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136 Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi dan Kejuruan, Volume 23, Nomor 2, Oktober 2016

THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION, LEARNING STYLES,
TEACHER LEADERSHIP, AND TEACHING INTENSITY
ON STUDENTS’ LEANING OUTCOMES

Dewi Sulistiyarini1, Sukardi2
1IKIP PGRI Pontianak, 2Yogyakarta State University
Email: dhewysulis@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine the correlation and the contribution of motivation, learning styles, teacher
leadership, and the intensity of teaching on the learning outcomes of X grade students in Mathematics at
Vocational High Schools. This study is an ex-post facto with a total sample of 234 students. The data is collected
by questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive statistics as well as correlation and multiple regression with
significance level of 5%. The analysis shows that the students’ motivation and learning styles still need to be
improved, while the teacher leadership and teaching intensity need to be maintained. The result of correlation
analysis shows that motivation, learning styles, teachers’ leadership, teaching intensity, and learning outcomes
correlate from 0.532 to 0.627. The result of dual regression analysis shows that the contribution of motivation
learning styles, teachers’ leadership and teaching intensity on the students’ learning outcomes were 0.381, 0,199,
0.223 and 0.175 respectively.

Keyword: motivation, learning style, teachers’ leadership, teaching intensity

INTRODUCTION the previous materials. Students who have
difficulties in completing a mathematics
Learning in Vocational High Schools problem will possess difficulties in the next
(SMK) is more geared to vocational technology learning materials. Learning Mathematics in
education, which is adapted to the development Vocational High Schools is different from
of technology in the business industry. Senior High Schools. It is further focused on
Vocational technology education according to the students reasoning ability which requires
Kuswana (2013: 182) is the secondary school students to keep thinking in order to solve the
which provides specific skills to students problems. Students who have a low awareness
aiming at improving the skills of students to in learning Mathematics will get lazy in doing
specific fields. SMK as vocational education the tasks because they are unable to think using
consisting of some expertise programs that their logic to find solutions to the problems.
serve to educate students based on the selected The learning outcomes achieved by students is
expertise program. In addition, vocational not satisfied.
education graduates are also expected to be Learning outcomes can be influenced by
independent and ready to compete in the work several factors, including the students their
force. The success of education is inseparable selves and also the environment (Junianto,
from the curriculum in Vocational High 2015). Learning outcomes influenced by factors
Schools (SMK). arising from the students are motivation and
Mathematics is a compulsory subject learning styles. While the environmental factors
available in each curriculum of secondary are academic environment of the school,
education in Indonesia. Mathematics learning teachers’ leadership during the learning process,
materials implemented in schools are adjusted and teaching intensity.
to education level and type of education. The Mathematics is a deductive science,
materials are interrelated and continuous from which is definite or coherent. In addition,

and principles. relations. and Teaching Intensity on Students’ Leaning Outcomes 137 Mathematics is logical and structured. (4) Sukmadinata (2011: 162) added that the describing ideas with symbols. Teacher Leadership. (3) intelligence. The operations in Computer and Network general principle of Mathematics is general Engineering. The Influence of Motivation. The success of accept the lesson. (2) spiritual aspects of learning. (6) it regards on learning outcomes is the result of a study the universe namely the scope of mathematic focused on the achievement obtained by the workmanship. knowledge which are perceived and then namely algebra. and The success of learning is characterized applying the concepts flexibly. accurately. and matrix algebra. (2) it rests inseparable from an understanding of on opportunities. This understanding can that exist in the use of symbols and terms. concepts. Learning outcomes are measured based 2008: 1). namely (1) understanding concepts. attention. the model. Maher (2004: 47) suggested that symbols with empty meanings. It requires a high-logic According to Sumardyono (2004: 30) the thinking in the process as in designing an natures of Mathematics are: (1) it owns abstract algorithm program used as the initial design of object of study. its calculation consists of engaged in a state associated with the linear. making manipulation in making factors. The problems. characteristics in general views understood by Computer and Network Engineering. and in achieving the learning outcomes. (5) possessing characteristics of internal factors from the students are: (1) curiosity. explaining mathematical statements. and society. tables. Physical health of students is mathematics has a broad scope. the program. and opportunity given to understand the problem. or other media to clarify situations or from the outside or the environment. as well as to interpret the results. to design. Boolean. The physical perseverance in solving mathematical problems. (4) it is consistent with the system. factors could be resulted from the inner self and diagrams. efficiently and appropriately in solving Mappeasse (2009: 4) stated that student problems.Dewi Sulistiyarini and Sukardi. includes programming. and interest in studying physical aspects including health and physical Mathematics. formula or new theorem in mathematics. namely facts. it position in the measurement and teachers play is mentioned that Mathematics in Vocational an important role to achieve the educational High Schools has several objectives (Sadiq. This physical aspect is also Mathematics in SMK greatly affects the success called as physiology aspect. and preliminary mastery of completing issues that include the ability to materials to be taught. explaining linkages between concepts. teachers. (5) it has experiences. (3) it scaffold students to find the best algorithm is deductive thinking. by the learning results achieved by the students. Students requires student activities in learning and who are healthy physically are more ready to solving the problems. students. Learning Styles. namely the efforts exerted by students generalizations. condition covers the health of the body and the Based on these explanations. so that students have the crucial the content standard of Mathematics courses. experts. Mathematics indispensable in the learning process. for example mathematical take account of the students' psychological . Making the algorithm is operations. as well as confidence and condition of the students. and to finish the students to explore the learning materials. success. students and this is the correct and more According to the Regulation of National realistic measurement about the values of Education Ministry Number 22 of 2006 about education. (2) using reasoning on patterns and learning outcomes can be influenced by several natures. namely agreement or rules mathematical logic. which Learning is defined as self-potential was then adjusted to an existing and undefined changes manifested from experiences and theorem. it is known that five senses. on the student achievement in a single subject. parents. namely discovery of formula in quick and structured manner. compiling evidence.

others or the environment (extrinsic These can increase the overall student learning motivation). Bush (2011: 170) explains that teachers teachers. aspect according Shah (2001:132) consists of Mathematics is exact science that requires intelligence. It is very dependable on the learning and teaching the early fundamental environment for students strategies used to maximize the students ability. The balance occurred between the . Nomor 2. learning media. the community is knowledge and their enjoyment while learning. the social environment and learning styles they have. The teachers should understand the learning. expected to provide new knowledge about how Gilakjani (2012) noted that a good to adapt well. Students who have a good Students who have high motivation are able to physical aspect does not necessarily have a achieve higher performance than those who good spiritual aspects as well. learning. understanding of learning styles is the most Motivation is an impulse from the important thing in learning because it can individual. talent. The knowledge acquired in the family and in the teacher active involvement can improve their school. Learning styles for the student success in learning. Motivation can be created through assists students in finding the best way to learn self-awareness or originated within ourselves effectively and also teachers to teach efficiently (intrinsic motivation) and the encouragement of and accommodate the students' learning styles.138 Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi dan Kejuruan. and (3) Society environment is the to get a better understanding about the students’ environment where students apply the learning process and learning styles. well-directed impact on the psychological development of learning styles can improve the students' students. In addition. consist of three learning process. the ability to think. stated that motivation is essential to learning. and the cognitive. and considering the situation and conditions the academic environment such as the occurred in the classroom by doing a implementation of learning. The level of difficulty in learning The environmental factors that affect Mathematics is a challenge to motivation. themselves also should understand the abilities and learning resources. to learn. teachers also need to consider the example housing conditions. and family can be determinants student's learning styles. home appropriate learning strategies to fit the environment. for instance relationships between friends. The physical state of good family for In addition. It encourages students Spiritual aspects affect the psyche and feelings to implement the learning process effectively. It is appropriately in accordance with students’ expected that the environment has a huge learning styles. Volume 23. Oktober 2016 condition. Spiritual aspects have low motivation. and other school communities that need enrich their teaching techniques by teach students to be able to get along well. of individuals. (2) School possess many benefits or advantages in environment is essential for the success of learning. Subsequently. Spiritual achieved the greater learning goals. Society teaches students on the use of capacities to determine how to teach ethics and values existed in the society. vocational transmission approach to determine the guidance. Spiritual Motivation is an essential component required aspect is also known as psychological aspect. and diligence and thoroughness in the process of behavior. Alessi and Trollip (2001: 24) outcomes. industrial information. students’ learning outcomes. Law and Glover (2000: 167- factors namely: (1) Family environment is the 168) identify that the success of a learning is basic environment in the learning process. They include the school physical condition of the students and the students environment such as facilities. motivation. extracurricular appropriate way of teaching that can be applied activities. affective and psychomotor conditions. in the learning process. The greater motivation make students able to compete fairly. interest. according Learning styles are ways that are used in Sukmadinata (2011: 164).

Greenfield and Ribbins (1993) in the both teachers and students in every meeting. regulate the behavior and thoughts process in class and put their positions well. intensity of teaching is one of the benefits of Teacher leadership is an important process that teaching purposes namely selecting teaching greatly influences the success of the school. environment must be adapted to the type of the A teacher needs to recognize the teaching subjects. Mathematics is a subject that requires a teacher Mathematics requires a high-level as the sole leader. in accordance with the objectives to be Then. that the learning objectives can be achieved. to The materials should be neat and in a sequence improve the teaching and learning process so to be easily understood. the teacher understands the condition learning process in class. for instance Mathematics. subjects. 2011: principals. In and to provide a sense of comfort to the addition. activities that have been adapted to the self-awareness. teachers are expected to fits the number of Teacher leadership is the nature of teachers who meetings fully so that the students can achieve have influences on the inside and outside the the optimal learning outcomes. students' prior knowledge. given task and learn actively and independently. such as students. provided to students make them more focused. Each subject has different students’ learning styles in Mathematics. Materials students become more comfortable. teachers’ teaching experiences (Hamdani. number of students. strategies. and students. Materials and activities in each emotion and moral. It is easier for the teacher to influence students to be able to accomplish a interact. colleagues. The required by schools.Dewi Sulistiyarini and Sukardi. leadership is meeting have been included in the syllabus. members of other schools. In education. process by which teacher. Teachers should be able to understanding. In terms of meetings. influence their colleagues. individually or time and facilities. Learning Styles. The structured and of the students better and appreciates them systematic teaching process will give good during the learning process. a good interaction can be created between achieved. Self-leadership is shaped from one's way Teachers considerate more about the learning to recognize. positive impact on the development of students Teacher leadership in the learning in learning. and also the results on the students' understanding. Teaching strategies used during the York-Barr and Duke (2004) in IEL learning process must be adapted to the purpose (2008: 4) states that teacher leadership is the of teaching. communities to improve teaching and learning The intensity of the teaching of practices with the aim to increase students’ Mathematics becomes a main concern that must learning and achievement. and the ability to control curriculum. Bush (2011: 6) stated that leadership begins Teaching intensity is a quantity of or with the character possessed by a leader and it frequency or number of meetings. in characteristics. Teacher Leadership. and other members of the school 156). teachers. The Influence of Motivation. materials and is manifested in the form of self-assessment. and the learning objectives can be achieved. order to guide them to an effective learning. the learning becomes more attracting. and Teaching Intensity on Students’ Leaning Outcomes 139 teacher and students in class may have a classroom to improve education. . It is a process of be met because Mathematics is a subject with a teachers influences principals. and collectively. and lot of materials and a high level of difficulty.

The statistical analysis respectively. Nomor 2.00. thus they are deviation.208. students. The result learning outcomes.456 0. The observations are conducted ex-post facto approach. 77.969. . The research population using observation lists. 31. this of data analysis for the requirement test is study used observation. 48.140 Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi dan Kejuruan. and correlation and multiple regression. 19.147 0. learning style.60% and 4. The data is analyzed by descriptive some matters of motivation.295 respectively. The obtained data concerns outcomes. 46. The the teacher leadership considered to be good questionnaires on learning styles are responded and should be maintained.458. and standard deviation.89% disagree. 102.10. standard deviation variance. 73. Observation is used to see the learning process and the physical classroom This study is carried out by implementing condition.481. teaching intensity.533 1.67% 5.601 respectively. mode.21% agree.122.85%. 109.462 1. The positive value on motivation’s skewness value is marked as negative or left- skewness or right-oblique explains the students’ oblique conveying the students’ perspectives on low motivation that needs to be improved. applicable in inferential analysis. median. learning styles. 37.471 0. 29. 10.79% strongly agree.343 0.990 1.207 174. shows the scores of mean.00. responded by the students with 25. Volume 23.487.88% strongly disagree. A questionnaire is is 10th grade students who take Mathematics at administrated to obtain data from each SMK Negeri Pontianak consisting of 576 independent variable. standard aspects are not correlated. 13. and 6. and 0. and were 16. and 0. and -0. In addition.155 1.946 Intensity Table 1 reveals the variables.75% strongly disagree. 83.454 Learning Style 0. The statistical analysis results on this variable shows the scores of mean. variance and skewness were skewness were 82. median. namely with 16. Table 1. The skewness value which is RESULTS AND DISCUSSION positive or right-oblique explains that students’ learning styles is low and needs improvement.80. The respectively. mode. median. The research sample consists of 234 documentation is used to collect data in the students selected using proportional random form of documents related to learning sampling technique. 102. 47.940 Leadership Teaching 0. variance and skewness were 73. The questionnaires on motivation reveals The questionnaires on teacher leadership are that respondents who answer strongly agree.50% disagree.00.49% strongly agree. mode. 6.57% agree.89%. 73. Oktober 2016 METHODS documentation. and teaching intensity are normal and linear The scores of mean. statistics and inferential statistics which cover teachers’ leadership. disagree. and strongly disagree were agree. 98. teacher leadership. questionnaire. motivation. and presented in Table 1.464 Teacher 0. The Data Analysis of the Requirement Test Variable Data Normality Data Linearity Data Multicollinearity Motivation 0. To obtain data.41.

000 . <0. teacher leadership. to determine the magnitude of the Regression 15596. Motivation.000 .490** .000 . Model R Square Square the Estimate a multiple regression models can be used to 1 .000 . motivation.532** . Model Squares DOF Square F Sig.01 level (1-tailed). Between-variable Coefficients Learning Teacher Teaching Leaning Motivation Styles Leadership Intensity Outcomes Motivation Pearson Correlation 1 .000 .000 .574** 1 Sig. Error of Anova table.000 N 234 234 234 234 234 Teaching Intensity Pearson Correlation . Correlation is significant at the 0.574** Sig. It Leadership means 57. Collective Correlation of Independent (X4). Teacher Leadership Anova for learning outcomes (Y): Based on Table 3. following table displays multiple regression Learning Styles. simultaneously independent variables such as teacher leadership. (1-tailed) .346** .15890 predict the outcomes of learning (Y).563 7.360** . Motivation. Teaching Intensity.532** Sig.250 square. Teacher Leadership.000 . (1-tailed) .755 . Multiple Variables for Learning Outcomes regression model has influence.755 and 0. Dependent Variable: Learning Outcomes . towards learning outcomes (Y).000 .346** . learning styles (X2). Furthermore. Residual 11736.422** .8 233 coefficient (R) and the determination a.563** Sig.490** .571 .000 N 234 234 234 234 234 **.000 .634** . it can be seen Adjusted from the significance value contained in the R R Std.000 .493** 1 .000 N 234 234 234 234 234 Learning Styles Pearson Correlation . The Influence of Motivation. teacher leadership (X3). the magnitude of the Table 4.634** 1 . The calculation of correlation data determined by motivation.627** Sig. as shown in Table 3. Teaching Intensity. The a. outcomes. Multiple Regression Anova correlation value of independent variables on Anovab the dependent variable is accountable by Sum of Mean looking at the value of R in the table. motivation (X1). Teacher independent variables are 0.1% of learning outcomes is b.000 .Dewi Sulistiyarini and Sukardi.571. coefficient (R-square) together with Learning Styles. Predictors: (Constant).2 229 51. Predictors: (Constant).563** . used to see the magnitude of the correlation to Multiple regression is a regression all independent variables together on learning calculation of a set of independent variables.000 . While 42.422** 1 .000 . learning styles.081 .000a coefficient of determination we can refer to R. (1-tailed) . (1-tailed) . The value of variable sig. and the intensity of teaching Table 3.360** .6 4 3899. learning styles.000 N 234 234 234 234 234 Teacher Leadership Pearson Correlation .493** .000 .05.1 76. The magnitude of the correlation Total 27332. and teaching intensity.000 N 234 234 234 234 234 Learning Outcomes Pearson Correlation . (1-tailed) .9% of learning outcomes is teaching intensity and learning outcomes are determined by other factors.627** .000 . and Teaching Intensity on Students’ Leaning Outcomes 141 Table 2. Learning Styles.

381. teacher leadership.005.093 . teacher leadership (X3) at 0. It ෡  ൌ െʹͺǤͶͳ͹ ൅ ͲǤ͵ͻ͵ଵ ൅ ͲǤ͵ͷʹଶ ൅ ͲǤͳͺ͵ଷ ൅ means that the motivation variable (X1).223 3.793 . Multiple Regression Coefficients Coefficientsa Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. 1 (Constant) -28. Teacher should also 0.199. Based on motivation (X1) at 0.223. Table 5.352.199 3.417 and teaching intensity (X4) at 0. ͲǤʹʹͷସ (1) learning styles (X2).175.546 . Dependent Variable: Learning Outcomes Based on the regression coefficient table. regression coefficient (b3) of 0. the motivation that is 0.225 .142 Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi dan Kejuruan. Teacher as a leader in the classroom learning outcomes. can be a facilitator for students to improve their motivation. The second highest variable contribution implement strategies and more innovative is teacher leadership at 0. It was indicated the Sig.199. on teaching intensity variable is 0.183 . learning SMK N 4 Pontianak are still low and needs to styles.381 7. Oktober 2016 In Table 4. teacher leadership (X3).381.393. namely the contribution of to see the coefficient table in Table 5.175 2.054 . Volume 23.000 Learning Style .) on The students’ motivation of Mathematics in the motivation. intensity of teaching which contributes 0. it is obtained a significance The regression equation obtained: value for the learning outcomes (Y) at 0. and teacher field is still low referring to the lack of efforts leadership variable is 0. and From Table 5 it can be identified the the intensity of teaching (X4) can be utilized to magnitude of the contributions made by each predict the learning outcomes (Y).000 Teaching Intensity .05 and the regression Therefore. from the positive skewness at 0.175.000 Teacher Leadership .207. and the constant value (a) amounted to -28.000 Motivation . The third place is learning style at 0.004 a. learning styles (X2) at Table 5 multiple regression equation.289 .417 6.697 . The fourth place is teaching methods to train the student's learning . the It can be stated that all independent variables motivation has the greatest contribution for have impacts on student learning outcomes as students’ learning outcomes at 0.183.225. the motivation still needs to be model can be used to determine the value of improved. value shows ” 0.000 while the value of in completing the tasks given. learning styles.352 .381.896 . The next independent variable (X) on the dependent step is analyze the multiple regression equation variable (Y). namely 0.223. Error Beta T Sig. Teacher should further optimize influences on the learning outcomes with the the way of teaching so that students become highest variable contribution is motivation at more interested in learning and improve their learning abilities. and the intensity of teaching have significant contributions or be improved. students can increase CONCLUSION motivation through high self-awareness to succeed.251 -4. The learning styles of the students of The conclusion is motivation. While. the Sig. Nomor 2.000. the variable contribution comes from the regression coefficient (b2) of 0.078 . In addition.049 .381.393 . The biggest regression coefficient (b1) of 0. the value of statistical significance (Sig. and the regression coefficients (b4) amounted to 0.

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