a b =| a || b | cos
Applications:
Applications:
1
(i) a Area of triangle= | ab |
2
b
(ii) If four points A, B, C and D are coplanar, then | AB AC | AD = 0
3. Equation of lines:
Representations:
a d
(i) r = b + e (parametric form) OR r = a + m (condensed form)
c f
xa y b z c
(ii) = = (cartesian form)
d e f
4. Equations of planes:
Representations:
5. Skew lines:
Two lines with equations r = a + m1 and r = b + m2 are said to be skew lines
if they DO +OT intersect at a common point and m1 is +OT PARALLEL to m2 .
k1 k
(i) + 2 if k1 and k 2 are of different signs
|n| |n|
k2 k
(ii) 1 if k1 and k 2 are of the same signs
|n| |n|
A. If one plane is presented in scalar product form and the other in parametric
form,
1
Example: r 3 = 6 ------------------------(1)
1
1 3 1
r = 0 + 3 + 1 -----------(2)
1 1 0
1 + 3 + 1
3 + 3 = 6
1 + 1
1 + 3 + + 9 + 3 + 1 + = 6
12 + 4 = 4
3 + = 1 = 1 3
(1)+(2): 2 z = 10 z = 5
Extract the components of the separate plane equations to form the augmented
matrix:
a1 a2 a3
r b1 = d1 , r b2 = d 2 r b3 = d 3
c c c
1 2 3
a1 b1 c1 d1
a2 b2 c2 d2
a b3 c3 d 3
3
After reducing the augmented matrix to its row reduced equivalent using the
RREF function of the graphic calculator, 3 possible scenarios arise:
A. The planes intersect at one point, ie there is a unique solution to the matrix.
Example:
2 1 1 4 1 0 0 1
1 2 2 3 0 1 0 2
4 2 1 4 0 0 1 4
Example:
1 2 2 2 1 0 0.5 0
1 2 1 5 0 1 0.75 0
1 6 4 2 0 0 0 1
For the third row in the reduced form matrix, 0=1, giving rise to a contradiction,
hence there is no common point to the 3 planes, ie they DO +OT intersect.
C. The three planes intersect at a line.
Example:
1 2 2 2 1 0 0.5 3.5
1 2 1 5 0 1 0.75 0.75
1 6 4 8 0 0 0 0
3 3 3 3
y z= y= + z
4 4 4 4
7 1 7
x 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 1
Let z = , then r = y = + = + 3
4 4 4 4
z
0 1 0 4
7
2 2
3
Therefore, the three planes intersect at the line r= + t 3 , where t =
4 4
0 4