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# Chapter 6 Metallic Waveguide and Cavity Resonators

6-1 General Metallic Waveguides

How to study the theory of metallic waveguides (by L. J.
Chu, 朱蘭成):
1. Specify a proper coordinate system, and derive
waveguide’s equations to express the transverse
components of the E- and H-fields in terms of the
longitudinal components by Maxwell’s equations.
2. Caculate the eigenmodes (TM mode, TE mode, TEM
mode or other types of modes) of the waveguide, and
obtain the eigenvalues and the longitudinal field-components of the corresponding
eigenmodes by solving the wave equations. Substituting the longitudinal field-
components into the longitudinal components, we can obtain the other components. If the
eigenmode is injected into a waveguide, it can propagate along an infinitely-long straight
waveguide without any deformation. However, in case the input EM wave is not an
eigenmode, some power loss occurs and then it becomes the eigenmode gradually. All the
eigenmodal functions in an infinitely-long straight metallic waveguide are orthogonal to
each other. Moreover, these eigenmodes form a complete set (a basis in a vector space),
such that any electromagnetic fields within the waveguide can be uniquely expressed by
the eigenmodal functions.
3. Obtain the quantities of the physical characteristics for a given eigenmode, such as the
cutoff frequency (fc), the propagation constant (γ=α+jβ), the phase velocity (vp=ω/β),
v g   / 
the group velocity ( ), the impedance Z, etc.

. E x0 E y0  j  1   Z TM  0  0  ( ) H  ( zˆ  E ) Hy Hx j  Z TM and f 2 h   h2  k 2  h 1 ( ) fc  fc 2  . where h2=γ2+k2. no cutoff Case 2 TM mode: Hz=0. . 1 E z0 H z0 1 E z0 H z0 E x0   (  j  ) E 0 y   (  j ) h2 x y h2 y x . where 1 f f vp    j  j  1  ( c ) 2  Z TM   1  ( c ) 2 f f  1  ( f c / f ) 2 If f>fc.Waveguide’s equations: According to Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. .       2E  k 2E  0   t2 E  ( 2  k 2 ) E  0  [ t2  h 2 ]E          2 H  k 2 H  0   t2 H  ( 2  k 2 ) H  0  [ t2  h 2 ]H and Case 1 TEM mode: Ez=Hz=0 1 vp  h  0   TEM  k   TEM  jk  j  2 2 2  . Ez≠0 and ▽t2Ez+h2Ez=0 j E z0  E z0 E 0    E z 0 H x0  2 j E z0 h y H y   h 2 x E x   h 2 x 0 0 y h 2 y . . . we obtain 1 H z0 E 0  j z ) H y0   1 ( H z  j E z ) 0 0 H x0   2 ( h x y h2 y x . E0 j  TEM   1  Z TEM  x0     H  zˆ  E Hy  TEM j  Z TEM and  Note: All frequencies make γTEM is pure imaginary TEM wave can propagate at any frequency.

E x0 E y0 j   Z TE  0  0  ( )   Hy Hx  j E   Z TE ( zˆ  H ) and fc 2 f   j  jk 1  ( )  j  1  ( c ) 2 f f If f>fc. . 6-2 Parallel–Plate Waveguides . A case of longitudinal vp>0 but longitudinal vg=0 in barber’s pole. Hz≠0 and ▽t2Hz+h2Hz=0  H z0  H z0 j H z0 j H z0 Hx   2 0 H 0 y   E 0 x   Ey  2 0 h x h 2 y h 2 y h x .  Z TE  vp  1  1 ( fc / f ) 2  1  ( f c / f ) 2 . .Case 3 TE mode: Ez=0.

3. d 2 H z0 ( y ) dH z0 ( y ) ny 2  h 2 H 0 z ( y )  0 0  H z0 ( y )  Bn cos( ) dy dy b . (b) Sketch the E. z . b y E y ( y. y )  E z0 ( y )e z Case 1 TMn mode: Hz=0. (Sol.) (a) For n=1.& H.field lines in the yz-plane. . (Note: n=0 is the TEM mode) H z ( y. 3. 1. at y=0 and b and fc= n 2b   j dH z0  ny  H y ( y)    Bn sin( 0 2 )  h dy h b   E 0 ( y )    dH z  j B sin( ny ) n 2 0  x n ( )   2  h 2 dy h b b and γ= . … Eg. n=0. 2. n=1. …  0 j dE z ( y ) j 0 ny  H x ( y)  2  An cos( )  h dy h b   E 0 ( y )    dE z ( y )   h A cos( ny ) n 2 0  y n   h 2   2   ( )   2  h 2 dy  b b and n 2b  Cutoff frequency: fc= fulfills γ=0. dE z0 ( y )  h 2 E z0 ( y )  0 dy 2 E z0 ( y )  0 . 2. (a)Write the instantaneous field expression for TM1 mode in a parallel-plate waveguide. at y=0 and b n ny E z ( y )  An sin( 0 )  b b Eigenvalues: h= . z )  H z0 ( y )e z Case 2 TEn modes: Ez=0. t )  A1 cos( ) sin( t  z )  b . E z ( x.