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Timothy Tumutod

Act of Teaching 6-8

Reflections are written at the very bottom.
Chapter 6 Outline:
I. Pros and Cons of Instructional Planning
II. Planning Is Especially Beneficial for New Teachers
III. Deciding What to Teach
a. State Standards and How They Are Developed
b. What State Standards Look Like
c. The Power of State Standards
d. What Happens at the School District Level
e. The Formal and Taught Curricula
f. The Power of the Curriculum
IV. Instructional Objectives
a. What Instructional Objectives Look Like
b. Instructional Objectives Differ in Two Ways
c. Some Objectives Are General, Others Are Specific
d. The Kinds of Objectives We Use Result in Three Different Kinds of Learning:
Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor
e. Another Way of Classifying Learning Outcomes
V. Writing Specific Objectives
a. The Value of Specific Objectives
b. When Are Objectives Good?
VI. Preparing Instructional Plans of Varying Duration
a. The "Long and Short" of Planning
b. Preparing Long-Range Plans: Yearly and Semester Plans
c. Preparing Unit Plans
d. Preparing Lesson Plans
e. Evaluating Lesson Plans
f. The "Backward Design" Idea of Lesson and Unit Planning
g. Resources Useful When Planning
h. Collaborative, Cooperative, or Team Planning
i. Comparative Planning
VII. Some Final Thoughts


-Four reasons why planning is beneficial for new teachers:

1. You will have little or no teaching experience to draw upon

2. You will be apprehensive and unsure of yourself and your teaching skills.

3. You likely will not know what students are expected to know and do.

4. Given time to think and plan, teaching will be more creative and fun.

-States establish guidelines or standards indicating what students should know and be able to do.
Timothy Tumutod

-Cognitive Domain:

1. Knowledge

2. Comprehension

3. Application

4. Analysis

5. Synthesis

6. Evaluation

-Affective Domain

1. Receiving or attending

2. Responding

3. Valuing

4. Organization

-Psychomotor Domain

1. Perception

2. Set

3. Guided response

4. Mechanism

5. Complex or overt response

6. Adaptation

7. Origination

-Thoughtful instructional planning is extremely important for you and your learners.

-The first task of planning is determining what it is that you are responsible for helping students
to learn.

-The second task of planning is the preparation of instructional objectives that clearly indicate
what students are expected to know and be able to do.

Chapter 7 Outline:
Timothy Tumutod

I. Discussion: Learning through Informative Interaction

A. What is a discussion?
B. Purposes and Characteristics of Discussion
C. Good discussion leaders
D. Good discussions
E. When discussions should be used
F. Research on discussion
G. Limitations of discussions
H. Summary on discussion
II. Independent Study: Teaching as Giving and Guiding Seat Work and Homework
A. What is independent study?
B. Purpose and characteristics of independent study
C. Good independent study leaders
D. Good independent study
E. When independent study should be used
F. Limitations of independent study
G. Making good homework assignments
H. Summary on independent study
III. Individualized or Differentiated Instruction: Tailoring Teaching
A. What is individualized instruction?
B. Purpose and characteristics of individualized instruction
C. Types of individualized instruction
D. Good users of individualized instruction
E. Good individualized education programs
F. When individualized instruction should be used
G. Limitations of individualized instruction
H. Summary on individualized instruction
IV. Matching Instructional Alternatives to Learners
V. Overview of 31 Instructional Alternatives
VI. Using Technology in Teaching
A. Selecting quality software and websites
B. Utilizing digital content
C. Get better prepared for the digital age
VII. Some Final Thoughts


-A presentation is an informative talk a more knowledgeable person makes to less

knowledgeable persons.

-The purpose of presentation is to inform an audience of certain fats, ideas, concepts, and

- A discussion is a situation wherein students, or students and a teacher, converse to share

information, ideas, or opinions or work to resolve a problem.
Timothy Tumutod

-The purpose of discussion is

1. to review and extend what students have learned in order to ensure their mastery of a

2. to have students examine their ideas or opinions.

3. to solve a problem

4. to improve their face-to-face or interpersonal communication skills.

-Independent study is any assignment learners complete more or less on their own.

-The use of independent study is when students need to rehearse or practice something.

-when you want to be certain that your learners gain specific knowledge or skills.

-to encourage students to acquire study skills that will serve them throughout life. These
skills include how to locate, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information.

-Individualized instruction and differentiated instruction are terms used to refer to any
instructional maneuver that attempts to tailor teaching and learning to a learning to a learners, or
a group of like-learners, unique strengths and needs.

Chapter 8 Outline:

I. Cooperative Learning: Teaching Learners to Like and Care for One Another
A. What is cooperative learning?
B. Purpose and characteristics of cooperative learning
C. Some variations on the theme of cooperative learning
D. Good leaders of cooperative learning
E. Good cooperative learning
F. When cooperative learning should be used
G. Limitations of cooperative learning
H. Summary on cooperative learning
II. Discovery learning: figuring things out yourself
A. What is discovery learning?
B. Purposes and characteristics of discovery learning
III. Constructivist Teaching and learning: Problem Solving under Teacher Guidance
A. What is constructivism
B. Purposes and characteristics of constructivism
IV. Direct Instruction: Teaching in the Most Efficient and Effective Way
A. What is direct instruction?
B. Purpose and Characteristics of Direct Instruction
V. Is There a Single Best Instructional Alternative?
VI. Some Final Thoughts

-Cooperative learning is the term used to describe instructional procedures whereby learners
Timothy Tumutod

work together in small groups and are rewarded for their collective accomplishments.

-Discovery learning refers to learning that takes place when students are asked to find out or
figure out something for themselves as Sherlock Holmes does.

-The purpose of discovery learning is

-to know how to think and find things out for themselves.

-to see for themselves how knowledge is obtained

-to use their higher-order thinking skills

-Constructivism is a way of teaching and learning that intends to maximize student

understanding. The purpose is to

-to help students to acquire information in ways that make that information readily
understood and usable.

-Direct instruction is a variation on the theme of teacher presentations in that it is teacher-

dominated and directed. The purpose is to

-to help students learn basic academic content such as reading, mathematics, and so forth,
in the most efficient, straightforward way.

Reflection on Chapter 6-8:

As I was reading these three chapters, it dawned on me that I have to serious in

developing my lesson plans, especially because I am still a student-teacher. During the
practicum, there were times where I was thinking of winging my lesson because I wanted my
lesson to naturally flow depending on the circumstance. Yet, the authors of this book greatly
assert that planning is essentialthere is no such thing as over-planning. For the next practicum,
I will endeavor to deliberately plan my lesson and also have a specific instructional mode in
mind so that my students will be able to learn effectively.