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ESTIMATION OF WAVE LOADS DUE TO GREEN WATER EVENTS IN 10000-YEAR CONDITIONS ON A TLP DECK STRUCTURE

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OMAE2016

June 19-24, 2016, Busan, South Korea

OMAE2016-54839

CONDITIONS ON A TLP DECK STRUCTURE

MARINTEK Guomin Ji

NO-7450, Trondheim, Norway Carl Trygve Stansberg

MARINTEK

NO-7450, Trondheim, Norway

Stig Ovrebo Jon Ersland

Tone Vestbstad Aibel

Statoil NO-5527, Haugesund, Norway

NO-4035, Stavanger, Norway

In order to provide qualitative and quantitative information acceptable level.

on the hydrodynamics loads during green water events on a Traditional load estimation is not able to provide such

module on the deck of a TLP in 10000-year conditions, reliable detailed local load history for structural design purpose

MARINTEK has carried out CFD simulations. This paper at areas exposed to wave impacts. Therefore, topside modules

presents extreme wave events and corresponding are currently not installed in such areas. This new procedure,

hydrodynamics loads on the module which can be directly where CFD simulates realistic breaking waves with coupling to

linked to the extreme events observed in model tests. This structural analysis tools, offers new possibilities for the design

means that the simulated extreme events can be related to a of structures subject to risk of green water loading.

probability of occurrence, found from the model test.

A prerequisite for the structural design is that reliable INTRODUCTION

estimates of hydrodynamic loads during a green water event Improved metocean data have lead to new insight into

can be made. Measured time series of waves from existing severe wave conditions for marine design [1]. This means that

model test data are compared with CFD generated synthetic the extreme environmental conditions may exceed the original

numerical waves. The selection of steep wave events are based design values for existing structures. In these incidents, a

on two physical parameters: the wave crest height and the rise platform may be confronted with green water if a wave crest

velocity (time derivative of the free surface elevation at a given hits the structures on the deck. The consequent impact load

location). These parameters are relevant for green water and could affect deck structures exposed to the waves. Green water

corresponding loads. The comparison of the measured free on deck is a complex hydrodynamic problem and simplified

surface elevation of the calibrated waves with the time series of engineering methods are not able to provide reliable local load

the numerical waves, as well as the measured and simulated histories for structural design purposes. However, an accurate

relative wave probes time series shows that the applied estimate of wave impact load is critical to structural assessment

numerical wave events have similar physical conditions as for a new design platform and is crucial for

those observed in the model test. reassessment/requalification as well as for extension of

In a new procedure developed by MARINTEK one available platforms with updated circumstances.

identifies observed steep wave events, which are similar to Todays hardware and software make it possible to

existing numerical wave events, instead of trying to reproduce reproduce a strongly non-linear, random and complex event due

measured events. This procedure reduces the computational to a regular wave for an offshore platform with complex

geometry using the classical Computational fluid dynamics wave probes on the upwave side of the platform (probes 7-8-9-

(CFD) method NS-VOF [2] and [3]. 10-11, see Figure 1), have been selected from model tests.

However, if in reality the waves cannot be represented by the The corresponding underlying incident (undisturbed) irregular

Stokes 5th order wave, simulation with regular waves may not wave event elevation records were used as reference data for

be sufficient. In this case the question is not the quality of the comparison with the numerical waves. The assumption, that

CFD simulation but the conditions for which the simulation is numerical wave events define similar physical conditions as

performed. It was clearly shown by [4] and [5] that the largest waves events observed in the model test is based on two

loads on the platform were registered during extreme irregular physical parameters:

sea state experiments and not with regular waves. A

1) wave crest height

prerequisite for the structural design is that reliable estimates of

2) rise velocity (time derivative of the free surface

hydrodynamic loads during a green water event can be made.

elevation at a given location).

The reproduction of such extreme wave time series in a

simulation is a challenge due to the frequent wave breaking These are criteria that are relevant for green water and wave

during the propagation of the waves from the wave maker to impact loads. The relationship between wave kinematics and

the platform. loads can be explained using the Wagner theory where the

As it was shown in [6], the reproduction of such experimental slamming force depends on the change of the wetted area (rise

irregular extreme steep wave conditions (corresponding to a velocity), the duration of the impact (relative crest height) and

10-4 annual probability Torsethaugen type sea state with Hs = the local angle between free surface and the body surface.

20.7 m and Tp = 20.1s) using numerical wave tank cannot be Ideally, the water particle velocity could also be included

applied for industrial use due to the very high computational as a selection criterion, but such measurements are not

time and computational costs. available. It is reasonable to believe that the two criteria above

In this paper we present a new procedure, where CFD will also implicitly cover the velocity.

simulates realistic breaking waves, which can be directly linked Following the above procedure, eighteen steep wave events

to the extreme events observed in model tests. In the new with large crest heights are identified from recorded time series

procedure one identifies observed steep wave events, which are from the wave calibration tests. The main parameters of the sea

similar to existing numerical wave events, instead of trying to states, such as significant wave heights and peak periods as

reproduce measured events. This procedure reduces the well as the events main parameters: wave height, wave period

computational time, as well as computational costs, to an and crest height are presented in Table 1.

industrially acceptable level. This offers the possibility for the

design of structures subject to risk of green water loading. Event no. Test no. Time [s] Hs [m] Tp [s] T [s] H [m] Hcrest [m]

This new procedure is used in the design phase of a new

deck module, which will be placed on an existing TLP in order 1 3051 6606 14.5 13.0 11.0 31.0 18.0

to define characteristics loads for the accidental limit state. 2 3070 6668 17.5 15.5 11.5 27.0 17.0

IDENTIFICATION OF THE WAVE PARAMETERS FOR

4 3140 9580 18.8 17.0 16.0 33.0 20.0

THE CFD SIMULATION

A set of the largest green water events observed in the 5 3140 10080 18.8 17.0 17.0 34.4 23.6

10000-year sea state realizations, as measured by the relative 6 3180 2317 19.8 18.5 15.0 38.0 23.0

Figure 1 Relative-wave probe locations Table 1 Overview of the identified wave events

Figure 3 The simplified CFD geometry

Figure 2 Coordinate system used in the numerical

final geometry model of the module and its location relative to

simulations

the TLP is shown in Figure 3.

The size of the computational domain with the TLP is

CFD ANALYSIS

similar to the size of the calibration wave simulation 1400x450

The computational domain uses the global right handed

m. The width of the domain is set to 1400 m. The mesh

coordinate system Oxyz with the xy-plane on the still water level

structure of the simulations with the TLP is also similar as the

(SWL), the z-axis positive upwards, and the origin under the

mesh used for generation the waves (Figure 4). However, the

center of the deck structure (Figure 2). The direction of the

mesh has higher resolution around the platform in order to

incoming wave is given using WAMIT's convention (Figure 2).

represent correctly the geometry and to be able to catch

In this study the CFD-software STAR-CCM+ from CD-

correctly the impact physics (Figure 5). The number of the cells

adapco is used. The same numerical parameters are used in the

is about 9 millions without the refinement around the container

CFD simulations as presented in (stman, et al. 2015).

walls and about 10 millions with the refinement used in the

A quasi two dimensional grid with one layer of cells in the

mesh convergence study.

y direction is used for the calibration of the waves. The water

The impact force is calculated using the Star-CCM+

depth is 350 m as in the model test; the height of air domain is

"Force report" function. The fluid stress tensor (pressure and

100 m from the mean water level (MWL). The length of the

shear stresses) was integrated over the surfaces of the deck

domain is large enough to avoid unwanted reflection of the

structures to compute the impact load. The position of the

waves from the boundaries, 1400 m. This domain is only large

surfaces is presented in Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8. The

enough for one green water event.

horizontal and vertical forces were calculated and saved for

The size of the mesh is adjusted to the wavelength.

each time steps.

According to the Cd-adapco recommendation it is necessary to

The free surface elevation is measured by monitoring the

use at least 120 cells per wavelength and 30 cells per wave

wetted length (VOF) along a vertically set numerical wave

height. The typical cell size close to the free surface is 4m in

probe (line). The positions of the numerical wave probes were

the longitudinal direction and 1m in the vertical direction. The

chosen to coincide with the wave probe used in the model tests

time step equals 0.004 s. This setup always gave a higher

spatial and temporal resolution than recommended for all wave

components. The number of cells is about 100 000 cells for the

simulation of the breaking wave. The applied mesh topologies

are shown in Figure 4.

In the CFD simulation the applied geometry model of the

TLP was identical with the simplified geometry used in the

experiments. The position of the platform is fixed during the

simulation.

The geometry of the module also had to be somewhat

simplified for the CFD simulations. The criteria of the

simplification was to keep only the elements where one can

expect significant load due to wave impact and where supports

are able to transfer these loads into the main support frame. The Figure 4 Mesh topology of the whole numerical domain used

for the breaking wave simulations

(Figure 1). The numerical wave probe (line) contained 1001

vertex and 1000 elements with 1 cm length. The first vertex is

50 m under the SWL of the numerical wave tank. The

summation of the product of the VOF value at the vertex and

the element length gives the wetted length. The wetted length is

saved at each time step.

The above presented CFD model is validated against

model tests using a moderate regular wave and comparing to

the relative wave records at relevant measuring locations using

forcing zone technics described in [3]. Due to the lack of space

the result of the validation is not shown in this paper but good

agreement between model test results and numerical results was Figure 6 The position of the surface where the vertical

observed, similar to results presented in the above mentioned integrated pressure forces are recorded

paper.

The numerical breaking wave event is a reproduction of a

breaking wave event, measured in the wave tank and presented

in [7]. In this paper the waves were generated in model scale

using a numerical wave maker.

integrated pressure forces acting in y-direction are recorded

integrated pressure forces acting in x-direction are recorded

combination of analytically defined regular waves in order to

reduce the computational time. The waves are scaled up

following Froude low in order to obtain similar crest height as

the largest measured crest height presented in Table 1. We ran

several simulations with different scaling factors in order to

identify the factor which gives the desired crest height.

The time series of the free surface elevation are recorded at

several positions during the breaking wave simulation, which

gives different time histories, in order to identify the "best

match" (Figure 9). The time series at different locations can be

interpreted as the platform is moved relative to the location of

the wave breaking which gives different green water events

illustrated in Figure 10.

Figure 9 Time series of the wave probes at different locations

The next diagrams (in Figure 11) show, the best matches

between two subsets of selected measured events (no.: {3, 8,

10, 13} and {6, 9}) from Table 1 and the numerically simulated

wave at two different locations. The locations are given in

normalized distance where the normalization factor is the

diameter of the columns of the platform, i.e. xp = 2xD means

that the platform is moved with 2 diameters upstream from its

original position (see Figure 10). One cannot see perfect match

between the measured time series and the numerical time

series. However, the range of the differences is similar to the

variability that can be observed between the repetitions of the

same breaking wave events in the model test [8]. Based on this

observation we assume that the numerical match of the

measured wave events can be used in order to define the

similar, relevant physics of the green water event numerically

as one can observe in the model test.

The relative-wave levels from the measurements at

locations 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 (Figure 1) are compared to CFD

results in Figure 12, using the numerical waves from Figure 11. Figure 11 Examples of the best matches between measured

We have monitored the same locations as in model test for wave events and the numerical wave (red l.)

direct comparison (still, we need to recall that TLP motion is

not included in the simulation). We see that for probes no. 7 & model tests).

8 near the column H10, similar levels are simulated as in the In order to estimate the effect of the mesh resolution on the

measurements, and the time series shape are also more or less global forces one simulation of a green water event was

similar with some exceptions. Also for points no. 9 11 there restarted with a finer mesh around the module. The name and

are similar high levels as in the measurements, but the position of the surface which are used in the convergence

systematically somewhat lower (notice that 9 & 10 are in the studies are shown in Figure 13. The comparison of the curves is

shadow of the module, so the CFD results for those probes presented in Figure 14. We can see less difference (less than

must be expected to be somewhat truncated relative to the 10%) between the curves than observed for the time step

convergence study. One can see the same tendency at the local

pressure peaks show in Figure 15. The peak value is about 10

% larger with the finer mesh.

The global forces time series are recorded during

simulations with a time step of 4 ms. Restarting the simulation

before the green water event with a time step of 1 ms is used to

estimate the influence of the time step on the global forces. This

time step is 2.5 times smaller than the time step, which was

used in [3] where the numerically estimated local and global

slamming forces are successfully validated against model test.

One can see similar maximum water particle velocity during

Figure 10 Illustration of the relative location the impact in [3] as in the simulations presented in this paper.

Further, the size of the platforms is also similar. Therefore, we

assume that this time step is sufficient to capture the slamming

event. As one can see in Figure 16, the reduction of the time

Figure 13 The name and the position of the surface where

the integrated pressure forces are recorded for the

convergence studies

series

Floor 2 with about 20%. However, we can see a reduction of

the top value of the force acting in y-direction on Wall_1 and

no significant change on the force acting in x-direction on

Container_wall_1. Further, one can see high frequency

oscillation at the vertical force time series with reduced time

Figure 15 Comparison of the local pressure peak:

step which can be explained by the incompressible modelling

left diagram original mesh; right diagram refined mesh

of the air. Due to this oscillation it was decided not to reduce

around the container

the time step further.

Based on the results of the convergence studies it was used

time step of 1ms and the refined mesh in the CFD simulations

to generate the hydrodynamics load for the ABAQUS

simulation.

Geometry in the CFD model

The local pressure loads are transferred from the CFD

simulation to an ABAQUS model by means of importing an

ABAQUS input file and mapping the pressure in the CFD

simulation onto that input file. The input file contains the

ABAQUS structure mesh. The computed pressure acting on the

wall boundaries are interpolated onto the ABAQUS mesh, and

exported to a new input file which is used as input to ABAQUS

FEM simulations. Some of the geometric details which are

considered to have minor influence on the hydrodynamic load

are omitted in the CFD simulation, but included in the

ABAQUS setup, since the details are of importance in the

structural analysis. Some of the differences in the geometry

modeling in the CFD versus FEM model can be seen in Figure

17. In the FEM model, three separate load transfer plates are Figure 17 Comparison of geometry model in the CFD and

connected with the main frame through 16 support points. Each FEM simulations

of the load plates carry a separate module which are mounted

above each load plate. The modules are modelled as three

separated boxes as shown in Figure 18. The boundary

conditions applied in the FEM analysis are illustrated in Figure

19.

The quasi-static structural analysis was performed for

different time instances during the green water event. The

choice of studied time instances was based on the computed

maximum integrated force acting on the platform structure. As

an example, the results from the structural response of the

maximum absolute vertical force for the location of the

platform 2 diameters upstream from its original position are

presented in the following. The time instance of this numerical

event corresponds to time t = t2 = 45.3s as shown in the time

history of integrated vertical load in Figure 20. At this time

instance, which occurs about 1.3 s after the numerical wave hits

the front wall of module1, the water is moving vertically

downwards (illustrated by means of velocity vectors in Figure

21). This creates a vortex and corresponding suction on the

bottom of the load plate supporting module 1 and is the reason

for the large negative vertical force at this time instance. The

free surface around the platform and pressure distribution at the

walls of the module is shown in Figure 22 and Figure 22,

respectively. The resulting load of this simulation can be seen

as typical structure load related to two of the measured events, Figure 18 FEM model of the modules, main frame and

CO3180 and CO3240 as shown in upper diagram of Figure 11. support points frame

Figure 19 Boundary conditions in the FEM setup

The structural response by means of Von Mises stress and Figure 22 The free surface elevation around the platform

vertical displacement is illustrated in Figure 24 and Figure 25.

The computed reaction forces at the location of the module

support points and at the connection points, where the main

frame support structure is mounted to the existing top side were

exported and delivered to our industrial partner (Aibel) for

further analysis of constructional and design details of the main

frame support structure.

Figure 20 Time history of integrated vertical load acting on Figure 23 Pressure distribution at the walls of the module

the platform structure

CONCLUSION

In this paper a new procedure is presented where CFD

generated synthetic numerical waves can be directly linked to

the extreme events observed in model tests. This means that the

simulated extreme events can be related to a probability of

occurrence, found from the model test.

The procedure depends on existing model test data. But the

size of the module in model scale makes the experimental

measurement of the acting forces on the modules challenging or

impossible. This combination of CFD with experiments offers

new possibilities for the design of structures subject to risk of

green water loading.

The computational time of running one complete CFD

simulation with 50 seconds duration (solution time) is about 12

hours using 96 parallel processors (threads) on a cluster. In

Figure 21 Velocity vectors at a cut at the approximately order to generate the ABAQUS input files the CFD simulations

center of the module 1 platform structure are restarted just before the impact with smaller time step and

finer mesh. The duration of the restarted simulations is about 5

Haver, "Wave Amplification and possible deck impact on

gravity based structure in 10-4 probability extreme crest

heights," in 23rd OMAE, 2004.

[5] J. Scharnke, T. Vestbstad, J. de Wilde and S. Haver,

"Wave-in-Deck Impact Load Measurements on a Fixed

Platform Deck," OMAE, San Francisco, California, USA,

2014.

[6] A. stman, C. Pakozdi, C. Stansberg, J. Fagertun and T.

Vestbostad, "CFD Simulation and Validation of Breaking

Wave Impact Events in Irregular Sea States," in The

Twenty-fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar

Engineering Conference, USA, 2015.

[7] C. Pakozdi, T. E. Kendon and C. T. Stansberg, "Breaking

wave impcat on a platfrom column: an introductory CFD

study," in 30th International Conference on Ocean,

Figure 24 Von Mises stress at the support structure and Offshore and Arctic Engineering, 2011.

connection points [8] C. Pakozdi, J. Visscher, C. Stansberg and J. Fagertun,

"Experimental investigation of global wave impact loads in

steep random seas," in The Twenty-fifth (2015) International

Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, USA, 2015.

structure

which makes the presented methodology attractive for design

purposes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Statoil is gratefully acknowledged for the permission to

publish this paper.

REFERENCES

[2] B. Iwanowski, T. Vestbstad and M. Lefranc, "Wave-in-

deck load on a jacket platfrom, CFD calculations compared

with expriments," in 33rd OMAE, 2014.

[3] C. Pakozdi, M. Peric, H. Lu, R. Baarholm, A. Ostman and

C. Stansberg, "Estimation of Wave in Deck Load Using

CFD Validated Against Model Test Data," in The Twenty-

fifth (2015) International Ocean and Polar Engineering

Conference, USA, 2015.

[4] C. Stansberg, R. Baarholm, T. Fokk, O. Gudmestad and S.

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