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Chapters 5-6

Created by Teri Johnson

Math Coordinator, Mary Stangler Center for Academic Success

**Examples are taken from Statistics 4 E by Michael Sullivan, III
**

And the corresponding Test Generator from Pearson

Revised 12/13

Note:

This review is composed of questions the textbook

and the test generator. This review is meant to

highlight basic concepts from the course. It does

not cover all concepts presented by your instructor.

Refer back to your notes, unit objectives, handouts,

etc. to further prepare for your exam. A copy of

this review can be found at www.sctcc.edu/cas.

The final answers are displayed in red and the

chapter/section number is the corner.

2 Green .2 3 .3 B .6 C . 2) The sum of the probabilities must equal 1.1 D 0 Yellow .3 4 .2 No. Is the table a Probability Model? x P(x) x P(x) x P(x) 1 . cannot have Yes No.2 A . the sum of the negative probabilities probabilities doesn’t equal 1 5.2 2 -. Probability Rules 1) P(event) is greater or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1.3 Red .5 Blue .1 .

1 . Probability A survey of 971 investors asked how often they tracked their portfolio. What is the probability that an investor tracks his or her portfolio daily? How Frequently Response Daily 236 Weekly 261 Monthly 273 Couple times a year 141 Don’t Track 60 Step 1: Find the total of responses = 971 Step 2: Take the amount of daily responses and divide by the total 236/971=0. The table shows the investor responses.243 5.

then P(E or F)=P(E)+ P(F) • General Addition Rule – P(E or F)=P(E)+ P(F).Addition Rules and Disjoint Events • What are disjoint events? – AKA mutually exclusive – Events that have no outcomes in common • Addition Rule for Disjoint Events – If E and F are disjoint events.P(E and F) 5.2 .

Find the probability that the card is a queen or a club. P(Queen or club)=P(Queen)+P(club)-P(Queen and a club) P(Queen or club)= 4/52 + 13/52 – 1/52 P(Queen or club)= 16/52=4/13 5.2 . Addition Rules and Disjoint Events • In the game of craps. Is the event getting a total of 9 and one of the dice showing a 6 disjoint events? Answer Yes or No. – No because you can get a sum of 9 when of the dice is showing a 6 (the other would be a 3) • A card is drawn from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. two dice are tossed and the up faces are totaled. Express the probability as a simplified fraction.

183 = 1 − . Compliment Rule P(not E)=1-P(E) or Rooms Probability P(EC)=1-P(E) 1 .844 5 .011 = .005 2 .2 .23 • What is the probability of having at least 6 .204 3 rooms? ? ?? ????? 3 7 .156 = 1 − .088 ? ???? ?ℎ?? 8 = 1 − ? 8 ?? ???? 4 .011 • What Is the probability of having less than 8 rooms? 3 .984 5.005 − .123 = 1 − ? 1 ???? − ? 2 ????? 8 or More .156 = .

3 .Independence and Multiplication Rule • When are 2 events independent? – If the occurrence of event E in a probability experiment does not affect the probability of event F • Multiplication Rule for independent Events – Events E and F are independent if P(E and F) =P(E)*P(F) 5.

all identically shaped. and then select a second piece. Find the probability of getting a 2 the first time and a 2 the second time. 10 filled with caramel.3 .Independence and Multiplication Rule There are 30 chocolates in a box. Is this an example of independence? Answer Yes or No. eat it. Express the probability as a simplified fraction. You randomly select one piece. – No A single die is rolled twice. and 9 are solid chocolate. There are 11 filled with nuts. – These events are independent P(2 on the first and 2 on second)=P(2 on first roll)(2 on second roll)=(1/6)*(1/6)=1/16 5.

• Conditional Probability Rule P(E and F) N(E and F) –P FE = = P(E) N(E) • General Multiplication Rule – P(E and F)=P(E)*P(F|E) 5. Conditional Probability • P(F|E) is read probability of event F given that event E has occurred.4 .

what is the probability that it was older than 2 years? Age of car (in years) Make 0-2 3-5 6-10 Over 10 Total Foreign 40 30 10 20 100 Domestic 45 27 11 17 100 Total 85 57 21 37 200 N(older than 2 years and Domestic) P older than 2 ????? ???????? = N(Domestic) 27 + 11 + 17 11 = = 100 20 5. given that the car selected was a domestic car. Conditional Probability Using the given table.4 .

and then select a second piece. You randomly select one piece. eat it. and 14 are solid chocolate. P(solid and nut)=P(solid)*P(nut|solid)= 14 10 1 ∗ = 36 35 9 5.4 . Find the probability of selecting solid chocolate then a nut. all identically shaped. There 10 are filled with nuts. 12 with caramel. General Multiplication Rule There are 36 chocolates in a box.

r=3 9! 9C3= = 84 3! 9−3 ! 5.5 . Order is not important ?! Formula: nCr= ?! ?−? ! From 9 names on a ballot. Counting Techniques: Combination The number of different arrangements of r objects chosen from in which 1. How many different committees are possible? n=9. a committee of 3 will be elected to attend a political national convention. Repetition of objects is not allowed 3. The n objects are distinct 2.

Counting Techniques: Permutations • Permutation of Distinct items with replacement – The selection of r objects from n distinct objects. no repetition. and order matters – nr • Permutation of Distinct items without replacement – The selection of r objects from n distinct objects. repetition is allowed. n2 of a second kind and so on where n=n1+n2+…+nk ?! – ?1 !?2 !…?? ! 5. and order matters ?! – nPr= ?−? ! • Permutation of nondistinct items without replacement – The number of ways n objects can be arranged (order matters) in which there are n1 of one kind.5 .

how many different birth/gender orders are possible? – Combination. 104= 10. and a catcher. If this family has exactly 2 boys. 6C2= 15 • A baseball team consists of 3 outfielders. how many batting orders are possible? 9! – Permutation of no distinct items without replacement. 4 infielders. Counting Techniques • Outside a home there is a keypad that will open the garage if the correct 4-digit code is entered. = 2520 3!4!1!1! 5. Assuming that the outfielders and infielders are indistinguishable. How many codes are possible? – Permutation of Distinct items with replacement.5 . 40P3= 59280 • A family has 6 children. a pitcher.000 • Suppose 40 cars start at the Indy 500. In how many ways can the top 3 cars finish? – Permutation of Distinct items without replacement.

5 . Determine the Appropriate Counting Technique to Use Copyright © 2013 Pearson Higher Ed 5.

6 . Determine the Appropriate Probability to Rule to Use 5-17 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Higher Ed 5.

16=1.2 . Find the mean and standard deviation for the random variable x.54 2) Take x2 and multiply by P(x) 3) Add the values from step 2 4 .04.1 . Expected Value = Mean 1) Multiply x by P(x) x P(x) xP(x) x2P(x) 2) Add the numbers from step 1 0 .2996 3 .3 0*.18+. 6.64 = 2.3=0 0+.0804 5) Take the square root of the number from step 4.06 . 2 .4 1) Find the mean and square it.38 4) Take the number from step 3 and subtract from value from step 1: 2.04 . Mean and Standard Deviation of Discrete Probability Model In a sandwich shop.16 .4+.4+. Standard Deviation 1 .4 .38-1.14 2=1. 1.3=0 02*.8 =1.4 . This is the standard deviation.2996=1. The random variable x represents the number of condiments used for a hamburger.14.4 . This is the mean. the following probability distribution was obtained.18 .

If it is not. The random variable is the number of picture cards obtained. No. Binomial Probability Criteria for Binomial 1) Fixed number of trials (times done) 2) Trials are independent 3) Outcomes: Success or Failure 4) The probability of a success is the same Decide whether the experiment is a binomial experiment. The random variable represents the number of students enrolled as new students.2 . Trials are not independent 3) Survey 50 college students see whether they are enrolled as a new student. more than two outcomes 2) Selecting five cards. No. Yes 6. explain why. one at a time without replacement. The random variable represents the color of marble that is drawn. from a standard deck of cards. 1) You draw a marble 350 times from a bag with three colors of marbles.

Binomial Probability Assume that male and female births are equally likely and that the births are independent.5 9 (1 − .5)10−9 = .2 .999 6. Find the probability that there are exactly 9 girls out of 10 births ? ? = 9 = 10?9 .0098 Find the probability that there is at least 1 girl out of 10 births ? ? ≥ 1 = 1 − ? 0 = .

11) =10. Would these results be considered unusual? 1) Find the Mean: (np) =1100*.28)=100.11)(1 − . it was reported that 11% of adult Americans had trust in the federal government’s handling of domestic issues.28)=141.38 3) For an event to be unusual. 121+2(10. 6. Suppose a random sample of 1100 finds that 84 have a trust in the government’s handling of domestic issues.56 Since 84 is outside this interval.44.Binomial Mean and Standard Deviation In 2000. the event is unusual.2 .11=121 2) Find the standard deviation: ??(1 − ?) = 1100(. it must be outside the mean plus/minus two standard deviations 121-2(10.

λ=3.3 . an average of three students arrive.0216 7! 6. time slot. t=1 (3∙1)7 −3∙1 –? ?=7 = ? =. Poisson Distribution • A stats professor finds that when he schedules an office hour at the 10:30 a.m. time slot exactly seven students will arrive. Use the Poisson distribution to find the probability that in a randomly selected office hour in the 10:30 a.m. – x=7.

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