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1) What is the relationship between water drum and super heater in regards to pressure?

On
average, what are the safety valve settings relative to each?

2) Name 8 considerations of installing an economizer?

3) What do the symbols S.M.A.E. mean in an ASME stamp?

4) Why are holes drilled in an impulse stage?

5) Air heaters are defined by their principle of operation. Name the two (2) types.

6) Name 3 ways to control Nox and describe?

7) How do power plants practice reduced fuel consumption?

8) What is Entropy?

9) How are electric boilers rated?

10) What is a BTU? What is the mechanical equivalent of heat?

11) What is boiler efficiency? What is thermal efficiency of an steam engine?

12) Where would find the pressure piping stamp on a steam header of a boiler that
requires two (2) stop valves located 50 feet apart?

13) What are the physical properties of steam?

14) What is saturated steam? What is superheated steam? Does one (1) pound of water
have the same heat units as one (1) pound of steam?

15) What are the minimum gauges you would use to start a condensing turbine? What
does an increase in 1st stage pressure indicate?

16) What readings would you get off of a typical flue gas analyzer?

17) Why is chloride indication in boiler water and feed water of importance?

18) Why do we have chemical treatment of feed water?

19) Why is it important to have foreign material removed from a boiler so as not to
impede the rapid heat transfer from tube to water?

1. Is radial clearance important on impulse turbine a reaction turbine why or


Why not?
2. Whats the First Law of Thermodynamics?

3. Specific heat of water, air

4. Explain stiff shaft turbine and flexible shaft turbine

5. 10,000,000 BTUs what are the environmental rules on a boiler firing fuel
oil

6. Over speed trip test on a large turbine driven pump

7. What are the requirements for a welding company to work in Mass?

8. Newtons Laws

9. Dulongs Formula problem.

10. Enthalpy of steam with 3% moisture 97% quality find in steam tables.

11. Thermal Conductivity definition and how is it shown in units

12. Before person enters boiler what do you need to do

13. Name 2 ways of balancing a turbine rotor. Explain one.

14. blow off tank given MAWP and length and width. What code does it
apply to

15.Critical pressure ratio explain

16. Vacuum leak on condenser what would you check first ?

SAFETY IN BOILER OPERATIONS

Explain everything you know about confined space.

Does the code of practices for confined space apply to steam boilers?

What are the potential hazards of confined space?

What are the atmospheric hazards in confined space?


What are the examples of confined space?

What are the examples of activities by authorized entrant persons in the steam boiler?

What are the minimum and maximum oxygen (O2) requirements in a confined space? Why?

What is the flammable gas commonly found in confined space?

Name the 3 principal types of boiler shutdown.NEW 2ND EDITION

In which cases or reasons must a boiler be shutdown immediately? Give 3 examples. NEW 2ND
EDITION

What steps should be taken in case an emergency fuel trip occurs in the pulverized coal-fired
boiler? NEW 2ND EDITION

What safety precautions must be taken before allowing a man to enter the boiler for repairs?

What are the precautions to observe when testing a gage glass?

What are the safety precautions during boiler operation?

What are the safety precautions during boiler overhauls or repairs?

What safety precautions must be taken before and after entering the boiler for repairs or
cleaning?

When stationing a man outside for safety how long should he stay there?

What is PPE?

Can PPE prevent accident?

What are types of PPE and state their applications

What are the guidelines to follow before preparing chemicals for boiler water treatment?

Suppose the glass of water gage should break discharging water and steam into the room,
what would you do?
NEW 2ND
Should you attempt to raise the safety valve in order to diminish the steam pressure?
EDITION

What would you do if the safety valve will not seat?

You walk into the boiler room and observe that there is no water in the gauge glass. What is
your next action?

What is your action for a low water level emergency?

The boiler drum pressure gage reading is beyond the MWAP. What do you do?

You hear the boiler vibrating? What do you do?

What is your emergency response plan if you notice low water due to tube failure?

In case of tube failure results in loss of water so great that the water level cannot be
maintained with the feed water supply, the procedures are:

What can cause high water in boiler?

What can cause low water in boiler?

What can cause boiler high pressure?

If the boiler feed water pump is operating and the water level in the boiler is not rising, what
is the best thing to do? Can you increase the speed of the feed water pump for more water
volume?

If a boiler was very low on water and showed signs of overheating, should you fill it with
water to cool it down?

You observe steam leaking from the flange of the main stop valve. What is your next action?

You observe the gage glass is full of water (water line is no longer visible), what is the high
water level emergency?

BOILER INSPECTION
What are the purposes of regular inspection by the machinery inspector?

How should a boiler be prepared for inspection?

What are the documents that you should prepare before inspection by the authorized boiler
inspector?
During the inspection by the boiler inspector, what are your roles as a steam engineer?

Describe how tubes are cleaned in a firetube boiler.

How do you clean combustion chambers or furnaces?

What is the frequency of tube cleaning of a fire-tube boiler?

How do you check for pitting corrosion during inspection?

What light is preferred in internal inspection? What are the precautions?

Why a boiler should not be drained while the fireside is hot?

For what should the Inspector check in examining the waterside of a boiler?

For what should the Inspector check in examining the fireside of a boiler?

For what should the Inspector check in examining the external fittings and mounting?

When inspecting or evaluating the condition of a boiler, what items must be given highest
priority?

Generally, what are the precautions when cleaning boilers for inspection?

Hammer testing can be used as supplement to visual inspection. Explain what can be
achieved and how to do the test? NEW 2ND EDITION

Your company is buying a second-hand firetube boiler and asked you to survey the boiler
inside and out (condition assessment). How would you proceed? Where would you look for
defects?

BOILER FAILURES
What causes thick-lip stress rupture of a boiler tube?

What causes thin-lip stress rupture of a boiler tube?

Besides overheating, what other factors can cause plain tubes failure?

Is tube burst is a common failure in fire-tube boilers?

What is water starvation of plain tubes and what are the common causes?

What can cause tube bulging in water-tube boilers? How do you prevent this from
happening?

What are the common causes of overheating?

What is flame impingement on tubes, and how does it happen in sold-fuel boiler?

What is creep and at what temperature creep becomes a consideration?

Why prolonged operation with leaking tubes (minor leaks) is not recommended?

What are the causes of superheater tubes failure?

What can cause steam starvation in superheater tube?

How can deposits build up in superheater tubes?

What is porosity and how would you describe it? Is pinhole on weldment dangerous?

What is the difference between a bulge and a blister and explain what each of them is?

Can a tube burst in a fire-tube boiler?

What is the cause of the tube to sag and where it is common to find tube sagging?

What are the normal problems associated with steam drum?

Give examples of typical failures in steam drum.

Cracks may develop on the tube-plates of multi-tubular boilers. What are the possible causes
of these cracks?

What is fire crack and should fire cracks be repaired?

What is thermal shock?

What is the difference between thermal fatigue and thermal shock?

Give an example of failure due to thermal shock.


What is the condition conducive to thermal shock in a steam boiler?

Which is more susceptible to thermal shock, thin metal or thick metal plate?

How to prevent thermal shock?

Explain what an implosion on a boiler is, and why this would happen?

What causes furnace explosion?

How to avoid furnace explosion?

In a recent dangerous occurrence case, a packaged firetube boiler exploded and from the
initial investigation done, it is suspected that the explosion was due to either low water and /
or flame impingement. Based on an engineering standpoint, describe the possible scenario
for both cases, leading to such an explosion. NEW 2ND EDITION

What causes thermal stress? NEW 2ND EDITION

Fatigue failure is encountered very frequently in engineering. Write a short account on the
statement. NEW 2ND EDITION

NEW
What is a common defect at the edges of a handhole? Give cause, prevention and repair?
2ND EDITION

Define fatigue life, Nf and differentiate between low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue material
failure. NEW 2ND EDITION

Give five (5) preventive measures that may be taken to extend fatigue life. NEW 2ND EDITION

NEW 2ND EDITION


How are fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and fatigue limit defined?

After a regular inspection conducted on a firetube boiler, the safe working pressure (SWP) for
the boiler was reduced by 30%. Describe the various actions that you will take to comply
with the new SWP. NEW 2ND EDITION
How fuel can enter the furnace in unburned state?

How boiler overloads can damage boilers?

What causes vibration, and can vibration cause failure to boilers?

What do you understand by boiler failure due to external loading?

Describe the various possible scenarios that may lead to the collapse of a plain furnace in a
solid-fuel boiler.

Recommend the methods to prevent furnace walls from failure.

What are the causes of failure in steam headers? How to assess the extent of damage

What is the typical cause of failure in deaerator?

What is the common failure of an economizer?

Are deposits between the tube fins in an economizer dangerous?

How water vapor is formed in the flue gas?

Describe whether the composition of the fuel burnt in the boiler furnace has an influence on
the dew point of the flue gas.

In case of oil-fired boilers, can you avoid acid dewpoint in economizer by raising the exit flue
gas temperature?

BOILER REPAIRS

Repairs refer to restoration or replacement of pressure retaining items of the boiler proper and do not include
other maintenance activities associated with the operation of the boiler. What is boiler proper?

What is the definition of repair to a boiler and how repairs are classified?

What is the definition of alteration of a boiler?

Give few examples of alterations to boilers?

Who must authorize repairs?

What are the typical types of boiler repairs?

What are several methods of boiler tube repairs? Does any of the method of repair require Authorized
Inspectors approval?

What is the classification of pressure vessels for welding? Steam boiler is classified in which category?

Give three (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW).
Describe briefly gas welding, brazing, tungsten-inert gas welding, and plasma arc welding. Give two (2)
reasons why post weld heat treatment is required in certain circumstances.

Can an unqualified welder weld on any part of the boiler proper?

If a welder is qualified to repair a tube, does it make him qualified for other welds on the boiler?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG)? Why TIG is used in root-
penetration welding?

What is manual shielded arc welding and why this method of welding suitable for boiler repairs

How do you know if the welding company is qualified to do welding on a boiler?

How do welders become qualified?

What NDE is required for welded repairs?

What are WPS and PQR in qualifying welders?

What are the positions that a welder can qualify?

Give some general guidelines on repair procedure using welding?

At what temperature shall a metal be preheated before welding?

Why PWHT is important after welding?

How PWHT is carried out?

Lack of fusion is one of the geometric imperfections in case of fusion welding. Please list down the types of
lack of fusion. NEW 2ND EDITION

Give the explanation about the description, causes and prevention of one of the type lack of fusion that you have
listed. NEW 2ND EDITION

What is meant by the term lack of fusion, lack of penetration and slag inclusions? How are
they caused and how should such conditions be remedied? NEW 2ND EDITION

What is submerged arc welding? NEW 2ND EDITION

When a joint is welded from one side only, can it be considered the equivalent to a double
welded but joint? NEW 2ND EDITION

Give the description of one of the geometric imperfections in case of fusion welding which is
known as undercut. NEW 2ND EDITION
List down three (3) causes of undercut and explain how to prevent it. NEW 2ND EDITION

How do you repair undercut? NEW 2ND EDITION

What is a backing strip as used in metallic welding? NEW 2ND EDITION

What are some common welding defects? Explain in details and include sketch in your
answers.

What should be done prior to welding the second side of a double butt weld?

In boiler construction, what is the maximum permitted undercut in welding?

Sketch and give the definition of the below type of joint: butt joint, T-joint, and lap joint

Give examples of some welding preparation in SMAW for butt joint.

What is 6G-position in welding? What are other positions in groove welding that you are
familiar with?

Why weld joints are inspected? Sketch fillet weld and groove weld. Include nomenclature of
welds in your answers.

Where welding is to be carried out in both the downhand and overhand position, the larger V
or U preparation should be arranged for the downhand position. Why?

Why low-hydrogen electrode must be used in welding boilers?

Give an example of a low-hydrogen electrode, and what do you understand by the code for
the electrode?

What is the relationship between ASME Section IX and AWS? Which code should be used to
weld pressure vessel and piping?

What is the method of inspection to check failed tubes?

Besides visual examination, what is the quick NDE to assess the condition of tubes?

What are the preferred NDE for steam drums?

How do you remove a damaged tube in a watertube boiler?

How do you install new tubes (after the damaged tubes were removed) in a watertube boiler?
How to operate the expander? Include sketch in your answer.

Does beading the fire tube give holding power to the tube?

Describe in details the procedures to remove the defective tubes and renew the tubes in
firetube boilers?

If boiler re-tubing did not involve any welding, is hydrostatic test still required?

How do you plug burst generating tubes (water tube boiler) and what are the precautions?

Why is it necessary to drill a hole on a plugged tube?

Can superheater tubes be plugged?

What are the tubes that cannot be plugged?

If you noticed visually that there is a surface bruise on one of the waterwall tubes, should you
replace the tube?

On visual inspection, you found that one of the waterwall tubes is dented, but there in no
leak. Should you change the tube?

When expanding a fire tube into a tubesheet how do you know when it is tight?

Can a plain tube in fire-tube boiler be re-expanded if leaking?

Illustrate using suitable diagrams how water tubes are attached to the steam drum, the mud
drum, and the headers. State the precautions that need to be taken during tube attachment
process.

Why do the rear ends of tubes on a high-temperature boiler leak in case of low water?

In firetube boiler, what are the usual causes of crack, and where are the locations?

The rear tube plate of a firetube boiler leaked after the fuel is changed from MFO to natural
gas. What could be the cause?

What are the guidelines for tube repairs for water-cooled tubes (generating tubes, economizer
tubes, furnace wall) or furnace and shell walls?

What are the guidelines for tube repairs for steam-cooled tubes (superheaters, re-heaters)?

How would you repair a burst tube in a HRT boiler if there were not enough time to change
to a new tube?

How would know if you had a broken stay bolt?

How should stay bolts be examined and tested?


Can broken stay be welded and reused?

What are the three (3) methods of detecting the cracks?

Can you repair a ligament crack on a firetube boiler? Outline the repair procedures

What cracks may not be repaired?

Recommend the measures required to be taken in order to prevent recurrence (cracking of


ligament).

What causes cracked tube plates? How is this defect repaired?

Where are the areas where cracks are most likely to appear?

What is 6G position in welding and why 6G-position is used in qualifying welder for
boilermaker?

Where are the potential crack locations in a firetube boiler? Discuss the causes of the cracks
in details.

Where flame cutting or overheating has occurred, why it is important to do hardness plots
(destructive test)?

May a bulge on a plate be driven back?

Describe in detail the proposal that you will make to repair the bulge on shell of a HRT
boiler. Reference should be made to statutory requirement in the proposal.

A tube has a small bulge at one portion and the rest of the tube is still in good condition. In
addition, the circumference of the tube is hard to access. Can flush patch be done on the tube?
If yes, outline the repair procedure.

A portion of a tubesheet is wasted due to corrosion. After the judgment by the Inspector, the
wasted area can be repaired. Outline the procedures for repair.

Outline the procedures to repair blister.

In the mud drum, there is a metal chip-off (dented) about 3 mm in depth and the mud drum
shell thickness is 31.75 mm due to manufacturing defect. Outline the steps to repair the dent.

From ultrasonic thickness test, you have found that a portion of boilerplate of outer shell has
worn thin due to corrosion. The plate thickness is now 0.5 inch while the original thickness
is 0.8 inch. How would you assess the extent of damage and decide whether to continue or
discontinue the boiler operation? The inside diameter of the shell is 84 inches. The MAWP of
the boiler is 155 psig and the boilerplate for the shell is SA-192.

List typical refractory firebricks used in boilers.

What is monolithic refractory and give the examples of the most frequently used monolithic
refractories in boiler furnaces.

Describe how to replace castable lining in a boiler. State all the precautions.

Upon inspection, you notice some hairline and minor cracks on the castable refractory. Do
you need to patch the cracks?

How do you patch cracks on castable refractory with high-temperature bonding mortar? Is
there any other method to repair the cracks?

Describe the various possible scenarios that may lead to the collapse of a plain furnace in a
fire-tube boiler.

Describe how to replace refractory brick in a boiler.

For solid fuel boilers, is it necessary to remove slag from the surface of refractory?

What is castable and where is castable used in boiler furnace?

Suppose that one of a set of boilers does not get the proper amount of feed, although the
check valve is sufficiently open; what might cause this trouble?

BOILER CORROSION
What are the major corrosion problems in boiler?

What is the impact of corrosion to boiler steel parts?

What is meant by wet corrosion and dry corrosion?

Describe and distinguish between chemical and electrolytic corrosion, which normally
occur in a steam boiler.

What are some of the fireside corrosions and explain in detail.

What is pitting corrosion?

Is oxygen pitting dangerous?

What is high temperature corrosion?

Describe oxygen attack on boilers.


Describe electrochemical process of oxygen attack.

Describe the effect of temperature on corrosion in boiler.

What are the methods to control corrosion pitting in the boiler?

What is meant by stress corrosion? Where it is likely to occur in a boiler? Write a short note
on how to prevent such a defect. NEW 2ND EDITION

Relate unexpected failure of steam boiler with regard to stress corrosion cracking. NEW 2ND
EDITION

Describe the principle of cathodic protection. NEW 2ND EDITION

Cathodic protection can be achieved by the use of galvanic (sacrificial) anodes or by


impressed current. Describe the two ways. NEW 2ND EDITION

Make a comparison between anodic and cathodic protection. NEW 2ND EDITION

What are the four (4) factors affecting corrosion resistance of a metal? NEW 2ND EDITION

What is the harmful effect of metal corrosion to a boiler shell? NEW 2ND EDITION

Internal and external corrosion usually take place in a vertical-tubular boiler. Explain and
state the areas where internal and external corrosion take place. NEW 2ND EDITION

What is the difference between low-temperature corrosion and high-temperature corrosion?


Give examples.
What are the conditions in boiler that promote caustic cracking to occur?
Describe how steam blanketing contributes to the development of caustic corrosion.

Describe how porous metal oxide contributes to the development of caustic corrosion.

What are the methods of preventing caustic cracking (embrittlement)?

What is galvanic corrosion?

What is the difference between corrosion and erosion?

What is erosion corrosion?

What is exfoliation corrosion?

What is hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC)?

What is water-wall corrosion in boiler?

What is cold end corrosion and how does it affect a boiler air heater, economizer and stack?

What is stress corrosion cracking (SCC)?

What are the differences between SCC and HIC?

Explain how concentration of caustic (NaOH) occurs during boiler operation.

In examining a package fire tube boiler, identify the areas or places where corrosion, pitting,
and bulge are likely to occur. Explain the possible causes of such defects and suggest how
such occurrence can be prevented.

What is after-boiler corrosion?

Where is internal corrosion most likely to occur in a vertical tube boiler and a locomotive
boiler?

What is the difference between macroscopic corrosion and microscopic corrosion? Give
examples for each type of corrosion.

What are the common process variables that influence corrosion?

What is the relationship between corrosion and scaling?

What is uniform corrosion?

What is crevice corrosion? Explain three (3) different ways of controlling or preventing
crevice corrosion.

Explain what do you understand by the term Dew Point?


What is likely to occur if the flue gas temperature is too low?

How corrosion attacks economizer? How do you prevent corrosion attack in an economizer?

Combustion & Control

What are the most important factors influencing the combustion process?

What if any of these factors is not correct?


How do you determine whether the combustion in a boiler is with too little air or excess air,
or good combustion, just by looking at the stack (chimney)?
Your boilers flue gas temperature went up. Give reasons for this.
Discuss need of providing excess air for combustion. What is the disadvantage of providing
too much of excess air.

Does excess air in combustion affect boiler efficiency?

How do you calculate the percentage of excess air?

What is the excess air required when burning natural gas? Why excess air is required in
combustion?

What is the excess air required when burning fuel oil? Why excess air is required in
combustion?

What are the causes of incomplete combustion of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels?

What is the composition of natural gas?

What are the properties of medium fuel oil (MFO)?

What is the percentage of CO2 if burned in natural gas?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of natural gas compared with fuel oil?

Why does combustion efficiency of natural gas lower than for fuel oil?

What are the important characteristics to be considered when selecting fuel oil for a steam
boiler? NEW 2ND EDITION
What are the 3Ts of combustion? NEW 2ND EDITION

If too much fuel is supplied and not enough oxygen, what is the shape of the flame? NEW 2ND
EDITION

If excess oxygen is supplied to the combustion, what would the shape of the flame be? NEW 2ND
EDITION

What is the effect of water in fuel? NEW 2ND EDITION

What is the harmful effect of sulfur? NEW 2ND EDITION

Explain what do you understand by minimum air and excess air in the context of fuel
combustion? NEW 2ND EDITION

What is heavy fuel oil and explain the possible causes of emission of heavy black smoke
during boiler operation using heavy oil as fuel. NEW 2ND EDITION

Name and explain three (3) types of gas pilot ignition for industrial boilers? NEW 2ND EDITION

Explain how can a burner igniter malfunction cause an explosion? NEW 2ND EDITION

Explain a safe soot blowing method to prevent furnace explosions. NEW 2ND EDITION

What is the dry composition of the flue gas?

What is stoichiometric combustion?


What is fully automatic burner?

What are the features every fully automatic burner should have?

What is a semi-automatic burner?

What are the features every semi-automatic burner should have?

What is the equation of combustion for MFO?

What is the equation of combustion for Natural Gas?

What is pulverized coal and fluidized bed?

What is the equation of combustion for Natural Gas? How much CO2 and H2O is released if
1 kg of natural gas burned? How much combustion air is required?

What do you find in flue gas analysis? Explain

What is NOx and what effect does NOx have to the environment?

What is the most reliable means of analyzing flue gas? Describe its function.

Which is the more reliable indicator of excess air, CO2 or O2? Give your reason.

What is the difference between flash point and fire point?

What is Pensky-Martens apparatus?

What is closed flash point and what is the minimum temperature of flash point of any fuel
fired in a steam boiler, and why?

Why is the knowledge of flash point important?

What is the flash point of natural gas and is natural gas more dangerous than fuel oil in term
of flash point?

For fuel oil and NG combustion, natural gas such as methane or butane is used for a pilot.
Give two reasons gas is used for a pilot?

When firing boiler from cold, when steam is still not available, how would you atomize the
oil?

Why it is not recommended to open the damper wide during lighting off boiler?

Why is it necessary to ensure the damper at minimum firing position before firing?

What is the purpose of diffuser plate (or impeller plate) in a burner? Are burner register and
diffuser are the same?

What is burner turndown ratio?

Is burner with high turndown ratio good?

List the safety devices used with an automatic combustion control.

What does the term ramp rate on boilers mean?

What are the three ways to control combustion output?

What are the types of oil burners used in modern boilers?

What are three ways to atomize oil?

Describe the steam-atomizing burner in detail.

Describe the pressure-jet (Mechanical pressurized atomizing) burner.

What difficulties can be affected with water in fuel oil?

Describe the rotary-cup (rotary-atomizing) burner.

What is the maintenance required to oil burners?

What is a flame failure indicating device, and what are the three most commonly used flame
scanners?

What is the function of a flame detector? How do you maintain the photocell to perform
satisfactorily?

Between ultraviolet and infrared (IR) flame scanners, which is most frequently used and
why?

What are the types of gas burners used in modern boilers?

What is the difference between rotary soot blower and retractable soot blower?

There are 2 types of soot blowers, stationary and retraction. Where would you install the
stationary and where would you install the retraction soot blower in a watertube boiler?

What is soot?

Why is soot blow important?

How do you operate soot blower?

Why is it important to have soot blower for superheater tubes?


Why is it important to have soot blower for superheater tubes?

What is the harmful effect of sulfur in a fuel?

What is the harmful effect of vanadium in a fuel?

How do you manually clean soot from the firetube boiler, and how often?

Can soot blowing cut tubes?

What is the frequency for soot blower?

What are the designs of soot blowers?

Describe precautions to be taken when using soot blower.

What is sonic soot blower? What is the advantage of sonic soot blowers used in boilers or
economizers?

What is flame-brushing?

How does a smoke density meter work?

What functions does draft play in the combustion of fuel?

Name and explain three types of draft.

What do you understand by balanced draft?

Why must the draft be carefully controlled?

Show the installation of force-draft fan in solid fuel boiler

Show the installation of force-draft fan in liquid/gas boiler.

What is the sequence of stopping the draft fan?

Have you heard about clinkers in solid-fuel boiler? How do you prevent clinkers from
happening?

What are the HEAT losses on a boiler? Name seven and explain each loss.

What are the factors to consider when calculating steam cost dollar per ton product?

The unit price of natural gas (Gas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.) is expressed in Sm3 while the gas flow
meters read in Nm3, and household consumption is in m3. What is the difference between m3,
Sm3 and Nm3?
STEAM TURBINE: COMMON FAQ'S DURING ORAL EXAMINATION

What is the definition of a steam turbine?

What is the essential distinguishing feature between a steam turbine and the reciprocating
steam engine?

What are six (6) advantages of steam turbines over reciprocating steam engines?

What is the operating principle of a reaction turbine?

What is the operating principle of an impulse turbine?

What are the differences between impulse and reaction turbines?

What is an extraction steam turbine?

What is a back-pressure steam turbine?

What is exhaust steam turbine?

What is the cause of turbine deposits?

What types of deposits are formed on steam turbine blades?


How can the deposits be removed?

How does deposit formation on turbine blades affect turbine efficiency and how to prevent
turbine deposition?

What are the consequences of turbine depositions?

What could be possible problems encountered from starting up steam turbine from cold?

What is desuperheater and how does desuperheater protect steam turbines when starting from
cold?

What does the term ramp rate mean?

Nozzles are fitted to some types of turbines. What is the object of the nozzles? Name any
turbines with nozzles.

What is meant by critical speed?

What are the main causes of turbine vibration?

List down all possible factors which may cause a turbine rotor to vibrate.

What are the factors that contribute to bearing failure in a steam turbine?

With reference to steam turbine, describe the operation of lifting the casing and rotor. What
attention does the rotor require before replacing? What precautions are taken to prevent injury
to the blade? After replacing, what precautions are taken?
How many governors are needed for safe turbine operation? Why?

What is the safe maximum tripping speed of a turbine operating at 2500 rpm?

What are two types of clearance in a turbine?

What all the precautions and observations required to be taken for a steam turbine during
bringing it on line?

What all the precautions and observations required to be taken for a steam turbine during in
operation?

List the contents of a typical steam turbine logbook and indicate whether problems can be
detected from the entries of the logbook.

What are the causes of erosion in turbine blades? Suggest measures that can be taken to
prevent this deterioration.

How is the rotor for a turbine balanced during construction? What is the object of balancing
the rotor? What practical effect might occur due to an unbalanced rotor revolving at a high
speed?

What metals are used for turbine blades?

In opening up a turbine, what inspection would you make and what defects would you expect
to find?

What is the remedy of the damage to blade profiles?


What are two types of clearance in a turbine?

Why should a steam or moisture separator be installed in the steam line next to a steam
turbine?

What are some conditions that may prevent a turbine from developing full power?

Why could a turbine wheel become unbalanced?

Why is it necessary to open casing drains and drains on the steam line going to the turbine
when a turbine is to be started?

Besides lubrication, which are two functions of lubricating oil in some turbines?

What are the factors of blade failure?

How will you detect that misalignment is the probable cause of excessive vibration?