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Cement concrete hollow blocks have an important place in

modern building industry. They are cost effective and better
alternative to burnt clay bricks by virtue of their good durability,
fire resistance, partial resistance to sound, thermal insulation,
small dead load and high speed of construction. Concrete hollow
blocks being usually larger in size than the normal clay building
bricks and less mortar is required, faster of construction is

Hollow concrete blocks are substitutes for conventional bricks and

stones in building construction. They are lighter than bricks,
easier to place and also confer economics in foundation cost and
consumption of cement. In comparison to conventional bricks,
they offer the advantages of uniform quality, faster speed of
construction, lower labor involvement and longer durability. In
view of these advantages, hollow concrete blocks are being
increasingly used in construction activities.

Also building construction with cement concrete hollow blocks

provides facility for concealing electrical conduit, water and sewer
pipes wherever so desired and requires less plastering.


Best Builder Company is established to produce best quality of

productions of blocks and bricks in the field of construction to
build up more convenience, safe and relevant to all customers
who want to have a stronger establishment.

Our company has a state-of-art facilities and nice workers to

produce blocks and bricks not just here in Surigao City but all over
Caraga Region. We are hoping that in next few years, our
company will be produce to entire country for more best and
better blocks and bricks. The company will be jointly owned by
Engr. Jhon Walter Conde, Engr. Shechem Perez, Engr. Marne Arlan,
Engr. Tom Smith C. Noguerra and Engr. Rodulfo Elardes. Our
establishment is located to heart of the city in between City Hall
and Luneta Park for customers are always access easily. They are
freely to inquire what is best and safe and opens from 8am to
5pm, Monday to Saturday. We are open for delivery whenever you
are in the city.


1. To keep up with the fast changing technology and machinery

2. Stiff competition in the market as more and more hollow block
units are being established in the market
3. More of skilled laborers and unskilled laborers
4. Achieve profitability by 2022.
5. Earn approximately in sales.


By 2022, the product will be a highly visible brand, known as the

best modular blocks form option in the industry. We will have
developed and marketed our products in all the domestic
channels, sought out distribution partners internationally, and
become a leader in construction materials industry.

Builder Blocks as a company will be energetic, synergistic, and

will tap into the personality and creativity of its people. I believe
that a company should work for its people, just as its people work
for it.


Cement concrete hollow blocks are modern construction materials

and as such are used in all the constructions viz. residential,
commercial and industrial building constructions. Construction
industry is a growing a sector. The demand for this product is
always high in all cities and other urban centers due to
construction of residential apartments, commercial buildings and
industrial buildings.
Hollow concrete blocks can be used for (a) exterior load bearing
walls, (b) interior walls, (c) Panel walls, (d) columns, (e) retaining
walls and (f) compound walls. In view of their versatile uses and
properties, hollow concrete blocks are in demand not only for
household constructions but departments/agencies engaged in
construction including PWD, Housing Boards and Urban
Development Corporations, Road Transport Corporation and
Forest Departments use hollow blocks because of cost
Growing public awareness of the advantages of the product
coupled with increase in the government and financial institutions
support for housing which is a basic human necessity would
ensure a healthy growth in the demand.

Market Survey and Strategies

Housing is a big and complex problem in Philippines. It has two

major facts - urban & rural. More attention is paid to urban
housing due to the growing pressure of population & the need to
meet the requirements of slum & pavement dwellers and urban
renewal. In the process, rural housing gets neglected. A great
majority of Indian population lives in rural areas. The influx of
population from villages to metropolis has become a burning
problem of the day. Rural & small town housings may slow down
an excessive country - to - town movement of people and hence
the housing problems of major cities may be controlled. Lack of
housing in rural areas pushes the population to cities, thereby
creating additional housing problems.

The housing shortage in the country was estimated over 20

million units in 1982 out of which 15 million in rural areas & 5
million in urban areas. Housing is an economic activity & an
important part of construction activities, sharing 50 to 60% of
total capital formation & employment generation. Residential &
non - residential constructions together are capable of swinging
the national economy in any direction and to any extent.
According to data available, non-residential construction has a
very high share in total investment for buildings. Almost 80% of
total resources are invested in constructions for non-residential

All the above close studies reveal the need and scope for building
construction in rural and urban areas for residential & non-
residential purposes.

Formulation of Strategies
Environmental Analysis Internal Analysis
Customers Technical know-how
Competitors Manufacturing capacity
Suppliers Marketing and distribution capacity
Regulation Logistics
Infrastructure Financial resources
Social/political environment

Opportunities and threats Strengths and weaknesses

Identify opportunities Determine core capabilities

Find the fit between core capabilities

and external opportunities

Firms strategies
Market Segment

Key points in defining the market segment for Builder Blocks are
ease of use, cost-effectiveness, and ability to meet demand.

The international market for this product will be equal to or

greater than domestic demand as developing countries
increasingly turn to this new product for their low-cost housing
and infra-structure needs.


Concrete is a mixture of ordinary Portland cement, mineral

aggregate (sand and stone chips) and water. The water used in
preparing the concrete serves two purposes:
(1) It combines with the cement to form a hardened paste
(2) It lubricates the aggregates to form a plastic and workable

The water that combines with the cement varies from about 22 to
28% of the total amount of mixing water in concrete.

Mineral aggregates (sand and stone chips) are normally divided

into two fractions based on their particle size. Aggregate particles
passing through the No.4 or 4.7 mm Indian Standard sieve are
known as fine aggregate. The particles retained on this sieve are
designated as coarse aggregate. Natural sand is often used as
fine aggregate in cement concrete mixture. Coarse aggregate are
crushed stone chips. Crushed stone chips broken into particle
sizes passing through the 4.7 mm sieve may also be used as fine
aggregate. The maximum size of the coarse aggregate that may
be used in cement concrete hollow blocks is 12.5 mm. However,
the particle size of the coarse aggregate should not exceed one
third thickness of the thinnest web of the hollow blocks.

Ordinary Portland cement is the cementing material used in

cement concrete hollow blocks. Cement is the highest priced
material per unit weight of the concrete. Hence, the fine and
coarse aggregates are combined in such proportions that the
resulting concrete is workable and has minimum cement content
for the desired quality.

The process of manufacture of cement concrete hollow blocks

involves the following 5 stages;
(1) Proportioning
(2) Mixing
(3) Compacting
(4) Curing
(5) Drying

(1) Proportioning:
The determination of suitable amounts of raw materials needed to
produce concrete of desired quality under given conditions of
mixing, placing and curing is known as proportioning. As per
Indian Standard specifications, the combined aggregate content
in the concrete mix used for making hollow blocks should not be
more than 6 parts to 1 part by volume of Portland cement. If this
ratio is taken in terms of weight basis this may average
approximately at 1:7 (cement : aggregate). However, there have
been instances of employing a lean mix of as high as 1:9 by
manufacturers where hollow blocks are compacted by power
operated vibrating machines. The water cement ratio of 0.62 by
weight basis can be used for concrete hollow blocks.

(2) Mixing
The objective of thorough mixing of aggregates, cement and
water is to ensure that the cement-water paste completely covers
the surface of the aggregates. All the raw materials including
water are collected in a concrete mixer, which is rotated for about
1 minutes. The prepared mix is discharged from the mixer and
consumed within 30 minutes.

(3) Compacting
The purpose of compacting is to fill all air pockets with concrete
as a whole without movement of free water through the concrete.
Excessive compaction would result in formation of water pockets
or layers with higher water content and poor quality of the

Semi-automatic vibrating table type machines are widely used for

making cement concrete hollow blocks. The machine consists of
an automatic vibrating unit, a lever operated up and down
metallic mould box and a stripper head contained in a frame

Wooden pallet is kept on the vibrating platform of the machine.

The mould box is lowered on to the pallet. Concrete mix is poured
into the mould and evenly levelled. The motorised vibrating
causes the concrete to settle down the mould by approximately 1
to 1 inches. More of concrete is then raked across the mould
level. The stripper head is placed over the mould to bear on the
levelled material. Vibration causes the concrete come down to its
limit position. Then the mould box is lifted by the lever. The
moulded hollow blocks resting on the pallet is removed and a new
pallet is placed and the process repeated. The machine can
accommodate interchangeable mould for producing blocks of
different sizes of hollow or solid blocks.

(4) Curing

Hollow blocks removed from the mould are protected until they
are sufficiently hardened to permit handling without damage. This
may take about 24 hours in a shelter away from sun and winds.
The hollow blocks thus hardened are cured in a curing yard to
permit complete moisturisation for atleast 21 days. When the
hollow blocks are cured by immersing them in a water tank, water
should be changed atleast every four days.

The greatest strength benefits occur during the first three days
and valuable effects are secured up to 10 or 14 days. The longer
the curing time permitted the better the product.
(5) Drying

Concrete shrinks slightly with loss of moisture. It is therefore

essential that after curing is over, the blocks should be allowed to
dry out gradually in shade so that the initial drying shrinkage of
the blocks is completed before they are used in the construction
work. Hollow blocks are stacked with their cavities horizontal to
facilitate thorough passage of air.

Generally a period of 7 to 15 days of drying will bring the blocks

to the desired degree of dryness to complete their initial
shrinkage. After this the blocks are ready for use in construction

S.No. Type of Work Normal Masonry Masonry where

without reinforcement is used.
Cement Lime Sand Cement Sand
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
(i) Normal 1 1 9-10 1 7-8
(ii) When 1 1 6-7 1 4-5
exposed to
or where
intensity of
load is high
such as in
, plasters or
portions of
wall directly
lintels and
(iii) Partitions 1 1 7-8 1 5-6
of 100 mm


The plant and machinery proposed in the project has a production

capacity of 800000 Nos. of cement concrete hollow blocks of size
100X200X400 mm. At 75% utilisation of the capacity, productions
of 600000 Nos. of blocks have been taken into consideration.

Cement concrete hollow blocks are usually of the following three

dimensions: 100X200X400 mm, 150X200X400 mm and
200X200X400 mm. Although hollow blocks of all the three sizes
could be made using the same machinery and equipment
proposed in the project, for computation purpose only one size viz
100X200X400 mm is considered in the sales turnover.

Hollow blocks of other sizes could also be made depending on the

user requirement. With the given set of machinery and equipment
used in making the hollow blocks, solid blocks could also be made
with the help of additional mould sets only.


Electrical Power requirement: 25 HP power for industrial purpose

is required.
Water: water used in making concrete should be free from acids,
alkalis, oil, dissolved carbon dioxide and decayed vegetable
matter. Generally, water suitable for human consumption is
considered adequate for concrete mixing.



Sl Descriptio Quantity Units Rate per Amount

n unit (Peso) (Peso)
1 Land 1000 Sq. meters 187.5 187,500
2 Covered 50 Sq. meters 3750 187,500
3 Concrete 250 Sq. meters 750 187,500
4 Borewell with pump 562,500
TOTAL 1,125,000


Sl Descriptio Quantity Units Rate per Amount

n unit (Peso) (Peso)
1 Hydraulica 1 No. 243,750 243,750
system 5
5 HP
3 HP
(1.5 HP 2
motor 1

2 Concrete 1 No. 150,000 150,000

10/7 cft
with 5 HP
hopper and
3 Platform 1 No. 56,250 56,250
scale 500
4 Water 1 No. 22,500 22,500
5 Electrical and EB 52,500
charges for 25 HP power
Total 525,000
6 Erection and 52,500
commission-ing charges
@ 10%
7 Ram and 4 Sets 18,750 75000
mould for
8 Wheel 2 Nos. 7,500 15,000
9 Office equipment LS 82,5000
10 Wooden palettes LS 75,000
TOTAL 825,000



Sl Description No. Salary (Peso) Amount

1 Skilled or 2 3,750 7,500
2 Unskilled 8 3,000 24,000
3 Watch and 1 3,000 3,000
4 Manager/Sup 1 7,500 7,500
Total 42,000
Perquisites @ 15% 6,300
TOTAL 48,300


Sl Descriptio Quantity Units Rate per Amount
n unit (Peso) (Peso)
1 Cement 50 Tons 3,000 150,000
2 Sand or 200 Tons 187.5 37,500
stone sand
3 Crushed 300 Tons 300 90,000
stone chips
TOTAL 277,500


Sl Description Amount (Peso)

1 Total recurring cost 4,203,000
2 Depreciation on 21,562.5
building @ 5%
3 Depreciation on 57,750
machinery and
equipment @ 10%
4 Depreciation on moulds, 49,500
wheel borrows, etc.
5 Amortisation of pre 5,625
operative expenses @
6 Interest on capital 382,612.5
investment @ 15%
TOTAL 4,720,050


Sl Product item Quantity Rate Value
1 Cement 600000 Nos. 9 each 5,400,000
blocks of size
0 mm



(1) FIXED COST PER Description Amount (Peso)

1 Interest on capital 382,612.5
2 Depreciations 134,437.5
3 40% of salaries and 231,840
4 40% of miscellaneous 72,000
TOTAL 820,890


Concrete blocks are produced in a large variety of shapes and

sizes, solid, cellular or hollow, dense or lightweight, air-cured or
steam-cured, loadbearing or non-loadbearing, and can be
produced manually or with the help of machines.

Block sizes are usually referred to by their nominal

dimensions, which are the actual block length, width and
height plus 10 mm of mortar bed thickness added to each
dimension. These are normally based on the modular
coordination of design with the 10cm module as its basic
unit. The most commonly used concrete blocks are the
stretcher blocks with a nominal length of 40 cm (half blocks:
20 cm) nominal height of 20 cm, and nominal widths of 8,
10, 15 and 20 cm. In addition, a wide variety of non-modular
blocks and special shapes are available, such as corner,
jamb, lintel, pilaster and interlocking blocks, to name only a
Solid blocks have no cavities, or - according to US standards
- have voids amounting to not more than 25 % of the gross
cross-sectional area. Thinner blocks of less than 75 mm (3")
width are essentially solid, because of the difficulty of
forming cavities.
Cellular blocks have one or more voids with one bed [ace
closed, and are laid with this 'blind end' upwards, preventing
wastage of bedding mortar, which would otherwise drop into
the cavities.
Hollow blocks are the most common types of concrete
blocks, having one or more holes that are open at both sides.
The total void area can amount to 50 % of the gross cross-
sectional area, and - according to British Standards - the
external wall thickness must be at least 15 mm or 1.75 x
nominal maximum size of aggregate, whichever is greater.
The use of concrete hollow blocks has several advantages:
o they can be made larger than solid blocks, and if
lightweight aggregate is used, can be very light, without
forfeiting much of their load-bearing capacity;

o they require far less mortar than solid blocks

(because of the cavities and less proportion of joints, due to
large size), and construction of walls is easier and quicker;

o the voids can be filled with steel bars and concrete,

achieving high seismic resistance;

o the air-space provides good thermal insulation, which

is of advantage in most climatic regions, except warm-humid
zones; if desirable, the cavities can also be filled with
thermal insulation material;

o the cavities can be used as ducts for electrical

installation and plumbing.
Dense concretes are normal concretes with a density
exceeding 2000 kg/m3, while the densities of lightweight
concretes can be as low as 160 kg/m'. The former are
produced with well graded aggregates (with a large amount
of fines to fill all voids) and full compaction, while the latter
comprise lightweight aggregates and/or a high proportion of
single-sized particles of coarse aggregate (no-fees concrete)
in a lean mix, which is not fully compacted, or comprise a
sand-cement mix with a foaming agent to aerate the
mixture. Lightweight concrete is generally used for concrete
blocks, provided that the ingredients are available and the
strengths obtained are acceptable.
Air curing is the standard procedure for the strength
development of concrete, by which the concrete is kept wet
for at least 7 days and then allowed to dry at ambient
temperature. With steam curing, by which the concrete is
exposed to low or high pressure steam (in autoclaves), high
early strengths can be achieved (with autoclaving the 28 day
strength of air-cured concrete can be obtained in 24 hours).
However, in developing countries, steam curing is unlikely to
be implemented, because of its high cost and sophistication.
The definition of loadbearing and non-loadbearing blocks is
fairly complex and depends not only on the compressive
strengths of the blocks, but also on the ratio of their height
to thickness, their density and proportion of voids.
Manual block production is the cheapest but most laborious
method, and the blocks are not likely to attain the superior
qualities that are achieved by the far more expensive
mechanized production.

Different Size Concrete Blocks

S.No Type of Blocks Size in MM Purpose

1. Solid Blocks 100X200X400 Foundation
2. Closed Cavity Blocks 75X200X400 Load bearing
100X200X400 External works
150X200X400 Partition walls

3. Corner Column 200X200X400 Corners

4. Roofing Blocks 410X250X140 Roofs
5. Bend (U) Blocks 100X200X200 R.C.C. Bend
Materials for Concrete Blocks

Since the ingredients of concrete can be of very different types

and qualities, not only depending on their local availability, but
also on the desired properties of block, equipment and production
method, it is not possible to give detailed recommendations on
materials and mix proportions, other than very general guidelines.
It is up to the manufacturer to select the most suitable materials
and design of mixes by trial and error, and making tests with the
available equipment under the conditions of full-scale production.

The following cements are commonly used in concrete


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) most common type used.

Rapid hardening Portland cement (RHPC): more finely ground
cement, which hardens much faster than OPC. It is especially

- Where storage space is limited,

- When rapid production is important, and

- To produce good strength blocks despite poor gradation of


Block mix cement: marketed especially for block making, but can
vary from one manufacturer to another. It has the high early
strength qualities of RHPC, but is lower in price.

Special cements: such as Portland blast furnace cement, sulphate-

resisting Portland cement and others, used where special
properties are of importance. The partial replacement of cement
by a pozzolana, eg. rice husk ash, fly ash, may be acceptable in
certain cases, but should not be implemented without prior
laboratory testing.


In order to facilitate transportation, handling and laying

concrete blocks, it is necessary to reduce their density. This
is achieved by reducing compaction, ensuring a relatively
high proportion of air gaps between the aggregate particles
and/or using lightweight aggregates. Hence it is important to
have a relatively high proportion of coarser particles,
because too much fine aggregate would fill the gaps and
increase the density. However, a carefully measured amount
of very fine particles is necessary to produce the cement
paste required to bind the coarser particles.
The maximum particle size of coarser aggregates is 13 mm
(or 10 mm for hollow blocks). Rounded stones produce a
concrete that flows more easily than angular (broken)
particles, but the latter give higher 'green strength' to the
newly demoulded block, because the particles interlock. This
is very important for concrete block production.
Suitable aggregates are usually obtained from natural
sources (eg river beds, gravel pits, stone quarries, volcanic
deposits) or from industrial by-processes (eg expanded clay,
aircooled, granulated or foamed blast furnace slag, sintered
fly ash, etc). All aggregates, whether fine or coarse, must be
free from silt, clay, dust, organic matter, salts or other
chemical impurities, that could interfere with the bond
between cement and aggregate or cause deleterious
chemical reactions.

Aggregate-Cement Ratio
After determining the correct blend of aggregates, the
proportion of aggregate to cement must be found by trials
with different ratios, eg 6:1, 8:1,10:1, up to 16:1 by weight,
end testing the qualities of blocks produced.
The proportion of fine aggregate to cement is of special
importance: if the ratio is too high, the mortar will lack the
cohesiveness needed for green strength and will be too weak
to impart enough strength to the matured blocks; if the
proportion is too low, the mortar will be very cohesive and
the mix may not flow easily in handling and filling the mould.

Water-Cement Ratio

Only water that is fit for drinking should be used to mix the
concrete. The correct amount of water to be added to the
mix depends on the types and mix proportions of aggregates
and cement, the required strength of the block, and the
production method and equipment used. The concrete must
contain just enough water to facilitate production without
any slumping of blocks occuring after demoulding. If the
aggregates are dry, they may absorb some of the water
(lightweight aggregates may absorb up to 20 % by weight),
but if the aggregates are wet, the blocks will take longer to
dry out.
As a simple test for cohesiveness, no excess water should be
visible when a lump of concrete is squeezed in the hand, but
if the sample is rubbed quickly on a smooth round metal bar
or tube (2 to 4 cm in diameter) a slight film or paste should
be brought to the surface.


Economy in design of sub-structure due to reduction of loads

Saving in mortar for lying of blocks as compared to ordinary
brick work. Saving in mortar for plasterwork. Uniform Plaster
thickness of 12 mm can be maintained due to precision of
the size of blocks as compared to brick work where plaster
thickness of average 20 mm is required to produce uniform
and even plastered surface due to variations in the sizes of
bricks. Insulation of walls is achieved due to cavity, which
provides energy saving for all times. Similarly hollowness
results in sound insulation.
Paint on finished walls can be applied due to cavity, which
provides energy saving for all times. Similarly hollowness
results in sound insulation.
No problem of the appearance of salts. Hence great saving in
the maintenance of final finishes to the walls.
Laying of Blocks is much quicker as compared to brickwork
hence saving in time.


Concrete block construction is gaining importance in developing

countries, even in low-cost housing, and has become a valid
alternative to fired clay bricks, stabilized soil, stone, timber and
other common constructions, providing the ingredients are
available locally, are of good quality and economically viable.

The essential ingredients of concrete are cement, aggregate

(sand, gravel) and water, but the physical characteristics of the
material can be extremely diverse, depending on the type and
relative proportions of these ingredients, the addition of other
ingredients and components, and also the production method.
Concrete is thus a very versatile material and can be made to
satisfy a large variety of requirements, whether it is used for
foundations, floor slabs monolithic walls cast in situ, or for
prefabricating concrete blocks.

Assuming that the ingredients and workmanship are of average

quality, the main characteristics of the most common types of
concrete are:
high compressive strength, resistance to weathering, impact
and abrasion;
low tensile strength (but can be overcome with steel
capability of being moulded into components of any shape
and size
good fire resistance up to about 400C.

The main problems, particularly with regard to developing

countries, are:
the need for a relatively large amount of cement, which can
be expensive and difficult to obtain
the need for a relatively large amount of clean water for
mixing and curing, which can be a serious problem in dry
the need for special knowledge and experience in the
production process
the risk of deterioration through sulphates in the soil or
water to which the concrete is exposed.
Entrepreneurs wishing to start the production of concrete
blocks will not only have to consider all these technical and
economic aspects, but also a number of environmental,
social and administrative factors, in comparison to other
alternative building materials, before undertaking further
steps towards the establishment of a manufacturing plant.
The information on concrete block production presented on
this folder should, however, be regarded only as a brief
introduction to the technology and criteria for the selection
and purchase of equipment. The reader is advised to refer to
the selected Bibliography for detailed information.


Best Builder owned by the Engineers in various ways and to act as

the company's producer of best and convenient construction
blocks and bricks. The company also plans to hire various skilled
and unskilled labourers as needed. Additional personnel will be
added if necessary.


Overall, Best Builder Blocks will give you satisfy in giving best and
safest blocks and brick that you could ever see. Best Builder has
its finest suppliers that ever since they are the best and most
reliable source in the business. Best Builder is new and improved
company with wide range of production. Manufacture of bricks
and blocks that supplied by Allied Concrete Products, Inc. Its cost
is sufficient and cheapest.