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A

Project Report
On

ELECTRONIC LETTER BOX

This Miniproject report is submitted to Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur


University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

In

ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION

Submitted By

1. Aarti Meshram (Roll no: 01) 2. Aboli Nikode (Roll no: 02)

3. Harshal Belsare (Roll no: 13) 4. Krutika Naidu (Roll no: 15)

Under the Guidance of


Prof. Priyanka Wasu Prof. Dharmendra Madke

Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering

GURU NANAK INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


NAGPUR 441501
2013-2014

Guru Nanak Institute of Engineering & Technology


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Certificate
This is to certify that the Miniproject titled

"ELECTRONIC LETTER BOX"


has been successfully completed by

1. Aarti Meshram (Roll no: 01) 2. Aboli Nikode (Roll no: 02)

3. Harshal Belsare (Roll no: 13) 4. Krutika Naidu (Roll no: 15)

under the guidance of Prof. Priyanka Wasu and Prof. Dharmendra Madke
in recognition to the partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of
Engineering in Electronics & Telecommunication, Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj
Nagpur University, Nagpur. (2013-2014).

Prof. S.V. Telrandhe Prof. Priyanka Wasu Prof. Dharmendra Madke


H.O.D. PROJECT GUIDE PROJECT GUIDE
Dept. of Electronics & Dept. of Electronics & Dept. of Electronics &
Telecommunication Engg. Telecommunication Engg. Telecommunication Engg.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is indeed a matter of great pleasure and to be present this project of


ELECTRONIC LETTER BOX. We have tried our level best to place you all the
theoretical as well as practical aspect about the project in our project report.

First of all we are thankful to our Prof. Dharmendra Madke and Prof. Priyanka
Wasu our project guide who co-operated every now and then took every effort to make this
project a success in the facilities for completing the project.

We would like to thank our head of department Prof. S.V.Telrandhe who made
available all the required software and guided us in proper direction. We would also like to
express our thanks to our principal Dr. N.V.Deshpande who made available facilities and
books concerned to our project.

I also acknowledge the help received from my colleagues and friends viz Prakash,
Harshal , Aarti , Bhautik , Sandeep , Shiksha and other friends for their protagonistic help
and enlivening company and good wishes that greatly expedited my thesis work.

Finally we are thankful to all those people who offered their valuable time, guidance,
suggestion and assistance directly to us and only due to them the Herculean task of carrying
out this practical project successfully.
I

INDEX

TOPICS PAGE. NO.

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION 1-4

1.1 - Basic Idea 2


1.2 - History of project
1.3 - Need of project 3
1.4 - Objective of project 3
4
CHAPTER 2- WORKING OF PROJECT 5-16

2.1 - Circuit diagram with description 6


2.2 - Component description in detail 8
2.2.1 - Resistors 8
2.2.2 - LEDS 9
2.2.3 - LDR 9
2.2.4 - IC 555 11
2.2.5 Battery 12
2.2.6- Switches 13
2.2.7 - Connecting wires 15
2.3 Costing 16
CHAPTER 3 - DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT 17-21

3.1 - Layout Design 18


3.2 - Etching 19
3.3 Soldering 20

CHAPTER 4 - PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 22-23

4.1- Testing of project 23

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 24-28

5.1 Feature 25
5.2 - Application 26
5.3 - Future scope 27
CHAPTER 6 REFERENCES 29-30
III

LIST OF FIGURES

Sr. No NAME OF FIGURES PAGE NO.

1 2.1- Circuit Diagram of Electronic Letter Box 6


2 2.2(a)- Resistors 8
3 2.2(b)- LEDs 9
4 2.2(c)- Symbol of LDR 10
5 2.2(d)- Components of LDR 10
6 2.2(e)- IC 555 11
7 2.2(f)- Block diagram of IC 555 12
8 2.2(g)- Batteries 13
9 2.2(h)- Switches 14
10 3.1- PCB Layout 18
11 3.2- Etching Process 20

12 3.3- Soldering Process 21

13 4.1(a)- Testing of the project on Bread Board 23

14 4.1(b)- Final Output 23


IV

ABSTRACT
What is Electronic Letter Box? Electronic letter box is basically a circuit which let us
know easily with help of a LED whether a letter is present in the letter box or not. If the letter
is present in the box then the LED will glow and if the letter is not present in the letter box
then the LED will not glow. This is the basic idea of electronic letter box. Thus electronic
letter box is very efficient and a very easy circuitory to get the letters. This circuit uses a
popular timer I.C which is 555. I.C 555 is connected as comparator with pin 6 connected
with positive supply, the output goes high-1 when the trigger pin 2 is at lower than 1/3 level
of the supply voltage. Conversely the output goes low-0, when it is above 1/3 level. So small
change in the voltage of pin 2 is enough to change the output of pin 3 from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1.
The circuit illustrated below is used as an electronic letter box. When letter is put inside, a
LED glows which indicates the presence.

This is the basic idea of electronic letter box. Thus electronic letter box is very
efficient and a very easy circuitory to get the letters. This circuit uses a popular timer I.C
which is 555. I.C 555 is connected as comparator with pin 6 connected with positive supply,
the output goes high-1 when the trigger pin 2 is at lower than 1/3 level of the supply voltage.
Conversely the output goes low-0, when it is above 1/3 level. So small change in the voltage
of pin 2 is enough to change the output of pin 3 from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1.The circuit basically
consists of an IC 555. This is an 8 pin IC. The output of this IC is obtained from pin 6.This
circuit also has LEDS, LDR, Resistors, Battery as the main components. This is the basic
idea of electronic letter box. Thus electronic letter box is very efficient and a very easy
circuitory to get the letters.

The electronic letter box is very efficient and easy to use circuit which has its
application in daily life. If one wants to know whether there is a letter present or not inside
the letter box, Electronic letter box project can be of help. The Electronic letter box is a very
useful gadget for homes and offices. The circuit uses single Monolithic -555 in dual in line
plastic package and a few external components. The main advantage of the letter box is we
can find out the presence and absence of letter inside the box without opening the box. Here
light depending resistor (LDR) is used as a sensor to detect the presence of letter.

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig: Circuit Diagram of Electronic Letter Box


Fig: Bread Board Connection

VI

Fig: PCB Plate Fig: Drilling Process


Fig: Etching Fig: Soldering

VII

LIST OF SYMBOLS
Sr.
No. Name Symbol

1 Resistor

2 LDR

3 LED

Battery
4

VIII
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1
1.1 Basic Idea
What is electronic letter box?

Electronic letter box is basically a circuit which let us know easily with help of a LED
whether a letter is present in the letter box or not. If the letter is present in the box then the
LED will glow and if the letter is not present in the letter box then the LED will not glow.
This is the basic idea of electronic letter box. Thus electronic letter box is
very efficient and a very easy circuitry to get the letters.

This circuit uses a popular timer I.C which is 555. I.C 555 is connected as comparator
with pin 6 connected with positive supply, the output goes high-1 when the trigger pin 2 is at
lower than 1/3 level of the supply voltage. Conversely the output goes low-0, when it is
above 1/3 level. So small change in the voltage of pin 2 is enough to change the output of pin
3 from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. The circuit illustrated below is used as an electronic letter box.
When letter is put inside, a LED glows which indicates the presence.

This is the basic idea of electronic letter box. Thus electronic letter box is very
efficient and a very easy circuitry to get the letters. This circuit uses a popular timer I.C
which is 555. I.C 555 is connected as comparator with pin 6 connected with positive supply,
the output goes high-1 when the trigger pin 2 is at lower than 1/3 level of the supply voltage.
Conversely the output goes low-0, when it is above 1/3 level. So small change in the voltage
of pin 2 is enough to change the output of pin 3 from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1.

The circuit basically consists of an IC 555. This is an 8 pin IC. The output of this IC is
obtained from pin 6.This circuit also has LEDS, LDR, Resistors, Battery as the main
components. This is the basic idea of electronic letter box. Thus electronic letter box is very
efficient and a very easy circuitory to get the letters.
2

1.2 History of project

A letter box, letter plate, letter hole, deed, mail slot, or mailbox is a receptacle for
receiving incoming at a private residence or business. For the opposite purpose of collating
outgoing mail, is generally used instead.

Letterboxes or mailboxes consist of four primary designs:


A box through which mail is delivered (through-door delivery)
A letter box directly to the house.
A box mounted at or near the street.

A centralised mail delivery station consisting of individual mailboxes for an entire


building. A centralised mail delivery station consisting of individual mailboxes for multiple
recipients at multiple addresses in a particular neighborhood or community. Thus in the past
there were only letter boxes which were manual. However the past have changed. Now-a-
days these electronic letter boxes are used which is completely user efficient. These letter
boxes glow the LED whenever the letter is inside making it very clear to the user as to well
to open the letter box. Thus the history of the letter box has changed completely. Modern
inventions have been made and the letter box has become more efficient.

When somebody drops letter in your letter box then LED connected to output stops
glowing indicating you that you have letter. To detect the presence of a letter we have used
a LDR and a source of light. It has resistance of about 1 mega ohm in total darkness and 2-
5kohm in bright light. In this the source of light and LDR is so adjusted in letter box that
light will fall directly fall on LDR so that when letter is drop inside the box it will block the
beam of light and LDR will be under darkness. The circuit gives you a visual alarm when
somebody drops a letter in your drop box. This electronic letter box circuit is based on
operational amplifier LM741, CD4001 and LDR.An op-amp produces an output voltage that
is hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between the input terminals.

1.3Need of project

Electronic letter box is very important in todays life. Electronic letter box glows an
LED whenever the letter is put inside and thus the person knows that a letter is waiting for
him onside the letter box. To identify the presence of a letter in the box we have connected a
LDR as well as source of light. LDR is a special kind of resistor whose action based on the
intensity of light declining on it.
In the time of total darkness LDR resistance is approx 1 mega ohm while at the time
of bright light its resistance is 2-5 ohm.

In this circuit the light source is adjusted with the LDR in such a way that the light
will directly drop on the LDR so that when any letter comes inside the letter box it will
chunk the light beam and LDR will be beneath darkness. Thus there is a wide need of
electronic letter box in todays life.

1.4 Objective of project

This circuit uses a popular timer I.C which is 555. I.C 555 is connected as comparator
with pin 6 connected with positive supply, the output goes high-1 when the trigger pin 2 is at
lower than 1/3 level of the supply voltage. Conversely the output goes low-0, when it is
above 1/3 level. So small change in the voltage of pin 2 is enough to change the output of pin
3 from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. The output has only two states high and low and cannot remain in
any intermediate stage. It is power by 9V battery for portable use. The circuit is economic in
power consumption. Pin 4,6&8 is connected to the positive supply and pin 1 is grounded.

The circuit which is explained below is been employed as an Electronic Letter Box.
When letter drop by someone into the letter box then the LED attached at the output stops
blinking which indicates that there is a letter in your letter box. To identify the presence of a
letter in the box we have connected a LDR as well as source of light. LDR is a special kind
of resistor whose action based on the intensity of light declining on it.In this circuit the light
source is adjusted with the LDR in such a way that the light will directly drop on the LDR so
that when any letter comes inside the letter box it will chunk the light beam and LDR will be
beneath darkness.
4

CHAPTER 2
WORKING OF PROJECT
5

2.1 Circuit diagram with description

Fig2.1(a) : Circuit Diagram of Electronic Letter Box

To detect the present of letter we have used LDR and a source of light. LDR is a
special type of resistance whose value depends on the brightness of the light which is falling
on it. It has a resistance of about 1 mega ohms when in total darkness, but a resistance of
only about 2-5 k ohms when brightly illuminated.

It responds to a large part of the light spectrum.


The source of light and LDR is so adjusted in the letter box that light will directly fall on the
LDR but when letter is kept inside then it will block the beam of light and LDR will be under
darkness. We have made a potential divider circuit with LDR and 100 K variable resistance
connected in series. Voltage is directly proportional to conductance so more voltage we will
get by this divider when LDR is getting light and low voltage in darkness.

Divided voltage is given to pin 2nd of 555. As soon as LDR gets dark the voltage of
the pin 2 drops 1/3 of the supply voltage and pin 3 gets high and LED glows.We can also use
two LED at output pin 3, for present LED 1 and for absent LED 2. For this method one LED
is connected as forward bias and other is connected as reverse bias to indicate both high and
low conditions. To limit the current of LED resistance is used in series.For source light, use
Red or White LED. For LED 2 and 3 you can use any other color- green, red, yellow or blue.

Operation of this circuit is very much easy, you just need to install the LDR as well as
LED at the different corners of the box so that LED light will regularly fall on the LDR as a
effect of it, device stay off since light beam is declining on LDR and its resistance will low
which in turn the IC1 pin 2 moves to high.As quickly as someone drops the letter in the box,
light declining on the LDR is blocked and its resistance reaches high. Due to which IC1 pin 2
moves to the low state which also turns pin 6 into low state and this low is given to pin1 of
NI1.

This circuit uses I.C 555 which is connected as comparator to pin 6. Connected with
positive supply, the output goes high-1 when the trigger pin 2 is lower than 1/3 level of the
supply voltage. Conversely the output goes low, when its above 1/3 level. So a small change
in the voltage of pin 2 is enough to change the output of pin 3 from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. The
output has only two states high and low and cannot remain in any intermediate stage. The
circuit is economic in power consumption. Pin 4, 6 & 8 is connected to the positive supply
and pin 1 is grounded.
To detect the present of letter, we have used LDR and a source of light. The L.D.R,
most important part of this circuit, is a special type of resistance whose value depends on the
brightness of the light which is falling on it. It has a resistance of about 1 mega ohms when
in total darkness, but a resistance of only about 2-5 k ohms when brightly illuminated. The
resistance of L.D.R. is minimum when the light falling on is maximum and vice versa when
the light falling is minimum. The source of light and LDR is so adjusted in the letter box, that
the light will directly fall on the LDR. When a letter is kept inside, it will block the beam of
light and LDR will be under darkness.

2.2 Components description in detail

1) Resistors( 100k, 470, 470, 470)


A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act
to lower voltage levels within circuits. Resistors may have fixed resistances or variable
resistances, such as those found in thermistors, varistors, trimmers, photoresistors and
potentiometers. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the
resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:

Where,

I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference
measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in
units of ohms (symbol: ).
The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in
the circuit is called its resistance.

Fig 2.2(a): Resistors

2) LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source that resembles
a basic pn-junction diode, except that an LED also emits light. When an LED's anode
lead has a voltage that is more positive than its cathode lead by at least the LED's forward
voltage drop, current flows.

Electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the
form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light
(corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the
semiconductor.
Fig 2.2(b): Blue, Pure Green and Red LEDS

An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components
may be used to shape its radiation pattern. Appearing as practical electronic components in
1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are still
frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote
controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics.

The first visible-light LEDs were also of low intensity, and limited to red. Modern LEDs
are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high
brightness. Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps for electronic devices, replacing
small incandescent bulbs. They were soon packaged into numeric readouts in the form of
seven-segment displays, and were commonly seen in digital clocks. Recent developments in
LEDs permit them to be used in environmental and task lighting. LEDs have many
advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer
lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching.

3) LDR

A photoresistor or light-dependent resistor (LDR) or photocell is a light-controlled


variable resistor.

The resistance of a photoresistor decreases with increasing incident light intensity; in


other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. A photoresistor can be applied in light-sensitive
detector circuits, and light- and dark-activated switching circuits. A photoresistor is made of
a high resistance semiconductor. In the dark, a photoresistor can have a resistance as high as
a few megaohms (M), while in the light, a photoresistor can have a resistance as low as a
few hundred ohms. If incident light on a photoresistor exceeds a certain frequency, photons
absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the
conduction band.

Fig 2.2(c): Symbol of LDR

The resulting free electrons (and its hole partners) conduct electricity, thereby
lowering resistance. The resistance range and sensitivity of a photoresistor can substantially
differ among dissimilar devices. Moreover, unique photoresistors may react substantially
differently to photons within certain wavelength bands.

Fig 2.2(d): Components of LDR

10

A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. In the dark, a


photoresistor can have a resistance as high as a few megaohms (M), while in the light, a
photoresistor can have a resistance as low as a few hundred ohms. If incident light on a
photoresistor exceeds a certain frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give
bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. If incident light on a
photoresistor exceeds a certain frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give
bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. We have made a potential
divider circuit with LDR and 100 k ohm variable resistance connected in series. Voltage is
directly proportional to conductance; so more voltage is got by this divider when LDR gets
light and low voltage in darkness. Divided voltage is given to pin 2 of 555. As soon as LDR
is in darkness, the voltage of the pin 2 drops 1/3 of the supply voltage and pin 3 gets high,
the LED glows. LDR is connected to pin no 6 of IC-555.

4) IC555

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse
generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an
oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one
package.

Fig 2.2(e): IC 555

Introduced in 1971 by Signetics, the 555 is still in widespread use due to its ease of
use, low price, and stability. It is now made by many companies in the original bipolar and
also in low-power CMOS types. As of 2003, it was estimated that 1 billion units are
manufactured every year. Introduced in 1971 by Signetics, the 555 is still in widespread use
due to its ease of use, low price, and stability. It is now made by many companies in the
original bipolar and also in low-power CMOS types. As of 2003, it was estimated that 1
billion units are manufactured every year.

11
Fig 2.2(f): Block diagram of IC 555

5) Battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that


convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal,
or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the
electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.
Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode
materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline
battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary (rechargeable
batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the
electrodes can be restored by reverse current.

Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries
used for portable electronics. Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells
used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide
standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. According to a 2005
estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6%
annual growth. Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than
common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat mitigated by the fact that batteries deliver
their energy as electricity (which can be converted efficiently to mechanical work), whereas
using fuels in engines entails a low efficiency of conversion to work.
12

Fig 2.2(g): Batteries

Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy. A battery consists of


some number of voltaic cells. Each cell consists of two half-cells connected in series by a
conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations.

One half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode, the electrode to which
anions (negatively charged ions) migrate; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the
positive electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate. Redox reactions power
the battery. Cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode during charging, while
anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode during discharge. The electrodes do
not touch each other, but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Some cells use
different electrolytes for each half-cell.

6) Switch

A switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the
current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most familiar form of switch is a
manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts,
which are connected to external circuits. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states:
either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or
"open", meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is no conducting. The mechanism
actuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can be either a "toggle"
(flip switch for continuous "on" or "off") or "momentary" (push-for "on" or push-for "off")
type.

13

Fig 2.2(h): Switches

A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system,


such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light
switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for
example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine
tool is in a position to accept another work piece. Switches may be operated by process
variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in
a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a
temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch that is operated by
another electrical circuit is called a relay.

Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. Some


switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of
isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine
during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock. An ideal switch would have no voltage drop
when closed, and would have no limits on voltage or current rating. It would have zero rise
time and fall time during state changes, and would change state without "bouncing" between
on and off positions.

14

7) Connecting Wires
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to
bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly
formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire gauges come in
various standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term wire is also used
more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in 'multistranded wire', which is more
correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Wire comes in solid core,
stranded, or braided forms. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in
square, hexagonal, flattened rectangular or other cross-sections, either for decorative
purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers. Edge-
wound coil springs, such as the Slinky toy, are made of special flattened wire. Wire has many
uses. It forms the raw material of many important manufacturers, such as the wire netting
industry, engineered springs, wire-cloth making and wire rope spinning, in which it occupies
a place analogous to a textile fiber.

Wire-cloth of all degrees of strength and fineness of mesh is used for sifting and
screening machinery, for draining paper pulp, for window screens, and for many other
purposes. Vast quantities of aluminum, copper, nickel and steel wire are employed for
telephone and data cables, and as conductors in electric power transmission, and heating. It is
in no less demand for fencing, and much is consumed in the construction of suspension
bridges, and cages, etc. In the manufacture of stringed musical instruments and scientific
instruments wire is again largely used. Carbon and stainless spring steel wire have significant
applications for engineered strings for critical automotive or industrial manufactured
parts/components.

Among its other sources of consumption it is sufficient to mention pin and hairpin
making, the needle and fish-hook industries, nail, peg and rivet making, and carding
machinery; indeed there are few industries into which it does not enter. Not all metals and
metallic alloys possess the physical properties necessary to make useful wire. The metals
must in the first place be ductile and strong in tension, the quality on which the utility of wire
principally depends. The metals suitable for wire, possessing almost equal ductility, are
platinum, silver, iron, copper, aluminum and gold; and it is only from these and certain of
their alloys with other metals, principally brass and bronze, that wire is prepared .

15

2.3 Costing

PRICE
COMPONENTS

1) Resistors Rs.5

2) LEDS Rs.5

3) LDR Rs.10
4) IC 555 Rs.10
5) Battery Rs.25
6) Switch Rs.10

7) Connecting Wires Rs.10

TOTAL COST Rs.75

16
CHAPTER 3
DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT

17

3.1 Layout design

The designing of the layout of the PCB of the circuit of electronic letter box was done
using the software EXPRESS PCB. With the help of express PCB software the circuit
diagram was made and was verified whether it is working or not. The verification of the
circuit diagram, whether it is working or not was done with the help of Bred Board.

The PCB layout of the Electronic Letter Box is shown below-


Fig 3.1(a): PCB Layout

18

3.2 Etching
The Etching process is a process in which firstly the layout is printed on the PCB and
then the PCB is cleaned completely with the help of a solution and is made ready for the
soldering process. Following is the process of etching which includes the printing of the
circuit on the PCB and the cleaning of the PCB-

Set the timer of film making unit for 7 sec. Red light is on.
Put the butter film in the film-making unit.
After 7sec yellow light is glow. Light is transparent for white area.
Then we get the printed butter film.
Put above sheet in to a film developer unit for 7sec.then in to a
Developer, then in to a fixer, Fixer used to fix the circuit on the film.
And we get the negative film (black color).
Negative film is wash in to water.
Then this film is dry by dryer.
Scrub the copper plate & dry by the dryer.
Then dip the copper in to a dip coating machine. This dip coating
Machine is filling by ferric chloride.
Again plate is dry in to a dryer. Put the copper plate into the UV exposer machine with
negative film for 90 seconds. Put the PCB in the developer solution for 90 seconds. After that
dry the PCB for 1 min. Now we get the printed board.

Manual Printing

The mirror image of the pattern prepared should be carbon copied on to the copper
clad laminate with the help of sharp pencil or ball point pen and position of holes should be
marked carefully. Then with the help offline brush and enamel paint or nail polish, mark
track as copied previously. The commonly available silver pens may also be used for
marking thin lines and IC pin pads. Then the board is dried for at least four to six hours
before developing. With the help of manual printing proper copper gets inserted on the
circuit and is obtained.

Developing on PCB (Etching)


In this process, all excessive copper is removed from the copper clad Laminate and
only printed pattern is left behind. Developing (etching) is done in a solution of 75 degree
centigrade heated tap water and ferric chloride (FeCl3). Usually, 100 ml tap water added to
30 to 50 gm FeCl3.The mixer is thoroughly stirred, and a few drops of HCL may be added to
speed up the process.

19

The board with its copper side is facing upwards, should be placed in a
flat-bottomed plastic tray and the aqueous solution of FeCl3 poured. The etching process
would take 40 to 60 min to complete, depending upon the size of PCB.
The chemical reaction involved in etching process is:
FeCl3+ Cu= CuCl3+ Fe
After etching or developing of PCB, the board is washed under running water. The paint
should be removed with the help of alcohol or petrol.

Fig 3.2(a): Etching Process

3.3 Soldering
Soldering is the process of joining metal parts. It is necessary to use molten metal
called solder. The melting temperature of solder should be below that of metal joined so that
its surface is only wetted without melting. The solder binds the metals together by chemical
and physical Processes. Chemically solder reacts with a small part of each metal to be Joined
or soldered, thus forming a new compound.

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Physically the liquid Solder alloy then enters the exposed pores of the metals. Solder
on Cooling solidifies and forms a continuous metallic bond.

Solder
The most common type of solder used in electronics work is an ally consisting of
60% tin and 40% lead. This alloy is drawn in to hollow wire whose center is filled with flux.
This is known as rosin core solder.

Fluxes
The soldering process requires that the surface should be totally clear so that metal-to-
metal contact can be established. Most of the metals in air form an oxide film, which
prevents wetting. To maintain a clean surface flux is used.

Soldering Iron
With the help of a soldering iron sufficient heat is given to it so that it can easily melt
the solder and it can be easily applied to the components. Soldering iron is available in
various sizes, shapes and voltages.

Fig 3.3(a): Soldering Process


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CHAPTER 4
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
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4.1 Testing of project


The testing of the project Electronic Letter Box was done with the help of BRED
BOARD. All the connections were properly connected on the bred board and was verified
whether the circuit is working or not. The connections were done properly and the circuit
was found working which is as shown below-

Fig 4.1(a): Testing of the project on Bread Board


Fig 4.1(b): Final Output

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

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5.1 Features
The electronic letter box is very important in todays day-to-day life. The electronic
letter box consists of two types of resistors, an LDR, LEDs and the important role is played
by the main component IC 555.Every component in the electronic letter box circuit has its
own unique feature which makes the letter box extremely easy and efficient to use. To detect
the present of letter we have used LDR and a source of light. LDR is a special type of
resistance whose value depends on the brightness of the light which is falling on it. It has a
resistance of about 1 mega ohms when in total darkness, but a resistance
of only about 2-5 k ohms when brightly illuminated.

It responds to a large part of the light spectrum.


The source of light and LDR is so adjusted in the letter box that light will directly fall on the
LDR but when letter is kept inside then it will block the beam of light and LDR will be under
darkness. We have made a potential divider circuit with LDR and 100 K variable resistance
connected in series. Voltage is directly proportional to conductance so more voltage we will
get by this divider when LDR is getting light and low voltage in darkness. Divided voltage is
given to pin 2nd of 555. As soon as LDR gets dark the voltage of the pin 2 drops 1/3 of the
supply voltage and pin 3 gets high and LED glows.

We can also use two LED at output pin 3, for present LED 1 and for absent LED 2.
For this method one LED is connected as forward bias and other is connected as reverse bias
to indicate both high and low conditions. To limit the current of LED resistance is used in
series. For source light, use Red or White LED. For LED 2 and 3 you can use any other
color- green, red, yellow or blue. Operation of this circuit is very much easy, you just need to
install the LDR as well as LED at the different corners of the box so that LED light will
regularly fall on the LDR as a effect of it, device stay off since light beam is declining on
LDR and its resistance will low which in turn the IC1 pin 2 moves to high.

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5.2 Applications

The electronic letter box is very efficient and easy to use circuit which has its
application in daily life. If one wants to know whether there is a letter present or not inside
the letter box, Electronic letter box project can be of help. The Electronic letter box is a very
useful gadget for homes and offices. The circuit uses single Monolithic -555 in dual in line
plastic package and a few external components.

The main advantage of the letter box is we can find out the presence and absence of
letter inside the box without opening the box. Here light depending resistor (LDR) is used as
a sensor to detect the presence of letter. Thus this circuit solves the problem of going again
and again to the gate of the house to check-up whether a letter is there in the box or not. In
this circuit, two LEDs are used to indicate if any letter is present in the letter box or not.

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5.3 Future Scope

The electronic letter box is used very much in todays life because of its easy
working. This circuit uses a popular timer I.C which is 555. I.C 555 is connected as
comparator with pin 6 connected with positive supply, the output goes high-1 when the
trigger pin 2 is at lower than 1/3 level of the supply voltage. Conversely the output goes low-
0, when it is above 1/3 level. So small change in the voltage of pin 2 is enough to change the
output of pin 3 from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. The output has only two states high and low and
cannot remain in any intermediate stage.

It is power by 9V battery for portable use. The circuit is economic in power


consumption. Pin 4, 6&8 is connected to the positive supply and pin 1 is grounded. The
circuit which is explained below is been employed as an Electronic Letter Box. When letter
drop by someone into the letter box then the LED attached at the output stops blinking which
indicates that there is a letter in your letter box. To identify the presence of a letter in the box
we have connected a LDR as well as source of light. LDR is a special kind of resistor whose
action based on the intensity of light declining on it.

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5.4 Appendix
PCB Plate

Drilling Process

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CHAPTER 6
REFERENCES
29

6.1 References

electronicseasy.com

Magazines of Electronics for you

Electronics Devices & Circuits I . By A.P.Ghodse & U.A.Bakshi

Op-Amp and Linear Integrated Circuits. By Ramakant Gaikwad


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