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# Who is going to prison and how much is it costing us?

## Teacher/Subject: Onder/ 7th Grade Mathematics

Unit Title: Incarceration Rates & Cost
Unit Duration: 16 Days
Standards: CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.1
Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths,
areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a
person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex
1/2
fraction /1/4 miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2
Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2.A
Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing
for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing
whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2.B
Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations,
diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2.C
Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is
proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the
relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as
t = pn.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2.D
Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in
terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r
is the unit rate.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.3
Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems.
Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and
commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error.

## Unit Description: Math Goals:

What students will be able to do-

## Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions including

quantities measured in like units

## Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions including

quantities measured in different units

Compute the unit rate as a complex fraction and the equivalent rational
number

## Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables of

proportional relationships

## Test quantities in a table to determine if two quantities are in a

proportional relationship; check for a constant multiple between
measures of the two quantities when given a table

## Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in graphs of

proportional relationships

## Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in diagrams of

proportional relationships

## What a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in

terms of the situation

## What a point (0, 0) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in

terms of the situation

What a point (1, r), where r is the unit rate, on the graph of a
proportional relationship means in terms of the situation

TMfSJ Goals:
-Students will understand how racial profiling has impacted the prison population
-Students will recognize that the United States incarceration rate is the highest in
the world and be able to provide explanations for this issue and the implications it
has on those living in the United States
-Students will be able to explain how much money is spent on the prison system
in the United States and provide alternatives for that spending
-Students will be able to explain how the incarceration has changed over time and
provide explanations for this change as well as safe solutions to decrease
incarceration rate

## Primary Methods of Evaluation:

Pretest: will be used at the beginning of the unit to assess students prior
knowledge on the concepts covered in this unit and assign students their learning
level for the unit. Learning levels are designed for differentiated independent
practice and organization during group work and station work. Students are
allowed to adjust their own learning levels if they feel the work is too challenging
or not rigorous enough but must first conference with the teacher.
Exit Slips: will be used daily to assess students understanding of concepts used
in lesson. Exit slips will be used to drive future instruction in the unit.
Quizzes: will be used to assess students comprehension and retention of major
concepts
Tests: will be used at the end of the unit to assess students comprehension and
retention of major concepts
Projects: will be used to assess students ability to apply lesson concepts to
promoting reform of our current prison system

## Connection to Past and Future Learning:

7.RP.1 (Compute unit rates)- builds on students previous study of 6.RP.2
(understand unit rates) and provides a foundation for students work with
proportional relationships and linear equations

7.RP.2 (Proportional relationships)- relates to students work in 6th grade with unit
rates and ratios, particularly their understanding of 6.RP.2 & 6.RP.3. Mastery of
this standard will support students learning of functions in 8th grade (8.F.1 & 8.F.2)
and linear relationships (8.F.4, 8.EE.5, & 8.EE.6)

7.RP.3 (Multi-step ratio & percent problems) - builds upon students understanding
of 6.RP.3 (Solving problems with ratio) and facilitates future work in probability
unit
Essential Questions: How has the number of people incarcerated in the United States changed over
time?
Who is in our prisons?
How much is it costing us to keep people in prison?
What could we do with the money it takes to keep people in prison?
Required Texts: Parts of CMP3s Comparing & Scaling will be used but the context of the
investigations will be changed so that we can use the content to study the United
States Prison System
Relevant Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2005
Supplemental http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/csfcf05.pdf (Page 6: Services offered to
Resources for either inmates)
Teacher and/or Prison Population: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Scholars: Percent increase/decrease: http://www.scoc.ny.gov/pop.htm (New York
inmate totals)
Unit Introduction:
http://ideas.ted.com/how-americas-justice-system-failed-our-children/
https://mic.com/articles/86519/19-actual-statistics-about-america-s-prison-
system#.BuBVFOx3G
https://www.ted.com/talks/bryan_stevenson_we_need_to_talk_about_an_injustice?
language=en
The following info graphics:
-Optional: ELA cross curricular study of The Other Wes Moore focusing on
factors that put children at a higher risk for future incarceration
Assessments: Summative: How will students mastery of unit goals and standards be assessed
at the end of the unit?
-Students will take an end of unit cumulative exam, which assesses students
mastery of each CCSS covered in this unit. The exam will assess students
procedural and conceptual understanding of each concept.
-Students will complete an end of unit project in which they will create there own
info graphics about incarceration rates, inmate population, and government
spending in regards to incarceration.

Daily Objectives
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
SWBAT: Develop SWBAT: SWBAT: SWBAT: SWBAT: calculate
a list of questions determine what determine the part determine the total a percent
they would like to percentage a part given the percent it number of inmates increase/decrease
investigate of a whole is is of total and the in given countries SWBAT: Explain
throughout this unit SWBAT: describe total value when given the how the number of
CCSS: RI.7.9: the make up of the SWBAT: total world inmates have
Analyze how two or US prison determine the population of changed over time
more authors population using make up of the inmates and the CCSS:
writing about the percentages prison population percentage that 7.RP.3: Use
same topic shape CCSS: 7.RP.3: Use based on what type each country proportional
their presentations proportional of crime they represents of the relationships to
of key information relationships to committed total solve multistep
by emphasizing solve multistep CCSS: 7.RP.3: Use over time ratio and percent
different evidence ratio and percent proportional CCSS: problems.
or advancing problems. relationships to 7.RP.3: Use Task: Students
different Task: Students solve multistep proportional will be given a
interpretations of will learn how to ratio and percent relationships to graph of the prison
facts. determine a problems. solve multistep
Task: Students percentage of a Task: Students ratio and percent population in the
will be split into 6 whole though will be given data problems US over the last 30
groups. Each group exploring the racial about what types of Task: Knowing years and will be
will be assigned makeup, gender, asked to determine
crimes US inmates how to solve for the
one of 3 sources to
level of education, have committed part and the the percent
review (See
supplemental socioeconomic and they will percentage, increase
resources). Groups status of the approximate the students will (occasional
will participate in a current US prison current number develop a method decrease) between
jigsaw where they population (2015 of people serving for figuring out the specific years. They
will share census) time for each type total if given both will also be given a
information from table of the New
of crime when of these values.
their source and
given the total After discussing York state prison
begin generating a
list of questions number of inmates this, I will provide population in the
they would like to and the percent students with the past 10 years and
investigate. each type of crime total number of will be asked to
represents. prisoners in the determine the
world and the percent decrease
percentage that (occasional
specific countries increase) between
represent. Students specific years. In
will then need to groups, students
determine the total will discuss possible
number of inmates reasons for the
in the selected increase in prison
countries. This will population over the
facilitate a years and decrease
conversation about in NYs prison
how the US population over the
accounts for 25% of past 10 years.
the prison
population but only
accounts for about
4.5% of the worlds
population.

## Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

Research Day SWBAT: SWBAT: create SWBAT: create SWBAT: analyze
SWBAT: Explore determine unit rate tables and use proportional graphs of
some of the rates and use this unit rates to graphs, equations, proportional
questions they knowledge to begin determine missing and write verbal relationships with
have generated as exploring how values in a rate descriptions of special attention to
a result of what the much money it table proportional the points (0, 0)
mathematics costs to keep one SWBAT: relationships and (1, r) where r is
showed them about person in prison for determine if a CCSS: 7.RP.2b the unit rate.
the US prison a year relationship is CCSS: 7.RP.2d
Identify the
population CCSS: 7.RP.1 : proportional and Explain what a
constant of
CCSS: Compute unit rates identify the
associated with constant of proportionality (unit point (x, y) on the
Task: Students
ratios of fractions, proportionality rate) in tables, graph of a
will be split into
including ratios of graphs, equations, proportional
their project groups CCSS: 7.RP.2a:
(3-4 students per lengths, areas and relationship means
Decide whether two diagrams, and
group) and will be other quantities in terms of the
quantities are in a verbal descriptions
given computers to measured in like or
of proportional situation, with
investigate 2-3 different units. proportional
relationships. special attention to
questions they Task: students relationship, e.g.,
7.RP.2c Represent the points (0, 0)
have generated will be provided by testing for
from the previous information on how proportional and (1, r) where r is
equivalent ratios in
weeks lessons. At much money is relationships by the unit rate.
a table or graphing
the end of class, spent on inmates equations. Task: Students
on a coordinate
groups will share food, healthcare, will look at each
plane and 7.RP.2d Explain
their findings with recreation,
what a point (x, y) others graphs from
one another. education, and observing whether
on the graph of a the previous lesson
safety and they will the graph is a
(all graphs should
need to determine straight line proportional be slightly different
how much money is
through the origin. relationship means as students will be
spent per prisoner
per year in each of 7.RP.2b: Identify in terms of the getting data by
these categories. In the constant of situation, with state and will focus
order to hit all parts proportionality (unit special attention to only on their
of the standard rate) in tables, the points (0, 0) assigned state) and
students will need graphs, equations, and (1, r) where r is determine the unit
to complete a mini
diagrams, and the unit rate. price per inmate
lesson where
verbal descriptions Task: Students per category and
fractional unit rates
of proportional will take their explain how they
are involved first
tables from the
and some of the relationships. determined the
previous day and
dollar amounts will Task: Take the information
create graphs,
be written in unit rates they
equations, and
fractional terms . determine
verbal descriptions
yesterday and build
of the proportional
proportional tables
relationships.
from them
determining how
much money is
spent per prisoner
each day, week,
month, year, and
decade.
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Research Day Research Day Project Project Project Gallery
SWBAT: Explore SWBAT: Explore SWBAT: create SWBAT: create Walk
where funding for where funding for an info graphic an info graphic SWBAT: Share an
prisons in the prisons in the bringing awareness bringing awareness info graphic
United States United States about issues with about issues with bringing awareness
comes from and comes from and the Unites Statess the Unites Statess about issues with
determine determine prison system prison system the Unites Statess
alternative alternative CCSS: 7.RP.1 CCSS: 7.RP.1 prison system
spending options if spending options if Compute unit rates Compute unit rates CCSS: 7.RP.1
we were able to we were able to associated with ratios associated with ratios Compute unit rates
decrease the decrease the of fractions, including of fractions, including associated with ratios
number of inmates number of inmates of fractions, including
ratios of lengths, areas ratios of lengths, areas
in the United States in the United States
and other quantities and other quantities ratios of lengths, areas
CCSS: CCSS: and other quantities
measured in like or measured in like or
Task: Students Task: Students different units. different units. measured in like or
will be split into will be split into different units.
7.Rp.2 Recognize and 7.Rp.2 Recognize and
their project groups their project groups
represent represent 7.Rp.2 Recognize and
(3-4 students per (3-4 students per
proportional proportional represent
group) and will be group) and will be
relationships between relationships between proportional
given computers to given computers to
investigate these investigate these quantities. quantities. relationships between
topics. At the end topics. At the end 7.RP.3Use 7.RP.3Use quantities.
of class, groups will of class, groups will proportional proportional 7.RP.3Use
share their findings share their findings relationships to solve relationships to solve proportional
with one another. with one another. multistep ratio and multistep ratio and relationships to solve
percent problems. percent problems. multistep ratio and
Task: In groups of Task: In groups of percent problems.
3-4, students will 3-4, students will Task: Students
model the model the will present their
information they information they work to other
learned about the learned about the students in the
US prison system, US prison system, school in a gallery
through their study through their study walk format.
of rates, of rates, Students will be
proportional proportional evaluated by there
relationships, and relationships, and peers on their info
percentages, in an percentages, in an graphic and ability
info graphic to help info graphic to help to use mathematics
raise awareness raise awareness to support their
about issues in our about issues in our claims
current system current system
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Unit Exam
SWBAT:
demonstrate
mastery of 7.RP.1,
7.RP.2, and 7.RP.3
CCSS: 7.RP.1
Compute unit rates
associated with
ratios of fractions,
including ratios of
lengths, areas and
other quantities
measured in like or
different units.
7.Rp.2 Recognize
and represent
proportional
relationships
between quantities.
7.RP.3Use
proportional
relationships to
solve multistep
ratio and percent
problems.
Task: will
demonstrate their
mastery of the
CCSS covered in
this unit on a
written unit exam.

Notes:
Because this is my first TMfSJ unit, many of the mini lessons (20 min max) will occur using our
current curriculum and then the remainder of the class (40 minutes) will be used to apply these
content to explore issues in our current judicial system
I want students to be able to explore possible explanations for trends they see in the data but I am
having a hard time working that part into the lessons, so I have added research days throughout the
unit so that students have time to explore questions the math is making them aware of
Some portions of 7.RP.3 will not be addressed in this unit and will be covered in a later unit on scale
factor and scale drawings.