1. Scalar product (dot product):
a • b = a  b  cos θ
Laws of dot product:
(i) a • b = b • a (ii) a • (b + c) = a • b + a • c = b • a + c • a
(iii) a • a = a  2 (angle between two identical vectors is 0 degrees)
(iv) a • b = 0 ⇒ a and b are perpendicular
Applications:
(i) Projection vector:
∧
Length of projection L=  AB • AD 
B
∧ ∧
Projection vector AC = ( AB • AD ) AD
Foot of perpendicular = OC =OA+AC
Shortest distance from B to line
A C D =  BC  2 =  AB  2 − L2
∧
[OR =  AB × AD  ]
L
(ii) Acute angle between two lines:
m • m2
θ = cos −1 1 where m1 and m2 are the direction vectors of the

1 m  m 2 
the two lines.
(iii) Acute angle between two planes:
n •n
θ = cos −1 1 2 where n1 and n2 are the individual normals to the two
 n1  n 2 
planes respectively.
(iv) Acute angle between a line and a plane:
π m•n
θ = − cos −1 where m and n are the direction vector of the line
2  m  n 
and normal to the plane respectively, and θ is
the angle between the line and plane in question.
Cross product (vector product): ∧ a × b = [ a  b  sin θ ] n where n is a vector that is perpendicular to both a and b . then  AB × AC  • AD = 0 3. Skew lines: Two lines with equations r = a + λm1 and r = b + µm2 are said to be skew lines if they DO +OT intersect at a common point and m1 is +OT PARALLEL to m2 . C and D are coplanar. B. ) (iii) ax + by + cz = k (Cartesian form) (where a. a is the position vector of a point lying on the plane. Equation of lines: Representations: a d (i) r = b + λ e (parametric form) OR r = a + λm (condensed form) c f x−a y −b z −c (ii) = = (cartesian form) d e f 4.2. 6. Laws of cross product: (i) a × b = −(b × a ) (ii) a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c = −(b × a ) − (c × a ) ~ (iii) a × a = 0 Applications: 1 (i) a Area of triangle=  a×b  2 b (ii) If four points A. Determining if line resides in plane: A line with equation r = a + λm is said to reside in the plane r • n = k if (i) m • n = 0 (ii) a • n = k . b and c are the components of the normal vector to the plane) 5. Equations of planes: Representations: (i) r = a + λm1 + µm2 (parametric form) (ii) r • n = a • n (scalar product form) (where n = m1 × m2 .
n 8. the shortest distance between them is given by: k1 k (i) + 2 if k1 and k 2 are of different signs n n k2 k (ii) − 1 if k1 and k 2 are of the same signs n n 9. Distance between 2 planes: For 2 planes with equations r • n = k1 and r • n = k 2 . (ii) Intersection between line and plane: For a line with equation r = a + λm and a plane with equation r • n = k . substitute the line equation within that of the plane equation such that (a + λm ) • n = k . equate them to each other in column vector form such that a + λm1 = b + µm2 . Solve for the values of λ and µ before substituting back into either of the two line equations to derive the common point of intersection. Finding intersection between various constructs: (i) Intersection between 2 lines: For 2 lines with equations r = a + λm1 and r = b + µm2 . Solve for the value of λ and subsequently derive the common point of intersection through substitution of λ into the line equation. If one plane is presented in scalar product form and the other in parametric form. where k1 < k 2 .7. 1 Example: r • 3 = 6 (1) 1 1 3 1 r = 0 + λ 3 + µ 1 (2) 1 1 0 1 + 3λ + µ 1 ⇒ 3λ + µ • 3 = 6 1 + λ 1 . (iii) intersection between 2 planes: A. the shortest distance from the plane to the k origin is given by . Shortest distance from plane to origin: For a plane with equation r • n = k .
1 + 3λ + µ + 9λ + 3µ + 1 + λ = 6 12λ + 4 µ = 4 3λ + µ = 1 → µ = 1 − 3λ Substituting this back into (2). We have x = 4 − t Equation of line of intersection is x 4 − t 4 − 1 r = y = t = 0 + t 1 (shown) z 5 5 0 C. Equation of line of intersection is 1 3 1 r = 0 + λ 3 + (1 − 3λ ) 1 1 1 0 2 0 = 1 + λ 0 (shown) 1 1 B. and solve accordingly. convert the plane equations such that their configurations matches that of either case A or B. If a common point A with position vector a is known to reside on both planes. D. (iv) Intersection between 3 planes: Extract the components of the separate plane equations to form the augmented matrix: . If both planes are presented in Cartesian form: Example: x + y + z = 9 (1) − x − y + z = 1 (2) (1)+(2): 2 z = 10 ⇒ z = 5 Let y = t and substituting this together with z = 5 into (1). and the two planes have normal vectors n1 and n2 . If both planes are presented in scalar product forms or in parametric forms or one is presented in scalar product form and the other in parametric form. then the common line of intersection is simply given by r = a + λ (n1 × n2 ) .
0=1. . the 3 planes intersect at the point (1. ie they DO +OT intersect. 3 possible scenarios arise: A. giving rise to a contradiction. therefore x =1. Example: 1 2 − 2 − 2 1 0 − 0. hence there is no common point to the 3 planes. therefore y =2. r • b2 = d 2 r • b3 = d 3 c c c 1 2 3 a1 b1 c1 d1 a2 b2 c2 d2 a b3 c3 d 3 3 After reducing the augmented matrix to its row reduced equivalent using the RREF function of the graphic calculator.5 0 −1 2 −1 5 0 1 − 0. Example: 2 −1 1 4 1 0 0 1 1 2 − 2 − 3 0 1 0 2 − 4 2 1 4 0 0 1 4 1( x ) +0( y ) + 0( z )=1. 0( x ) +0( y ) +1( z )=4. The three planes do not intersect at all. B. ie there is a unique solution to the matrix.75 0 1 −6 4 2 0 0 0 1 For the third row in the reduced form matrix.2. therefore z =4 Hence. The planes intersect at one point. 0( x ) +1( y ) +0( z )=2. a1 a2 a3 r • b1 = d1 .4).
75 0. where t = ∈ ℜ 4 4 0 4 . 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 y− z= ⇒y= + z 4 4 4 4 7 1 7 − − x 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 Let z = λ . then r = y = +λ = + λ 3 4 4 4 4 z 0 1 0 4 7 − 2 2 3 λ Therefore.C. The three planes intersect at a line.5 −1 2 −1 5 0 1 − 0. the three planes intersect at the line r= + t 3 .75 1 − 6 4 − 8 0 0 0 0 From the reduced row matrix. we have 1 7 7 1 x− z =− ⇒ x =− + z. Example: 1 2 − 2 − 2 1 0 − 0.5 − 3.