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Project Report on Waste Water Treatment

A project report on waste water treatment. This project

report will help you to learn about: 1. Introduction to Waste
Water Treatment 2. Basic Parameters in Waste Water
Characterisation 3. Biochemical Characteristics 4. Stages 5.
Domestic Waste Water Treatment 6. Wastewater Discharged
7. Chemical Specifications 8. Classification of Treatment
Methods for Industrial Waste.

1. Project Report on Introduction to Waste Water Treatment
2. Project Report on Basic Parameters in Waste Water Characterisation
3. Project Report on the Biochemical Characteristics of Waste Water
4. Project Report on the Stages of Waste Water Treatment
5. Project Report on Domestic Waste Water Treatment
6. Project Report on Wastewater Discharged
7. Project Report on the Chemical Specifications of Waste Water
8. Project Report on the Classification of Treatment Methods for
Industrial Waste

Project Report # 1. Introduction to Waste Water

The composition of municipal waste water varies from place to place.
Sometimes industrial wastes also mix with sewage. The type of
treatment of waste water thus depends upon its characteristics and the
desired quality of water after treatment.

The purpose of waste water treatment is to remove/reduce organic

and inorganic substances, nutrients toxic substances kill pathogenic
organisms etc. so that the quality of discharged water is improved to
meet the permissible level of water to be discharged in some water
body, on land or agricultural field.


Treatment of water thus aims at reduction of BOD, COD,

eutrophication, etc. of receiving water bodies and prevention of bio-
magnification of toxic substances in food chain and prevention of
disease due to pathogenic organisms present in the waste water.

Project Report # 2. Basic Parameters in Waste Water

i. Sources information:
Sources information for the individual points of origin waste
components, individually or at least by classes, rate of discharge
during production run (average and maximum). Periodic discharges
due to batch operation. Duration and frequency of production runs.
Susceptibility to emergency discharges or spills.

ii. Chemical Composition:

Organic and inorganic components, by compounds or classes.

Gross organics: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic

Carbon (TOC), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), extractable.

Specific problems ions (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, CN, Hg, Pb, Se, Ag, NO 3)
Specific problem organics, e.g. phenol, certain pesticides, benzidine,
polychlorinated bio-phenyls, certain poly-nuclear aromatics.

Total dissolved salts


pH, acidity, alkalinity

Nitrogen and phosphorus.

Oils and greases (extractables)

Oxidizing or reducing agents (.e.g., sulphides) Surfactants


Chlorine demand.

iii. Biological Effects:

Biochemical oxygen demand

Toxicity (aquatic life, bacteria, mammals, plants) Pathogenic bacteria.

iv. Physical Properties:

Temperature range and distribution

Insoluble components: colloidal, settleable, floatable


Foam ability


v. Flow Data for Total Discharge:

Average daily flow rate

Duration and level of maximum flow rate

Maximum rate of change of flow rate.

Project Report # 3. Biochemical Characteristics of

Waste Water Treatment:
Suspended solids are determined by filtering suitable aliquot of
sample through a previously weighed sintered grooch crucible and
drying the crucible in an oven at 103 105C to constant weigh. The
difference in the initial and final weight of the curcible gives SS
content, mg/1.

i. Settleable Solids:
Allowing 1 litre of the sample to settle for about 1 hr at 20C in an 1 ra
cone. The volume of settleable matter in the tapered conical tube is
recorded as ml/1. The settleable solids may be expressed in mg/1 also.

Total solids:
Determined by evaporating a known volume of the waste water sample
and drying the residue for 24 hrs. in oven at 103-105C. Followed by
weighing. This gives the total solids content of the sample which
comprises the dissolved as well as suspended solids.

Filterable solid. Organic and Inorganic Solid.

Dissolved oxygen:
The D.O. content of a water sample is measured codes metrically by
the modified Wrinklers method.

Oxygen present in the sample oxidize in divalent mass generation its

higher valency with precipitates as a brown hydrates, oxides after
addition of NaOH and KI upon acidification manganese reverts to
divalent state and liberate iodine from KI equivalent to DO content of
the sample which is titrated against 1 standard N/80 solution of
sodium thiosulphate using starch as an indicator.

Interference due to nitrate can be eliminated by adding sodium azide

to the alkelene potassium iodide solution.

The D.O. is usually expressed as mg/1 or ppm.

This is measured by D.O. oxy-meter

ii. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.):

Micro-organisms can utilize organic substance as food and oxides
them to obtain energy for their life process. Some bacteria are also
capable to utilize, reduce inorganic substance such as Fe2+, S2-and
NH3 to obtain energy.
In the biological degradation of sewage and other wastes (caused by
various types of living organisms or bacteria) organic matter is
converted into fragments consisting of acetic acid. When sufficient
oxygen is present such as in aerobic system. Oxygen is reduced while
the organic matter is oxidised into CO2 and water.
When sufficient amount of oxygen is not available i.e., anoxic
conditions prevail, organic matter is oxidised by using nitrate as an
electron acceptor.

When oxygen is absent i.e., anaerobic conditions exist SO 42 , PO43and

CO2 whatever available acts as electron acceptor and get reduced to
H2S, HS (Mercaptons-rotten eggs smell), PH3, CH4.

The amount of oxygen required by a mixed population of micro-

organisms on oxidising organic matter present in a sample, under
strictly aerobic conditions, is generally known as B.O.D., and is
directly related to the extent of pollution (by sewage or other oxygen-
demanding wastes).

The rate of bacterial oxidation at any instant is proportional to the

amount of the oxygen-demanding waste left at the instant, i.e., this
reaction follows first order reaction and theoretically will be
completed in infinite time.

However, it has been observed that about 70 80% of the total B.O.D.
is exerted in first 5 days. The sample is therefore incubated for 5 days
at 20C and the B.O.D. values determined are reported as B.O.D. A
polluted sample may consume more oxygen in 5 days than present in
water (nearly 9 mg/1 at 20C). Hence before analysis it is diluted with
a specially prepared Dilution Water.

The dilution water is prepared by passing air in distilled water for 1 2

days so as to make it saturated by dissolved oxygen. In one liter of this
1 ml each of phosphate buffer MgCl2, CaCl2 and FeCl3 are mixed. The
sample so diluted is taken in two bottles. The D.O. of one is
determined immediately and that of the other after 5 days incubation.
The B.O.D. of the sample is then calculated by

where D1= D.O. of the sample in mg/l at the start of the experiment
D2 = D.O. of the sample in mg/1 after 5 days
A = ml of the sample before dilution

B = ml of the sample after dilution.

Measurement of D.O. content of the sample before or after in

combustion at 20C for 5 days or glutonic BOD at 27C for 3 days. If
the sample does not contain any oxygen, it is supplied with oxygen and
the depletion caused is calculated as the B.O.D. measurement.
Microbial organisms or seed may also have to provided B.O.D. is
expressed in mg/1.

iii. Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D.):

The C.O.D. is usually defined as the amount of oxygen used while
oxidizing the organic matter content of a sample with a strong
chemical oxidant under acidic conditions.

The organic matter in the sample is related as the oxygen

required (C.O.D.) in accordance with equation:

In C.O.D. determination the organic matter is completely oxidised to

CO2 and H2O, the C.O.D. values are greater than B.O.D. values which
represent the amount of oxygen that bacteria require for stabilizing
biologically oxidisable matter.
The C.O.D. tests are performed with the same objectives as those of
B.O.D. test. C.O.D. test results are obtained in 5 hours whereas B.O.D.
results are obtained in 5 days. In comparison to B.O.D., there is least
interference in C.O.D. test.

Chemical oxygen demand is the amount of oxygen consumed under

specified condition in the oxidation of organic and oxidisable
inorganic matter connected for the influence of chlorides.

When the waste water aliquot of the sample is refluxed with a known
excess of oxidizing agent potassium dichromate in the 50% sulphuric
acid solution in the presence of AgSO4. Silver sulphate as catalyst and
mercuric sulphide.
The organic matter of the aliquot sample is oxidized to water, CO 2and
ammonia. The excess dichromate remaining unreacted in the solution
water standard solution of 0.1 N ferrous ammonium sulphate.

Where V1 and V2 are the volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate run

down in the blank and test experiments.
One sample volume of the sample taken for the test.

Project Report # 4. Stages of Waste Water Treatment:

Waste water, whether domestic or industrial have several undesirable
components, the organic and inorganic pollutants that are potentially
harmful to the environment and human health. The treatment of
waste water and its proper management has become a necessity in
order to conserve this vital resource.

The main aim of waste water treatment is the removal of contaminants

from water so that the treated water can be reused for beneficial
purposes. The waste water treatment is carried out in three stages:
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary or advanced waste treatment.

i. Primary Treatment:
Waste water, contains a wide variety of solids of various shapes, sizes
and densities. The primary treatment is of general nature and is used
for removing suspended solids, odour, colour and to neutralize the
high or low pH in the case of industrial effluents.

This stage exploits the physical or chemical properties of the

contaminants and removes the suspended and floating matter by
screening, sedimentation, floatation, filtration, precipitation etc.

(i) Screening:
Screening devices are used to remove coarse solids from waste water.
Coarse solids consist of sticks, rags, boards and other large objects that
often and inexplicably, find their way into waste water collection

Because the primary purpose of screens is to protect pumps and other

mechanical equipment and to prevent clogging of valves and other
appurtenances in the waste water plant, screening is normally the first
operation performed on the incoming waste water.

Waste water screens are classified as coarse or fine, depending on

their construction. Coarse screens usually consist of Vertical bars
spaced 20-60 mm apart and inclined away from the incoming flow.
Solids retained by the bare are usually removed by manual raking in
small plants, while mechanically cleaned units are used in larger

Fine screening (10-20 mm) consist of woven-wire cloth or perforated

plates mounted on rotating disk or drum partially submerged in the
flow, or on travelling belt. Fine screens should be mechanically
cleaned on a continual basis.

The quantity of solids removed by screening depends on screen-

opening size. Screened solid are coated with organic material of a very
objectionable nature and should be promptly disposed-off to prevent a
health hazard and/or nuisance condition. Disposal in a sanitary land
fill, grinding and returning to the waste water flow, and incineration
are the most common disposal practices.

(ii) Comminuting:
As mentioned above screenings are sometimes shredded and returned
to the waste water flow. A hammer mill device is most often used for
this purpose. Most often; a shredding device called a comminutor is
located across the flow path and intercepted the coarse solids and
shreds them to approx. 0.8 mm in size. These solids remain in the
waste water.
Many kinds of comminutes are available. Basic parts include a screen
and cutting teeth. The screen may be a slotted drum that rotates in the
vertical plane. Stationary teeth then shred material that is intercepted
by the screen.

Other types use as stationary semi-circular screen and rotating or

oscillating cutting teeth. Another device, called a barminutor, uses a
vertical bars screen with a cutting head that travels up and down, the
rack of bars, shredding the intercepted material.

Shredding devices should be located ahead of pumping facilities at the

treatment plant. Grit removal ahead of the shredder will save wear on
the cutting head. Usually, however, grit chambers are located at or
above ground level to facilitate grit handling, and pumps may be
necessary to lift the sewage to them. In this case, shredding is done
ahead of the pumps and cutter wear must be tolerated.

(iii) Grit Removal:

Municipal waste water contains a wide assortment of inorganic solids
such as pebbles, sand, silt, egg shells, glass and metal fragments.
Operations to remove these inorganics will also remove some of the
larger, heavier organics such as bone chips, seeds etc. Together, these
comprise the material known as grit in waste water treatment systems.
Most of the substances in grit are abrasive in nature and will cause
accelerated wear on pumps and sludge handling equipment with
which it comes in contact. Grit deposits in areas of low hydraulic shear
in pipes, sumps and clarifiers may absorb greases and solidify.

Also, these materials are not biodegradable and occupy valuable space
in sludge digesters. It is therefore, desirable to separate them from the
organic suspended solids.

The latter should not be allowed to settle along-with, otherwise it gets

entangled with the inorganic matter causing septicity of waste water
and requiring unnecessary labour and expenses for removal. A velocity
of flow between 0.15 to 0.3 m/sec is practically considered sufficient
for this purpose.

Grit removal facilities basically consist of an enlarged channel area

where reduced flow velocities allow grit to settle out. Many
configurations of grit tanks are available. At-least two separate
chambers should be provided, one to take care of low flow and the
other for the high flow. A period of detention of 1 minute is commonly
employed. Grit chambers are cleaned by hand, mechanically or

Hand clearing is done only in the case of smaller plants, is less

hygienic and odour free though somewhat easier for disposing of the
removed material than in the case of mechanical cleaning. In
hydraulic-cleaning, the deposited material is flushed out under fire-
streams directed from a central point and removed through pipes in
the side-walls or bottom of the chamber.

(iv) Skimming Tanks:

A skimming tank is a chamber so arranged that the floating matter like
oil, fat, grease etc., rise and remain on the surface of the waste water
(Sewage) until removed, while the liquid flows out continuously under
partitions or baffles.

It is necessary to remove the floating matter from sewage otherwise it

may appear in the form of unsightly scum on the surface of the settling
tanks or interfere with the activated sludge process of sewage treat-
ment. It is mostly present in the industrial sewage. In ordinary
sanitary sewage, its amount is usually too small.

The chamber is a long trough shaped structure divided up into two or

three lateral compartments by vertical baffle walls having slots for a
short distance below the sewage surface and permitting oil and grease
to escape into stilling compartments.

The rise of floating matter is brought about by the blowing air into the
sewage from diffusers placed in the bottom. Sewage enters the tank
from one end. A theoretical detention period of 3 minutes is enough.

The floating matter can be either hand or mechanically removed.

Grease traps are in reality small skimming tanks designed with
submerged inlet and bottom outlet.

The traps must have sufficient capacity to permit the sewage to cool
and grease to separate. Frequent cleaning through removable covers is
essential for satisfactory operation. Grease traps are commonly
employed in case of industries, garages, hotels, and hospitals.
(v) Sedimentation:
In this step, the settleable solid are removed by gravitational settling
under quiescent conditions. The sludge formed at the bottom of the
tank is removed as under flow either by vacuum suction or by raking it
to a discharge point at the bottom of the tank for withdrawal. The clear
liquid produced is known as the overflow and it should contain no
readily settle- able matter.

The sedimentation operation in waste treatment applications may be

carried out in rectangular horizontal flow, circular radial flow or
vertical flow basis. Fig. 7.8 shows the three main types of

In rectangular tanks, feed is introduced at one end along with the

width of the tank and the overflow is collected at the surfaces, either
across the other end or at different point along the length of the tank.
An endless conveyor scrapes the floating material into a screen
through which it also pushes the settled solids into a sludge hopper.
(vi) Flotation:
Flotation may be used in place of sedimentation, primarily for treating
industrial waste water containing finely divided suspended solids and
oily matter. Flotation technique is used in paper industry to recover
fine fibres from the screened effluent and in the oil industry for the
classification of oil bearing waste. It is also used for treating effluents
from tanneries, metal finishing, cold-rolling and pharmaceutical

Particles of density very close to that of water are very difficult to settle
in normal sedimentation tanks and take a long time for separation. In
such cases, the separation can be speeded up by aerating the effluent
where by air bubbles are attached to the suspended matter.

This has the effect for increasing the buoyancy of the particles as a
result; the particles float to surface from where they can be readily
removed. To aid in the flotation process, chemical coagulants such as
aluminium and ferric salts or polymer coagulant-aids are often used.
These chemicals increase the flocculent structure of the floated
particles so that they can easily entrap the air bubbles.

Two methods of flotation are currently available:

(1) Dispersed-air flotation and

(2) Dissolved air flotation.

1. In dispersed air flotation, air is introduced directly into the liquid

through a revolving impeller or through diffusers. The air bubbles
generated in dispersed air flotation systems are normally about 1 mm
in diameter and they usually cause turbulence which breaks up fragile
floe particles.

Due to this, dispersed air flotation is not favoured technique in the

treatment of municipal wastewater, although it finds a limited
application in treating industrial wastes containing oil, grease and fine
2. In dissolved air flotation, air is intimately brought into contact with
the waste water at a pressure of several atmospheres when air is
dissolved. The pressure on the liquid is reduced to atmospheric level
through a backpressure valve, there by releasing micron-sized

Suspended solids and oil are carried to the surface of the flotation tank
by these minute air bubbles. A typical flotation system is shown in Fig.
7.10. Here, the entire flow is pressurized and held in the retention tank
so that the air gets dissolved in the liquid.

The intense mixing of air and waste water in the pressurization system
often degrades flocculent suspensions or oil emulsions following
chemical treatment. A portion of the clear effluent is recycled for
pressurization to prevent such degradations.
Compressed air is introduced into the discharge of the recycle pump
and intimate contact is achieved in the retention tank. The recycled
flow is then returned through a back pressure valve (where the
pressurized air is released and mixed with the influent for flotation.
The time in the flotation tank is about half an hour.

(vii) Neutralization:
When pH of the industrial waste is too high or too low then it should
be neutralized by acid or alkali and only neutral effluent should be
discharged into the drain or public sewer.

For neutralization of the acidic effluent, the following

techniques are used:
1. Lime-Stone Treatment:
For acidic effluents, lime stone can be used as it will form calcium
compounds depending upon the presence and amount of acid.

2. Caustic Soda Treatment:

Although costly, yet the method is also utilized for neutralizing the
acid. Caustic soda is added in the effluent to make the pH neutral.
Only small amounts of caustic soda is needed for this work.

For neutralization of alkaline effluent, the following

techniques are followed:
(a) Carbon Dioxide Treatment:
If the industry is producing carbon dioxide then only this method
should be utilized for neutralizing the pH, otherwise it would be costly
affair. Here carbon dioxide is passed in alkaline effluent to make its
pH almost 7. (i.e. Neutral value).

(b) Sulphuric Acid Treatment:

This is a common method of neutralising alkaline effluent. Here
sulphuric acid is added in the effluent till pH becomes almost 7.

(c) Utilizing Waste Boiler-flue Gas:

The stack gas which contains about 12 percent carbon dioxide is
utilized to react alkaline effluent to make it neutral.
ii. Secondary or Biological Treatment:
The biological process of sewage is a secondary treatment involving
removing, stabilizing and rendering harmless very fine suspended
matter, and solids of the waste water that remain even after the
primary treatment has been done.

Since much of the organic material in waste water may be colloidal or

dissolved, the primary treatment processes are largely ineffective in
removing it. The organic matter still represents a high demand for
oxygen which must be reduced further so that the effluent may be
rendered suitable for discharge into the water bodies.

In biological treatment, oxygen supplied to the bacteria is consumed

under controlled conditions so that most of the B.O.D. is removed in
the treatment plant rather than in the water course.

Thus, the principal requirements of a biological waste treatment

process are an adequate amount of bacteria that feed on the organic
material present in waste water, oxygen and some means of achieving
contact between the bacteria and the organics.

Two of the most commonly used systems for biological waste

treatment are:
(i) The activated sludge system and

(ii) The biological film system.

In the activated sludge system, the waste water is brought into contact
with a diverse group of micro-organisms in the form of a flocculent
suspension in an aerated tank, whereas in the biological film system,
also known as trickling filters, the waste water is brought into contact
with a mixed microbial population in the form of a film of slime
attached to the surface of a solid support system. In both cases the
organic matter is metabolized to more stable inorganic forms.

(i) Activated Sludge Process:

The essential features of activated sludge process are: an aeration
stage, solids-liquid separation following aeration, and a sludge recycle
system. Waste water after primary treatment enter and aeration tank
where the organic matter is brought into intimate contact with the
sludge from the secondary clarifier.

This sludge is heavily laden with micro-organisms which are in an

active state of growth. Air is introduced into the tank either in the
form of bubbles through diffusers or by surface aerators.

The micro-organisms utilize the oxygen in the air and convert the
organic matter into stabilized, low-energy compounds such as NO 3,
SO4, CO2 and synthesize new bacterial cells.
The effluent from the aeration tank containing the flocculent microbial
mass, known as sludge, is separated in a settling tank sometimes
called a secondary settler of a clarifier. In the settling tank the
separated sludge exits without contact with the organic matter and
becomes activated to the aeration tank as a seed; the rest is wasted.

If all the activated sludge is recycled, then the bacterial mass would
keep increasing to the stage where the system gets clogged with solids.
It is therefore, necessary to waste some of the micro-organisms, and
this wasted sludge is the one which is processed and disposed of. The
process flow diagram for a typical activated sludge plant is given in
Fig. 7.11.
(ii) Trickling Filters or Biological Film System:
The secondly commonly used biological waste treatment process is the
trickling filter method. Trickling filters are also called percolating
filters. It has good adaptability to handle peak shock loads and the
ability to function satisfactorily after a short period of time.

Milk processing, paper mill and pharmaceutical wastes are among

those treated by tricking filters. Conventional trickling filters normally
consist of a rock bed. 1 to 3 metres in depth, with enough openings
between rocks to allow air to circulate easily.

The influent is sprinkled over the bed packing (See Fig. 7.12) which is
coated with a biological slime. As the liquid trickles over the packing,
oxygen and the dissolved organic matter diffuse into the film to be
metabolized by the micro-organism in this slime layer. End products
such as NO3, CO2 etc. diffuse back out of the film and appear in the
filter effluent.
The other methods are:
(iii) Aerated lagoon

(iv) Oxidation pond

(v) Anaerobic digestions

As the micro-organisms utilize the organic matter, the thickness of the
slime film increases to a point where it can no longer be supported on
the solid media and gets detached from the surface. This process is
known as sloughing. A settling tank following the trickling filter
removes the detached bacteria film and some suspended matter.

Handling and disposal of sludge from biological waste water treatment

plant is an important problem and represents about half the cost of
most sewage treatment plants.

The concentration of solids in the primary sewage sludge is about 5

percent; the activated sludge contains less than 1 percent solids; from
trickling filters has about 2 percent solids. The common unit operation
of sludge treatment and disposal involve concentration or thickening,
digestion, conditioning, dewatering, oxidation and safe disposal.

(iii) Aerated Lagoon:

The aerated lagoon system consists of a large pond that is equipped
with machines aerations to maintain an aerobic environment and to
prevent settling of the suspend biomass. The population of
microorganisms in an aerated lagoon is much lower than that in an
actual sludge system because there is no sludge recycle.

(iv) Oxidation Pond:

Photosynthesis organic matter. The CO2 cycle is oxidation plant.

iii. Advanced Waste Water Treatment:

Usually the primary and secondary treatments are sufficient to meet
waste water effluent standards. However, if water produced is
required to be of higher water quality standards (in case the water to
be put to some direct reuse) then advanced waste water treatment is
carried out.

A wide variety of methods are used in advanced waste

treatment, which includes the removal of:
(a) Suspended solids,

(b) B.O.D.,
(c) Plant nutrients,

(d) Dissolved solids and

(e) Toxic substances.

These methods may be introduced at any stage of the total treatment

process as in the case of industrial waste waters or may be used for
complete removal of pollutants after the secondary treatment.

The wastewater treatment processes are basically concentrating or

thickening processes on which the suspended solids are removed as
sludges. The impurities in the wastewater are concentrated into solid
form and are then separated from the bulk liquid. This concentrated
form is referred to as sludge.

Project Report # 5. Domestic Waste Water Treatment:

Conventional sewage treatment plants are based on biological
decomposition of nontoxic organic wastes, using bacteria. Such
biological decomposition is conducted under aerobic conditions, i.e. in
the presence of plenty of oxygen.

For oxidation of 1 mg of carbon, 2.67 mg of dissolved oxygen is

required. Organic, hydrogen, sulphur and nitrogen, the major
elements in waste water, consume additional oxygen for their

The solubility of O2 in water is only 9 ppm (mg/L) at 20C and less at

higher temperature. The purity of water depends on the rate of
Of O2 by aeration and on the total load organic material which requires
oxidation. The organic load is expressed in terms of B.O.D. i.e.
biochemical oxygen demand which means mg of O2 needed to
decompose the organic material in 1L waste water.
As a rough estimate, the B.O.D. values (mg.O 2/Litre waste
water) for various processes are:
Domestic sewage, 165; industrial waste water, 200; paper industry
372; food industry, 747; metal industry 13. Evidently such a heavy load
is likely to upset the capacity of most natural water bodies so that
sewage treatment is essential for maintaining the water quality.

Aerobic Treatment Processes:

These are secondary waste treatment methods by biological processes.
After primary treatment for removal of insoluble matter i.e. grit,
grease, scum etc. and sedimentation, the resulting sludge is subjected
to secondary treatment.

The aerobic treatment process the biodegradable organic matter is

utilised by the bacterial cells (microorganisms) for their growth and
metabolism and in the process huge quantity of cell mass and CO 2are
generated. About 50% of biodegradable C present in the waste water is
converted into cell mass and the rest into CO2.
Among the available processes, the most important is the Activated
Sludge Process. This is shown in Fig. 7.17. It is a continuous flow
flocculated growth process in which bacterial floes (activated sludge)
are separated from treated effluent by a clarifier and recycled to the
aeration tank to maintain a high degree of process intensity.

The microbial cell matter which is formed as part of the waste

degradation process is generally kept in the aeration tank till the
microorganisms reach their saturation point of growth when the cells
flocculate well to form settleable solids.

These solids settle out in a settler and part of it is discarded. The bulk
of the solids, return sludge, is recycled to the bottom of the aeration
tank and encounters the fresh sewage. The return sludge and the
influent sludge provide optimum conditions for rapid degradation of
organic matter.

Oxidative degradation is accomplished mostly by chemoheteraoropic

bacteria and ciliated protozoa. Effective degradation is caused by
predominant gerera like Pseudomonas, Zoogloea, Flavobacterium,
Alcallgenes etc.
Nitrification in the Activated Sludge process (ASP) proceeds by the
action of the genera Nitrosomona, Nitrospira, etc. in the first step and
by Nitrobacter, Nitroseoccus etc. in the second step. Denitrification
takes place by the action of the genera Pseudomonas, Microccus etc.
The merits of the ASP are:
(i) Low retention time and

(ii) B.O.D. removal up to 95%.

The demerits of the ASP are:

(i) Low strength waste, B.O.D. 1500-2500 mg/L,

(ii) Energy is required for aeration,

(iii) High sludge production and

(iv) Disposal problem of activated sludge.

Another process is the lagooning process, the oldest process in the


There are several types of this process;

(a) Aerobic lagooning,

(b) Anaerobic lagooning and

(c) Aero- bio-anaerobic lagooning.

Anaerobic Treatment Processes:

In these processes about 95% of biodegradable C is decomposed into
biogas (c.f. 50% in aerobic process) and the rest 5% into biomass.
Three main steps are involved in the breakdown of organic waste
under anaerobic conditions.
These steps are essentially hydrolysis of biopolymers to monomers,
fermentation of monomers to volatile acids and methanogenesis. The
anaerobic degradation of carbohydrate takes place as follows;
polysaccharide to pyruvate and pyruvate to lactic acid or ethanol.

The microbial species responsible for anaerobic degradation are:

Actinomyces, Arthrobacter, Cirobacter, Escherichia, lactobacillus,
Micrococcus etc. Anaerobic treatment is illustrated in the flow-sheet
Fig. 7.18.

Ion Exchange:
This technique is used extensively for concentration and separation of
metal ion from large volumes of natural and waste waters. The total
free metal ion content of a water sample is determined by passing the
sample through H+ cation exchanges and titrating the acid liberated
with a standard alkali solution. Another aliquot may be titrated with
EDTA to estimate the total hardness of water.

Ion exchange chromatography provides an excellent method for

concentration and separation of ions from waste water. The ions are
first concentrated on a suitable ion exchange column and then
selectively eluted to be measured polarograhically,
spectrophotometrically, radio metrically etc. Ion exchange membranes
are also useful for separation and concentration of metal ions prior to

1. It is accomplished in the presence of aerobic bacteria flourished in
the presence of free dissolved oxygen.

2. Aerobic bacteria consume organic matter for their food and thereby
oxidizing to stable the products.

3. Stable end products are nitrates, CO2, sulphur.

4. Needs large area.

5. Commissioning and maintenance are expensive.

1. It is accomplished in the presence of anaerobic bacteria flourished
in the absence of free dissolved oxygen.

2. Anaerobic bacteria survive by utilizing the bounded molecular

OX2in NO3 & SO4.
3. NH3, N. Hydrogen sulphide methane are produced, which give
abnoxious odours.
4. No large areas needed.

5. Maintenance easy and cheap.

Anaerobic treatments a sludge digestors septic tank Convention

anaerobic digestors.
High two stage anerobic sludge digestors.

Project Report # 6. Wastewater Discharged:

1. Cyanide 1 PPM

Organic Phosphorous 1 PPM

Cadmium 2PPM

Lead 1PPM

Chromium hexa valance 0.5 PPM,

Arsenic 0.5 PPM

2. Effluent to coastal water 5-9 pH

Effluent to other water 5.8-8.6 pH

3. Chemical oxygen demand 120-250 mg/1.

4. Biochemical oxygen demand at 20C 120-160 mg/litre

5. Suspended solids 150-160 mg/1

In to inland surface water 100

on land for irrigation 200

6. Colitis germ groups 3000 m pn/cm2

7. Mineral of 5 PPM

8. Vegetable oil and fats 30 PPM Oil and grease 20mg/l

9. Phenols 5 PPM

10. Zinc 5 PPM

11. Soluble iron 10 PPM

12. Soluble magnese 10 PPM

13. Total chromium 2 PPM

14. Fluorine 15 PPM

15. Particle size of suspended solids shall pass 850 micron IS sieve

16. Dissolved solids inorganic 200 mg/l

17. Temperature 40C.

Project Report # 7. Chemical Specifications of Waste

Water Treatment:
Identification of inorganic organ metallic or organic species of an
element/chemical in the environment.

Acetate arsenic poisoning can arise from the indigestion of as little as
100 mg As. Copper. This is one of the essential elements for human.
The adult daily requirement is about 2 mg.

This is an essential and beneficial element for human body.

Pollution Characteristics of different Industries:

Project Report # 8. Classification of Treatment
Methods for Industrial Waste:
Treating the waste is first step of processing of the waste when it
comes directly from the industry. Waste is observed as three states of
matter as solid, liquid and gas; then its treatment is decided.

Mainly three types of treatment is done:

(i) Physical treatment.

(ii) Chemical treatment.

(iii) Biological Treatment.

(i) Physical treatment:

Physical treatment can be defined as a process or processes where by
undesirable constituents of an effluent are removed by separation like
suspended solids, dissolved solids or liquids.

(ii) Chemical Treatment:

Portion of waste which contains harmful chemicals is treated
chemically so that it can be disposed without harm.

Like acid and alkalies are neutralized before being oxidation and
reduction of ions and electrolysis etc.

Physical Treatment:
1. Introduction:
Physical treatment can be defined as a process or processes where by
undesirable constituents of an effluent are removed by separation.
Those constituents that need to be removed may be suspended solids,
dissolved solids, or liquids other than the normal bulk phase of the
effluent which is in most instances is water.

Removal of suspended solids and contaminating liquids is

mainly by two processes:
(a) Settlement

(b) Flotation

2. Processes Plant:
(a) Settlement:
The principle on which this works is the matter to be separated should
have higher specific gravity than the phase in which it is dispersed.
Chemical addition is done to increase the specific gravity. Plants used
for these are described below:

(b) Horizontal flow tanks:

This is most popular and oldest method. The initial plants simply
consisted of a rectangular or square tank where effluent entered at one
end and the clarified effluent has been discharged at the other end
with the suspended solids settling out as a sludge at the bottom.
A modern amendment has baffles to make settling time more and
sinusoidal motion of flow. One drawback is poor distribution of
effluent inlet is weir or number of penstock weir.

(c) Radial Flow Tank:

These are circular in plan, with either flat or gently sloping floors. The
scraper mechanisms of circular tanks are comparatively simple, but
performance is not being equal to horizontal flow tank.

As with many settlement plant, uniform distribution is needed so that

the full volume of tank is needed for the liquid solid separation
process. One advantage of this type of plant is that, due to the large
discharge area normally used, gentle flow occurs through the plant,
provided of course no short circuiting occurs.

(d) Upward-Flow Clariflers:

The principle of operation of this type of clarifier is that freshly
flocculated water or effluent come into contact with previously formed
particles which have been optimised in size. Consequently collision
occur between these particles causing induced flocculation of the
freshly treated water.

In this way size of particles is increased, improving rates of sedi-

mentation. A plant to be designed for an effluent or water having a
consistent suspended solids content and flow velocity. Sludge is
usually continuously removed to maintain the blanket consistency.
This type of plant is often called a sludge contact clariflre. It has very
reduced free surface area