities of a given site, there may
be particular requirements for the building and its use. For
some types of use there are specific, published
requirements, such as the Building Bulletins
for Education buildings and the Health Technical
Memoranda for Healthcare buildings. Particular
requirements may include:
a naturally ventilated solution may be required
by the client or the architect.
the service requirements are dependent on the
building use, e.g. hospitals are highly serviced.
different uses impose different requirements
for the dynamic behaviour of floors, as what is
acceptable in terms of bounciness depends on
what a room is to be used for.
the effective planning of the location of lifts,
stairs, toilets and vertical distribution of services.
These are essential to the operational
performance of a building, and but also play a
key role in the structural performance (stability)
of the building frame.

If the building is speculative the developer may want


maximum flexibility for floor use, services etc. BS EN
1991-1-1 [2] presents minimum imposed floor loads for
different building uses. For offices, the imposed loading is
typically 3kN/m2. In addition, up to 1kN/m2 may be added
to cover loading from movable partitions. For storage
areas, a higher value of 5kN/m2 may be used. Often, an
imposed load of 5kN/m2 is specified in speculative offices
to allow for a wide range of client uses. As well as the self-
weight of the floors, an additional load of 0.7 kN/m2 should
be considered for raised floors, ceilings and building
services equipment.
Number of floors
To achieve maximum lettable floor space the design
should balance the number of floors against floor-to-floor
height, paying attention to the intended building use.
The target floor to floor height is based on a floor to ceiling
height of 2.5 m to 2.7 m for speculative offices, or 3 m for
more prestige applications, plus the floor depth including
services. The following target floor to floor depths as
shown in the table below should be considered at
the concept design stage:
4 - 4.2
Prestige office m
Speculative 3.6 - 4.0
office m
Renovation 3.5 - 3.9
project m
Typical floor-to-floor
heights

Shallow floor systems can be helpful for a designer


trying to achieve the right balance. Although they tend to
have a higher cost per unit area, the reduced floor depth
may provide the designer with:
more flexibility to achieve the best compromise
between floor-to-floor height, number of floors,
and overall building height.
a means to reduce building envelope area/cost.
a means of reducing operational carbon by
reducing heat loss through the envelope.

The weight and cost of a structural frame per unit of


floor area (gross internal area) increases with height,
because the wind loading increases disproportionately and
this has a significant impact on the design of the frame.
The increasing cost per square metre is shown for a range
of building heights in the cost table below.
GIFA
Rate ()
BCIS
Index
Type 100
Frame Low rise, short spans, repetitive 120
grid / sections, easy access 150 /m2
High rise, long spans, easy 170
access, repetitive grid 200 /m2
High rise, long spans, complex
access, irregular grid, complex 205
elements 235 /m2
Metal decking and lightweight 55
concrete topping 70 /m2
Precast concrete composite floor65
Floor and topping 85 /m2
17
Fire protection (60 minutes resistance) 26 /m2
62
Low eaves (6 8 m) 82 /m2
Portal 78
frames High eaves (10 13 m) 103 /m2
Table of indicative cost ranges (Q3, 2016)
based on Gross Internal Floor Area (GIFA)

Notes:
Easy access is for generally unconfined and
regular sites where logistics and access
arrangements for delivery and erection are
unhindered and straightforward.
Complex access is for confined and irregular
site plans commonly found in city centre
locations with demanding logistics and access
requirements.

Stability system
Exoskeleton providing stability to the building of
the Broadgate Tower, Bishopsgate London
The resistance of a steel frame against horizontal loading
can be achieved in a number of ways. The most
appropriate choice depends on the scale of building:
for low rise buildings steel bracing is normally
used.
for medium rise buildings (5 to 15 storeys)
either concrete or braced steel cores are used.
for high rise buildings the use of a concrete
core facilitates the construction process as the
core assures stability as
steelwork erection progresses up the building,
tied back to the core. Macro-bracing on exterior
faces, an exoskeleton, may also be used but
substantial temporary works are likely to be
needed as the final stability system is only
complete after a significant number of floors
are erected.

It is also possible to provide lateral stability by using


a continuous frame one where there is moment
continuity between the beams and columns to limit the
sway of the frame. However, whilst such a solution would
enable, for example, full glazed walls, the connection
detailing will be significantly more onerous, as will be the
design. Unless there are specific building requirements
that cannot be satisfied using an alternative, such a
solution will be a disproportionately expensive way of
assuring frame stability.
Whatever assures the stability of a frame needs to be able
to resist lateral loads applied in two directions, plus a
torque. In a braced frame building, the resistance to
horizontal forces is provided by two orthogonal bracing
systems:
Vertical bracing.
Horizontal bracing.

Vertical bracing (in vertical planes between lines of


columns) provides load paths to transfer horizontal forces
to ground level and provide a stiff resistance against
overall sway As a minimum, three vertical planes of
bracing are needed, to provide resistance in both
directions in plan and to provide resistance to torsion
about a vertical axis. In practice, more than three are
usually provided, for example in the locations shown
diagrammatically in the figure right.
Typical arrangement
of vertical bracing
Roof horizontal
bracing using a truss
wind girder
At each floor level, bracing in a horizontal plane, (generally
provided by floor plate action), provides a load path to
transfer the horizontal forces (mainly from the perimeter
columns, due to wind pressure on the cladding) to the
planes of vertical bracing.
At roof level, a truss wind girder may be used to provide
a horizontal bracing system, if there is no slab. See figure
left.
[top]Step 2: Choice of grids
Having recognised any building specific requirements,
decided on the most appropriate number of floors and, in
general terms, how the frame will be stabilised against
horizontal loading, the designer should start to consider
in more detail how the frame will be laid out.
The structural grid is defined principally by a regular
spacing of columns, with the primary beams spanning
between columns, secondary beams spanning between
the primary beams, and floor slabs spanning between the
secondary beams. Wherever possible the beams are laid
out in an orthogonal arrangement to provide rectangular
floor plates as this arrangement enables simple orthogonal
connection details between beams and columns to be
adopted.
Floor grids define the spacing of the columns in
orthogonal directions, which are influenced by:
The planning grid (normally based on units of
300 mm but more typically multiples of 0.6, 1.2
or 1.5 m).
The column spacing along the faades,
depending on the faades material (typically 5.4
to 7.5 m).
The use of the internal space, i.e. for offices or
open plan space.
The requirements for building service
distribution (from the building core).

Beam spans typically fall into the range of 6m to 16m, with


over 12m spans being very common on commercial
office schemes. Slabs typically span between 3m and
6m. The table below shows typical spans for various
commonly used floor systems.
Typical spans for various building floor systems

Although opting for a long span solution will increase


internal flexibility and maximise the lettable floor space, it
should be recognised that spanning ability is only one of
the attributes of a given flooring solution. They are also
differentiated in terms of fabrication cost, ease
of erection, ease of service integration, cost of fire
protection, required structural depth for a given span. A
designer should decide on the best overall compromise for
a given application, remembering the basic mantra of
standardisation, simplicity, familiarity. The table shows the
relative merits for common floor systems in multi-
storey buildings.
Relative merits of floor systems

For a building where horizontal services are to be


accommodated and integrated within the structural floor
depth, deep primary beams with holes in their webs (to
allow the services to pass through), combined with shallow
and therefore short spanning secondary beams is a
common choice. Alternatively one may use long
secondary and short primary beams, chosen so they are
all the same depth.
Two of the more common composite floor systems are
shown below. The benefits of composite slab floors
using downstand beams, shallow
floors including precast slabs, together with the choice
of long span beams should be considered holistically
and in the context of the specific project under
development.

Conventional Integrated beam with deep


"downstand" beam decking
Types of composite beams
A broad statement taken from the British Council for
Offices (BCO) Guide to Specification[3] and SCI
P365 states that office buildings with columns at 7.5 to 9m
centres tend to be most economical. More specifically,
the cost comparison studies have shown that for 3 to 4
storey buildings a composite beam and slab option is likely
to be the most economical where the optimum grid
size for this type of floor system is typically 7.5m x 9.0m.
For a typical 8 storey city centre office building, cellular
beams and composite slabs are shown to be the most
economical. For this size of building a typical
optimum grid size of 7.5m x 15.0m could be most
appropriate.
[top]Step 3: Preliminary sizing
Once the grids are established it is possible to estimate
preliminary sizes of the beams using some rules of thumb
for span to depth ratios.
An estimation of the preliminary sizes of the beams using
some rules of thumb for span to depth ratios for the floor
systems mentioned above is presented in the table.
Non-composite Floor = span/20
primary beams Roof = span/25
Non-composite Floor = span/25
secondary beams Roof = span/30
Span/16 to span/18
(note depth is steel
beam plus slab)
Long span solutions
tend to be shallower,
Composite beams up to span/20
Span to depth ratios for different
beam solutions

The slabs that span between downstand beams are


typically 130 to 150mm deep, using C30/37 or LC30/33
concrete. When shallow floor solutions are used the
structural floor depth, including the integrated beams, is
typically 300 to 400mm. Typical structural depths (floor to
ceiling) are shown in the table.
Targ
et
floor
dept
h
(mm
Flooring system )
800
Composite beam construction 1,200
Cellular beams (with service 800
integration) 1,100
1,200
Downstand beams with precast
concrete floor slabs 1,450
600
Shallow floor or integrated beams 800
Typical structural depths (floor to
ceiling)

Columns
The columns in braced frame multi-storey buildings are
usually hot rolled UC sections. Rectangular or
circular hollow sections can also be used but
connections become more complex than when an open
cross section is adopted. Typical section sizes for UC
columns are given in the table below. The columns are
normally continuous over 2 or 3 storeys and the beams
discontinuous where they meet the columns.
Number of floors Universal
supported by Column (UC)
column section serial size
1 152
24 203
38 254
5 12 305
10 40 356
Typical column sizes for small
and medium span composite
floors

Note that small and medium span composite floors


generally result in the same serial size for the columns,
but the column weight will be greater for the medium
spans.
Bracing

Braced frame multi-storey building using X bracing


Trinity Square, Gateshead
(Image courtesy of William Hare Ltd.)
Steel works well in tension, but only works well in
compression if buckling is prevented. So when the bracing
is configured so that it only needs to resist tension (when
X-bracing is present within a bay, one of the members will
be in tension when the wind blows one way, and the other
in tension when it blows in the opposite direction) it is
possible to use cross-flats (flat steel plates as members).
If the bracing must work in compression for
example, hollow sections may be used.
There are other criteria to consider when choosing the
form of bracing, beyond just structural efficiency. Cross-
flats may be useful because they can be hidden within a
wall cavity. K-bracing (rather than X bracing) leaves room
for doorways, although it needs to be detailed so that it
doesnt pick up vertical loads from the floors (for which it
has not been designed).
Weight of the steel structure
Preliminary sizing considerations should result in a weight
of steel similar to that given in the table below. However,
there may be project specific considerations which could
affect the values given in the table which are based on
generalised situations.
Approximate steel
quantities
(kg/m floor area)
Beam Colum Bracin
Form of Building s ns g Tota
3 or 4 storey building of
rectangular form 2530 810 23 354
68 storey building of
rectangular form 2530 1215 35 405
810 storey building with long
spans 3540 1215 35 506
20 storey building with long
spans and a concrete core 4050 1013 12 506
Approximate steel quantities

[top]Step 4: Analysis
Determining the loads
Before the frame can be analysed and the structural
members designed it is necessary to determine the
magnitude of loads and other actions such as thermal
movements, which may result in stresses in the structure.
The main load types are the self-weight of the structure
(and non-structural components), imposed floor loadings,
environmental loading including wind and snow, and
induced additional loads caused by frame imperfections
and sway.
Area
Loading loading
type (kN/m2)
Permanent loads
Steelwork 0.35 0.7
Composite
slabs 1.9 3.0
Precast
slabs 3.0 4.5
Partitions 1.0
Services 0.25
Ceiling 0.1
Imposed loads
Roof 0.6
Floors 2.5 5.0
Wind loads 0.8 1.5
Snow loads 0.6
Typical load
magnitudes used in
building design

The structure will be subject to a number of realistic


combinations of these load types (they wont all be at their
maximum values simultaneously), considering a Limit
State Design philosophy where the frame and its members
are designed to satisfy different ultimate and serviceability
limit states. The combinations, and different limit states,
are defined in the relevant Eurocodes.
Determining the internal moments and forces
Once the loads and preliminary member sizes have been
identified, the structural analysis can be carried out.
This process results in calculation of the internal moments
and forces the frame members must be able to resist
(against which the preliminary sizes can be checked and
the design refined).
The vast majority of steel frames are designed as
simple. This means that the beams and columns are
assumed to behave as disconnected members (there is no
moment continuity between them). A simple frame does
not in itself offer stability against lateral loads.
Bracing, or a core, typically fulfils this purpose.
Assuming simple construction offers a number of
benefits and results in certain characteristics of the frame:
It greatly simplifies analysis, with easy
derivation of moments and forces for a structure
that is determinate (solvable using simple
calculations). The stiffness of one element does
not affect the moments and forces that it, and its
neighbours, are subject to. The designer should
ensure that all element ends are released in
the analysis model to reflect this simple
philosophy.
Columns only experience axial force and
nominal bending moments due to the
eccentricity of beam connections.
The resulting distribution of moments and
forces means that beams will tend to be bigger
and columns smaller than when continuous
construction is adopted.
Joints are less complex, and will tend to use
less material (thinner plates, no stiffening or
need for haunches). But the designer should be
aware of the need to design joints for tying
forces to prevent progressive collapse (make the
structure robust). Simple joints are assumed not
to transfer moment, but if plates are thick
enough to provide adequate tying (axial
resistance) will they be thin enough to bend? The
behaviour of what is actually built must always
reflect what was assumed in the design. If
thick plates are used to achieve tying resistance,
they may transfer moments into the columns for
which those members have not been designed.
Composite beams are well suited to simple
construction because they work well in sagging
(relying on the concrete slab in compression), but
not so well in hogging (slab in tension).
If trusses are used, it is important to design the
members to work with simple joints between
them. Trusses that require moment transfer
between members (internals, chords) are difficult
to detail and expensive to fabricate (the member
size may be governed by the moment
connections it can accommodate). This can
cause particular problems in the situation where
the frame designer does not also detail the joints
(as if often the case in the UK) the frame
designer specifies the sizes of the truss
members, but they cannot be made to work.
Model of a multi-storey building
(Image courtesy of Graitec UK Ltd.)

If, as an alternative to simple construction,


a continuous frame is chosen:
There will be interaction between elements
making the frame indeterminate (solution
requiring structural analysis using computational
software). The relative stiffness of the members
affects the distribution of moments and forces
around the frame (stiffer the element the greater
force/moment that is attracted to it). As there is
moment continuity between the members,
bracing will not be needed.
This interaction means that iteration will be
needed to refine member sizes and as a result
will require the other members at the connection
to be re-designed as member bending moments
are redistributed accordingly to their relative
stiffness.
Different types of analysis may be envisaged.
Typically an elastic analysis is adopted, whereby
all the frame members are assumed to retain
their initial elastic stiffness and moments and
forces are distributed around the frame
according to these stiffnesses. A plastic
analysis recognises that some members (or
joints) may be sized so that they reach their
resistance limit, at which point they maintain
that level of load but loose stiffness so that any
additional load is carried by adjoining members.
[top]Step 5: Element design
Having determined the moments and forces in the frame
members and joints it is possible to move on to detailed
design. As noted above, when a frame is continuous it
may be necessary to undertake some iteration because
the size of the members affects the moments and forces
that are attracted to themselves and their neighbours.
Steel member design is based on the requirements
given in BS EN 1993-1-1[4]. Composite member design is
based on those given in BS EN 1994-1-1[5]. The overall
process in member design for the ultimate limit
state (ULS) involves:
Classification of the cross section.
Cross-sectional resistance.
Member buckling resistance.
Resistance to combined axial loading and
bending, where applicable.

Additionally, members should be designed for any


relevant serviceability limit states (SLS), commonly
these relate to deformations (deflections), and response to
dynamic loading. For most multi-storey commercial
buildings, straightforward steel construction will meet
the required vibration performance criteria without
modification. For more vibration sensitive applications,
such as hospital operating theatre floors, steels
advantages can be captured with additional stiffening
applied to the steel frame if required. Long-
span applications, for which steel is the only option, have
been found to offer very good vibration damping,
despite common preconceptions
that damping of composite floors is lower than that of
concrete structures. The greater mass of the long-span
sections which participate in any motion reduces the
magnitude of the vibration response.
Member design is often completed using software, or by
reference to the resistance tables in the 'Blue Book' (SCI
P363). An extract from the Blue Book presenting
the buckling resistance moment for UBs is shown
below.
Blue Book (SCI P363) extract

The frame designer must remember to consider the


various stages of construction as well as the building in
its final state, and the various ULS and SLS checks
related to each. Designing the structure to be strong and
stiff (and potentially ductile) enough to satisfy the different
loading and partial completion scenarios will avoid the
need for potentially difficult and costly temporary works.
[top]Step 6: Other checks
In addition to checking the frame members for gravity,
imposed and wind loads, some other verifications must
also be made as they could affect the final size of the
members and joints. These other checks include, but are
not restricted to, checking for sway sensitivity, fire
performance, robustness and acoustics
performance.
Sway sensitivity
Even simple braced frames must be checked for sway
sensitivity, as bracing would only prevent all sway if it
were infinitely stiff (which clearly nothing is). If the frame
proves to be sway sensitive, options (the viability of which
will depend on the given building) to design for this
sensitivity include:
Increase member sizes so the frame sways less
under horizontal loading.
For a simple frame this means the size of
the bracing.
For a continuous frame the size of the
beams and columns affects the frame sway.
This will not be a viable option for high rise
buildings.
Amplify the first order moments and forces to
allow for the secondary (second order) effects
that arise as the frame sways.
Carry out a second order analysis to explicitly
allow for the secondary effects.

In the braced frame shown in the figure, the bracing


extends due to axial tension, allowing the frame to move
laterally, and producing an inclination in the columns, as
shown. As the columns are now inclined, additional
horizontal components of force must be resisted by the
structure.

Braced frame before and after deflecting

The horizontal components of the forces in the columns


are proportional to the vertical loads, which demonstrates
that frame stability is linked to vertical loads.
BS EN 1993-1-1[4], 5.3.2 states that, for frames that are
sensitive to buckling, two types of imperfection should be
considered:
Sway imperfections.
Individual bow imperfections of members.

Fire
Thin film intumescent coating of floor beams
(Image courtesy of Sherwin-Williams Protective
and Marine Coatings)
One of the limit states that a designer must consider is
fire. Steel loses strength as it is heated (it will have lost
approximately 50% of its room temperature strength at
600oC). In the UK the most common way of dealing with
fire is to protect the members provide insulation so
that the steel temperature remains relatively low.
Alternatively a fire engineering approach is possible,
whereby the members are designed to resist the loads
associated with the fire limit state with a reduced steel
strength (as a function of the anticipated temperature).
The figure shows steel beams protected from fire by an
off-site applied thin film intumescent coating.
Robustness
robustness of a building frame is defined as:
the ability of a structure to withstand events like fire,
explosions, impact or the consequences of human error,
without being damaged to an extent disproportionate to
the original cause.
This requirement to design and construct a building to
have robustness is established from BS EN 1990 [6].
Details of how the requirement should be met are given in
BS EN 1991-1-7[7] with practical guidance being provided
by the Institution of Structural Engineers in their
publication A practical guide to robustness and
disproportionate collapse in buildings[8].
Acoustic performance
It may be necessary to consider the acoustic performance
of the floor and walls, against both impact and airborne
sound. This is particularly important
for residential, school and hospital buildings. Sound
insulation for both direct and flanking (at junctions) sound
is controlled by the following three characteristics:
Mass.
Isolation.
Sealing.

This means that the construction details of the floors,


walls and their junctions in a building are the key to its
acoustic performance. Floating floors and suspended
ceilings should be considered it is not simply a question
of adding mass.
In unusual cases there may be other checks to consider,
for instance those considering the impact of thermal
effects on the frame.

TYPES OF ESTIMATES
The estimates may be divided in to the
following catagories:-
(1) Preliminary or Approximate estimate.
(2) Rough cost estimate based on plinth
area.
(3) Rough cost estimate based on cubic
contents.
(4) Detailed estimate.
(5) Annual repair estimate.
(6) Special repair estimate.
(7) Revised estimate
(8) Supplementary estimate.
METHODS OF TAKING OUT
ESTIMATES
The calculations of quantities of materials
can be done using various methods of
estimates. The application of an individual
method depends upon the design and
shape of the building. The different
methods are as under:
1. Centre line method.
2. Crossing method.
3. Out to out and in to in method.
4. Bay method.
5. Service unit method.
GENERAL ESTIMATE OF SAHARA CITY
HOME PROJECT
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS General
specifications give the idea and class of work
in general terms and are generally attached
with the rough cost and detailed estimates.
1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS OF FIRST
CLASS BUILDINGS Foundation and
Pliath :- Shall be of first class burnt
bricks in lime or cement
mortar(1:6)over a bed of cement
concrete. (1:6:12 or 1:8:16)
2 Superstructure:- Shall be of first class
burnt brick work in lime or cement
mortar (1:6) Damp Proof Course:-
Shall be of a cm thick cement
concrete (1:2:4) with on-layer of
bitumen laid hot or any other
specified water proof material.
Roofing:- Shall be of R.C.C. slabs
(1:2:4) covered with two coats of
bitumen lalid hot and a layer of lime
or cement concrete 8 cm. thick over
it with a tile flooring with cement
flush with cement flush pointed on
the top.
3 Flooring:- Shall be of TERRAZO in
drawing, dining, bath and W.C., 4 cm
thick plain conglomerate polished
floors in bed rooms and in other
rooms. Doors and Windows:- Doors
and windows shall be of teak wood,
paneled or paneled and glazed with
gauze shutters to outer doors and
fixed wire gauze to windows and
ventilators Fittings shall preferably of
brass or good quality metal.
4 Finishing:- The inside and outside
walls shall have 1.25 cm. thick
cement plaster. Drawing, dining and
bed rooms inside of walls shall have
2 coats of distemper and other
rooms shall have three coats of white
washing. The outside of the wall shall
have two coats of colour washing
over one coat of white washing.
5 Painting:- Doors and windows shall
be given three coats of white lead
where exposed and white zinc or
cream or grey silicate paint
elsewhere. Miscellaneous:- First class
buildings shall be provided with first
class sanitary and water supply
fittings and electrical installations. A
plinth protection 1.50 m. wide of
bricks sloped away from the building
shall be provided all round the
building. Plinth Area Rate Rs.
4500.00 to Rs. 5,500 per sq. meter.
(Rates variable) 2.
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS OF
SECOND CLASS BUILDINGS
Foundation and Plinth:- All walls shall
be built of first class burnt bricks laid
in mud mortar over a bed of lime
concrete or cement concrete. Top
course of the plinth shall be laid in
cement motar(1:6)
Superstructure: - All walls shall be
built of first class burnt bricks laid in
mud mortar. The Following portions
to be built in cement mortar (1:6.)
(a) Shills of windows, C. windows
and almirahs.
(b) Back of almirahs.
(c) Top course of parapet.
(d) Jambs of doors, windows, C.
windows and almirahs.
(e) Drip course, cornice and weather
course etc.
(f) Two courses below the R.C.C. slab
and roof battens.
Damp proof Course: - Damp proof
course 4 cm thick shall be of Portland
cement concrete (1:2:4) with one
coat of bitumen laid hot.
Roofing:- All main rooms shall have
R.B. roof or R.C. roof and first class or
second class mud roofs over other
rooms.
Floors :- the main rooms shall have
conglomerate floors and verandahs
shall have flat or brick on edge floors
over cement concrete and sand.
Doors and
Windows:- Interior and exterior
surface of wall shall be cement
plastered 1.25 cm thick, covered
with three coats of white washing.
Painting: - Doors and windows shall
be painted with three coats of
chocolate paint or any other
approved paint. Miscellaneous:- Roof
drainage shall be carried by means
of Gargolyes and khassi parnalas.
Plinth protection1.50 m. wide of
bricks shall be provided all round the
building. Plinth Area Rate: Rs. 2500
to Rs.3000 per sq.m

3. GENERAL SPECIFICATION SOR


THIRD CLASS BUILDINGS
Foundations and Plinth: - All walls
shall be built of second class burnt
laid in mud mortar over bed on lime
concrete. Superstructure: - All walls
shall be built of seconds class burnt
bricks laid in mud mortar. Roofing:-
All rooms shall have second class
mud roof and the verandahs shall
have
G.I. sheet roof. Floors:- Floors
everywhere shall be of brick over
mid concrete and cement pointed.
Doors and Windows: - Doors and
windows shall be of kail, Chir, Mango
or any other soft wood, ledged,
battened and braced type. Finishing:
- Interior surface of walls shall be
mud plastered and covered with
three coats of white washing. The
outside surface shall be flush lime
pointed. Painting: - Doors and
windows shall be give two coats of
ordinary chocolate paint. Plinth Area
Rate: - Rs. 1500.00 to Rs. 1800.00
per sq.m.
4. GENERAL SPECIFICTIONS OF
FOURTH CLASS BUILDINGS
Foundation and Plinth:- All walls shall
be built of se3cond class brick work
laid in mud mortar. Superstructure: -
All walls shall be built of sand molded
sun dried bricks laid in mud mortar
with the exception of the following
which shall be built in second class
brick work in mud.
1. Two courses underneath the roof
battens. 2. Jambs of doors and
windows.
3. Pillars under the roof beams.
4. Sills of windows, C. windows and
almirahs. Roofing:- Third class mud
roof. Floors: - Mud floors(2.5cm) mud
plaster over the rammed earth and
gobri leeped. Doors and Windows:-
Doors and windows shall be of kail,
chir or any other soft wood battend
doors. Finishing:- mud and mud
plaster inside and outside. Painting:
Two coats of ordinary paint. Plint

Area Rate:- Rs. 800.00 to Rs. 1000.00 per


sq.m