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6-1 General Metallic Waveguides

**How to study the theory of metallic waveguides (by L. J.
**

Chu, 朱蘭成):

1. Specify a proper coordinate system, and derive

waveguide’s equations to express the transverse

components of the E- and H-fields in terms of the

longitudinal components by Maxwell’s equations.

2. Caculate the eigenmodes (TM mode, TE mode, TEM

mode or other types of modes) of the waveguide, and

obtain the eigenvalues and the longitudinal field-components of the corresponding

eigenmodes by solving the wave equations. Substituting the longitudinal field-

components into the longitudinal components, we can obtain the other components. If the

eigenmode is injected into a waveguide, it can propagate along an infinitely-long straight

waveguide without any deformation. However, in case the input EM wave is not an

eigenmode, some power loss occurs and then it becomes the eigenmode gradually. All the

eigenmodal functions in an infinitely-long straight metallic waveguide are orthogonal to

each other. Moreover, these eigenmodes form a complete set (a basis in a vector space),

such that any electromagnetic fields within the waveguide can be uniquely expressed by

the eigenmodal functions.

3. Obtain the quantities of the physical characteristics for a given eigenmode, such as the

cutoff frequency (fc), the propagation constant (γ=α+jβ), the phase velocity (vp=ω/β),

v g /

the group velocity ( ), the impedance Z, etc.

. E x0 E y0 j 1 Z TM 0 0 ( ) H ( zˆ E ) Hy Hx j Z TM and f 2 h h2 k 2 h 1 ( ) fc fc 2 . where h2=γ2+k2. no cutoff Case 2 TM mode: Hz=0. . 1 E z0 H z0 1 E z0 H z0 E x0 ( j ) E 0 y ( j ) h2 x y h2 y x . where 1 f f vp j j 1 ( c ) 2 Z TM 1 ( c ) 2 f f 1 ( f c / f ) 2 If f>fc.Waveguide’s equations: According to Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. . 2E k 2E 0 t2 E ( 2 k 2 ) E 0 [ t2 h 2 ]E 2 H k 2 H 0 t2 H ( 2 k 2 ) H 0 [ t2 h 2 ]H and Case 1 TEM mode: Ez=Hz=0 1 vp h 0 TEM k TEM jk j 2 2 2 . Ez≠0 and ▽t2Ez+h2Ez=0 j E z0 E z0 E 0 E z 0 H x0 2 j E z0 h y H y h 2 x E x h 2 x 0 0 y h 2 y . . . we obtain 1 H z0 E 0 j z ) H y0 1 ( H z j E z ) 0 0 H x0 2 ( h x y h2 y x . E0 j TEM 1 Z TEM x0 H zˆ E Hy TEM j Z TEM and Note: All frequencies make γTEM is pure imaginary TEM wave can propagate at any frequency.

E x0 E y0 j Z TE 0 0 ( ) Hy Hx j E Z TE ( zˆ H ) and fc 2 f j jk 1 ( ) j 1 ( c ) 2 f f If f>fc. . 6-2 Parallel–Plate Waveguides . A case of longitudinal vp>0 but longitudinal vg=0 in barber’s pole. Hz≠0 and ▽t2Hz+h2Hz=0 H z0 H z0 j H z0 j H z0 Hx 2 0 H 0 y E 0 x Ey 2 0 h x h 2 y h 2 y h x . Z TE vp 1 1 ( fc / f ) 2 1 ( f c / f ) 2 . .Case 3 TE mode: Ez=0.

3. d 2 H z0 ( y ) dH z0 ( y ) ny 2 h 2 H 0 z ( y ) 0 0 H z0 ( y ) Bn cos( ) dy dy b . (b) Sketch the E. z . b y E y ( y. y ) E z0 ( y )e z Case 1 TMn mode: Hz=0. (Sol.) (a) For n=1.& H.field lines in the yz-plane. . (Note: n=0 is the TEM mode) H z ( y. 3. 1. at y=0 and b and fc= n 2b j dH z0 ny H y ( y) Bn sin( 0 2 ) h dy h b E 0 ( y ) dH z j B sin( ny ) n 2 0 x n ( ) 2 h 2 dy h b b and γ= . … Eg. n=0. 2. n=1. … 0 j dE z ( y ) j 0 ny H x ( y) 2 An cos( ) h dy h b E 0 ( y ) dE z ( y ) h A cos( ny ) n 2 0 y n h 2 2 ( ) 2 h 2 dy b b and n 2b Cutoff frequency: fc= fulfills γ=0. dE z0 ( y ) h 2 E z0 ( y ) 0 dy 2 E z0 ( y ) 0 . 2. (a)Write the instantaneous field expression for TM1 mode in a parallel-plate waveguide. at y=0 and b n ny E z ( y ) An sin( 0 ) b b Eigenvalues: h= . z ) H z0 ( y )e z Case 2 TEn modes: Ez=0. t ) A1 cos( ) sin( t z ) b . E z ( x.

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