Rule 1 17 a kg?
a) 1:1 b) 1:3 c)2:3 d)3:l
Theorem: The proportion in which rice at Rs x per kg must
3. In what proportion must coffee at Rs 21 per kg be mixed
be mixed with rice at Rs y per kg, so that the mixture be
with coffee at Rs 28 per kg, so that the mixture be worth
y- Rs 25 a kg?
worth Rsza kg, is given by a)4:3 b)4:5 c)5:4 d)3:4
z-x
4. In what proportion must cotton at Rs 24.50 per kg be
Illustrative Example mixed with cotton at Rs 30.50 per kg, so that the mixture
Ex.: In what proportion must rice at Rs 3.10 per kg be be worth Rs 26 a kg?
mixed with rice at Rs 3.60 per kg, so that the mixture be a) 3:1 b) 1:3 c)3:2 d)2:3
worth Rs 3.25 a kg? 5. In what proportion must sugar at Rs 16.60 a kg be mixed
Soln: Detail Method: Let the required ratio be x : y. with sugar at Rs 16.45 a kg so that the mixture may be
As per the question, worth Rs 16.54 a kg?
310x + 360y = 325(x + y) a) 2:1 b)2:3 c)3:2 d)4:l
or,310x + 360y = 325x+325y % 6. In what proportion must tea at Rs 47.50 per kg be mixed
or,325;c-310x = 360y-325y with tea at Rs 50.50 per kg to produce a mixture worth Rs
35
= = ? . 48.50 per kg?
or, 15.v = 35y a)2:l b) 1:2 c)4:l d)3:2
y 15
7. In what proportion must a brewer mix beer at Rs 11 a litre
Alligation Method:
with bear at Rs 6 a litre, so that the mixture may be worth
CP of 1 kg cheaper rice CP of 1 kg dearer rice
Rs 8 a litre?
(310paise) (360 paise)
a)2:l b)l:2 c)3:2 d)2:3
Mean Price
(325 paise) 8. How must a grocer mix teas at Rs 6 a kg and Rs 6.50 a kg
so that the mixture may be worth Rs 6.20 a kg.
15
a)2:3 b)3:2 6)3:1 d) 1:3
Quantity of cheaper _ CP of dearer Mean Price
9. In what ratio should gold at Rs 15 per gm be mixed with
Quantity of dearer Mean Price - CP of cheaper gold at Rs 10 per gm so that the resulting mixture be
_ 360-325 _ 35 _ ; worth Rs 13 pergm.
~ 325-310 " 15 ~ a)3:2 b)3:l c) 1:1 d)2:3
.-. they must be mixed in the ratio of 7 : 3. 10. In what ratio must a grocer mix sugar at 72 paise per kg
Note: This result can be obtained directly by applying the with sugar at 48 paise per kg so that by selling the mix-
above theorem.
1
Exercise ture at 63 paise per kg he may gain of his outlay?
In what proportion must wheat at Rs 3.20 per kg be mixed a) 1:3 b)3:l c)2:3 d)3:2
with wheat at Rs 3.70 per kg, so that the mixture be worth 11. Sugar at Rs 15 per kg is mixed with sugar at Rs 20 per kg
Rs 3.35 a kg? in the ratio 2:3. Find the price per kg of the mixture.
a)9:5 b)7:5 c)7:3 d)3:l a)Rsl8 b)Rsl6 c)Rsl7 d)Rsl9
1 In what proportion must tea at Rs 14 per kg be mixed 12. A grocer buys black tea at Rs 5.25 per kg and green tea
with tea at Rs 18 per kg, so that the mixture be worth Rs at Rs 7.50 per kg. How must he mix them so that by
332 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS
1 17 1
selling the mixture at Rs 7 per kg he may gain of his
Hence, ~7~Z ~ " ^ kg of each are taken.
outlay.
a) 1:2' b) 1:3 c)2:l d)3:l 15. a; Hint: Per quintal cost of two different sorts of rice
13. In what proportion should water and wine at Rs 22.50 a
4642.50 Rs 77.375 per quintal
litre be mixed to reduce the price to Rs 18 a litre? 60
a) 1:4 b)4:l c)2:3 d)3:2
14. Currants at Rs 50 per kg are mixed with currants at Rs 90 75.50-77.375 _ 1.875
Proportion = = 5:7
per kg to make a mixture of 17 kg worth Rs 70 per kg, how 77.375-80 ~ 2.625
many kilograms of each are taken?
60
The quantity of better sort = 7x 5 = 25 quintals and
a) 8 kg, 9 kg b) * T kg of each
60 _ .
c) 7 kg, 10 kg d) None of these the quantity of worse sort = x 7 = 35 quintals.
15. A person bought 60 quintals of rice of two different
sorts for Rs 4642.50. The better sort costs Rs 80 per 16. b; Hint: Two lots of whisky having equal quantities are
quintal and the worse Rs 75.50 per quintal. How many mixed.
quintals were there of each sort? Let the price of mixture of whisky be Rs x per litre.
a) 25 quintals, 35 quintals b) 20 quintals, 40 quintals
18-x
c) 32 quintals, 28 quintals d) None of these .-. - .-. x = Rs 20 a litres.
1
16. A man has whisky worth Rs 22 a litre and another lot x-22
worth Rs 18 a litre. Equal quantities of these are mixed Now this mixture is mixed with water and worth Rs 16 a
with water to obtain a mixture of 50 litres worth Rs 16 a litre.
litre. Find how much water the mixture contains? Hence, the proportion of water to mixture
a) 5 litres b) 10 litres c) 15 litres d) 20 litres
20-16 = 1:4
Answers 16-0
l.c 2.b 3.d 4. a 5.b 6. a 7.c 50
8.b 9d .-. quantity of water x l = 10 litres.
1+4
x Illustrative Example
Rsy per litre, then the quantity of milk is given by I Ex.: In what proportion must water be mixed with spirit to
y-x)
2
litres.
gain 16y % by selling it at cost price?
Illustrative Example Soln: Detail Method: Let the required proportion of wate r
Ex.: A mixture of a certain quantity of milk with 16 litres of to spirit be a: b and the cost price of spirit be Rs x per
water is worth 90 P per litre. I f pure milk be worth 108 litre.
P per litre how much milk is there in the mixture? As per the question,
Soln: Detail Method: Let the quantity of milk be x litres. Selling price of the mixture = Rs x per Jitre.
(x + 16) 90=x x 108 + 16 x 0 [ v the price of water is Cost price of the mixture
OP)
100 6x
or, 90x + 1 6 x 9 0 = 108x = xx- Rs per litre.
50
100 +
or, 18x = 1 6 x 9 0 .'. x = 80litres.
.'. The quantity of milk = 80 litres.
Now, assume that the cost price of water = Rs 0 per
Alligation Method: The mean value is 90 P and the
litre.
price of water is 0 P.
milk water (ax0 + bxx) = (a + b)^-
108-^^ 0
J > 90 fi ( \6
L J, 6 ! 6a
s
50% : 10%
The two mixtures should be added in the ratio 5 : 1 .
300
Therefore, required sugar = - x l = 60 gm.
solution is given by n gm. or Quantity of sugar then the wheat is 53%of the resulting mixture. How
l^lOO-y
336 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS
32
2. b; Hint: Required ratio = = = 32:13
3. A person travels 490 km in 6 hours in two stages. In the Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we
first part of the journey, he travels by bus at the speed of have
60 km per hr. In the second part of the journey, he travels the required quantity
by train at the speed of 100 km per hr. What is the ratio
14-8
between distances travelled by bus and train? X50: x 50 = 30
18-8 J 10 kg-
a)65:33 b)5:3 c)3:5 d)33:65
4. A man travels a distance of200 km in 4 hours, partly by Exercise
bus at 40 km/hr and the rest by train at 75 km/hr. Find the 1. A trader has 25 kg of rice, part of which he sells at 4%
distance covered in each part? profit and the rest at 9% profit. He gains 7% on the
5 2 2 5 whole. What is the quantity sold at 9% profit?
a ) 8 5 y k m , 114ykm b) U 4 - km, 8 5 - k m a) 15kg b)10kg c)18kg d)12kg
2. A trader has 100 kg of wheat, part of which he sells at
2 5 5 2 16% profit and the rest at 36% profit. He gains 28% on
c) 8 4 - k m , H 5 - k m d) H 5 y k m , 8 4 - k m the whole. What is the quantity sold at 36% profit?
a) 50 kg b)60kg c)45kg d)65kg
Answers 3. A trader has 40 kg of pulses, part of which he sells at
l.a 2. a 3.d 4.b 10% profit and the rest at 20% profit. He gains 16% on
the whole. What is the quantity sold at 20% profit?
Rule 9 a) 28 kg b)30kg c)24kg d)26kg
Theorem: A trader has N kg of certain item, part of which
he sells atx% profit and the rest aty% profit He gains P%
Answers
on the whole. The quantity of item sold at x% profit is l.a 2.b 3.c
(y-P} Rule 10
N kg and the quantity of item sold aty% profit Theorem: A trader has N kg of a certain item, a part of
which he sells atx% profit and the rest ofy% loss. He gains
N P% on the whole. Then the quantity sold at x% profit is
is given by kg.
y~ .
x
\(P+y^ N
Illustrative Example given by kg and the quantity sold aty% loss
[x + yj
Ex A trader has 50 kg of pulses, part of which he sells at
8% profit and the rest at 18% profit. He gains 14% on
is given by N
the whole. What is the quantity sold at 18% profit? x+ y kg.
Ex.: Detail Method:
Let the quantity sold at 18% profit be x kg. Then the Illustrative Example
quantity sold at 8% profit will be (50 - x ) kg. Ex.: A trader has 50 kg of rice, a part of which he sells at
340 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS
Soln: Method I:
200
.-. Number of pigeons = x l 1 = 110
9 + 11 1
In original mixture, % of liquid B :
4+1
xioo = ;
Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we
have In the resultant mixture, % of liquid B
the number of pigeons (2-legged)
= - ^ - x l 0 0 = 60%
_ 4x200-580 _ 2+3
2 Replacement is made by the liquid B, so the % (
second mixture = 100%
Exercise
Then by the method of Alligation:
1. In a courtyard there are many chickens and goats. I f
20% _10
heads are counted, it comes to 100 but when legs are
60%'
counted, it comes to 320. Find the number of chickens
40%-] --40%
and goats in the courtyard.
-.". Ratio in which first and second mixtures should be
a) 40,60 b)60,40
added is 1 : 1. What does it imply? It simply implies
c)45,55 d)55,45
that the reduced quantity of the first mixture and the
2. In a zoo, there are rabbits and pigeons. I f heads are
quantity of mixture B which is to be added are the
counted, there are 100 and i f legs are counted, there are
same.
290. How many rabbits are there?
Total mixture = 10 + 10 = 20 litres.
a) 55 b)45 c)40 d)50
3. \n a zoo, there are rabbits and pigeons. I f heads are 2 0A
counted, there are 50 and i f legs are counted, there are and liquid A : 16 litres.
x4
140. How many pigeons are there? 5
Method U
a) 20 b)25 c)30 d)35
The above method is explained through percentage.
Answers Now, method II will be explained through fraction.
l.a 2.b 3.c 1
Fraction of B in original mixture =
Rule 15
Theorem: A jar contains a mixture of two liquids A and B Fraction of B in second mixture (liquid B) = 1
in the ratio a : b. When L litres of the mixture is taken out Fraction of B i n resulting mixture =
and P litres of liquid B is poured into the jar, the ratio
becomes x: y. Then the amount of liquid A, contained in
L i+
aJ a) x
the jar, is given by x litres
f b x +(
a 1- y b
a x
yj y,
and the amount of liquid B in the jar is given by 2.<r ^ \
5 5
Thus, we see that the original mixture and liquid B are
X mixed in the same ratio. That is, i f 10 litres of liquid B
' X
litres. is added then after taking out 10 litres of mixture from
(a b x <yj
x 1- the jar, there should have been 10 litres of mixture left.
b a y y So, the quantity of mixture in the jar = 10 + 10 = 20
litres
Illustrative Example
Ex.: Ajar contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in the 20 .
ratio 4 : 1 . When 10 litres of the mixture is taken out and quantity of A in the jar = x 4 - 16 litres.
and 10 litres of liquid B is poured into the jar, the ratio
becomes 2 : 3 . How many litres of liquid A was con- Method m
tained in the jar? This method is different from the Method of Alliga-
tion. Let the quantity of mixture in the jar be 5x litres.
Then
344 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS
the vessel?
4x-10| 1: x -10| + 10 = 2:3 ....(*)
1 a) 14 litres b) 20 litres c) 18 litres d) 30 litres
,4 + l J V4 + 1. 3. A can contains a mixture of two 1 iquids in proportion 7:5.
or, 4 x - 8 : x - 2 + 10 = 2 : 3 When 9 litres of mixture are drawn off and the can is
filled with B, the proportion of A and B becomes 7:9.
4JC-8 2 How many litres of liquid A was contained by the can
or, x + 8 : y :.x = 4
initially?
Then quantity of A in the mixture = 4x = 4 x 4 = 16 a) 21 litres b) 18 litres c) 24 litres d) None of these
litres. (Railways 1991)
Note: (*): Liquid A in original mixture = 4x Answers
A l.a 2.c 3.a
Liquid A taken out with 10 litres of mixture = 10 x
4+1
Rule 16
litres.
Theorem: L litres of a mixture contains two liquids A and
.-. Remaining quantity of A in the fixture
Bin the ratio a: b. The amount of liquid B, that is added to
4 get a new mixture containing liquid A and B in the ratio x
= 4x-ld
5 f \
{ y :
Liquid B in original mixture=x 1
X
Liquid B taken out with 10 litres of mixture : y, is given by L litres.
1+* \*
V a j K b)
10 litres
15
Illustrative Example
Liquid B added = 10 litres.
Ex.: 729 litres of a mixture contains milk and water in the
ratio 7 :2. How much water is to be added to get a new
.-. Total quantity of liquid B =x- 101 7 10 mixture containing milk and water in the ratio 7:3?
Soln: Detail Method: Let the amount of water be x litres.
And the ratio of the two should be 2 : 3.
( 729x7 s
Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we The original mixture contains [ litres of milk
have I 7+2
amount of liquid A contained in the jar ( 729x2
and litres of water.
. 7+2
i o f l - 1 ] + 10
H) 2
X
13
4
1
Now, from the question,
729x7
I 4 3y 1 x litres of water is added. Therefore
729x2
+x
' 2 25
i + o 2 4 or, 729x7x3 = 729x2x7 + 9 x 7 *
= - x - x - = 8 x 2 = 16 htres.
^i +I 3 1 or, 63x = 7x729
6 3 7x729
Exercise ' x = 7^ = s 1 litres.
03
1. Ajar contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in the Alligation Method:
ratio 3 : 1 . When 15 litres of the mixture is taken out and To solve this question by the method of alligation,
9 litres of liquid B is poured into the jar, the ratio be- we can use either of the two, percentage or fractional
comes 3 :4. How many litres of liquid A was contained in value.
the jar? Percentage value => change the ratio into percent-
a) 27 litres b) 24 litres c) 30 litres d) 21 litres age.
2. A vessel contains mixture of liquids A and B in the ratio
% of water in the original mixture
3 : 2. When 20 litres of the mixture is taken out and re-
placed by 20 litres of liquid B, the ratio changes to 1 : 4. 2 - 200
-xl00=
How many litres of liquid A was there initially present in 7+2
Alligation
Exercise
% of water in theresultingmixture = y ^ y x 100 - 30% 1. 56 litres of a mixture contains milk and water in the ra:;c
5 :2. How much water is to be added to get a new mixture
-100% containing milk and water in the ratio 5:3?
a) 9 litres b) 6 litres c) 7 litres d) 8 litres
2. 36 litres of a mixture contains milk and water in the ratio
30% 2:1. How much water is to be added to get a new mixture
containing milk and water in the ratio 1:1?
a) 12 litres b) 16 litres c) 8 litres d) 15 litres
3. 25 litres of a mixture contains milk and water in the ratio
Therefore, the ratio in which the mixture and water are 3:2. How much water is to be added to get a new mixture
1 containing milk and water in the ratio 3 :4?
to be added is 1 : or 9 : 1 a) 12 litres b) 8 litres c) 10 litres d) 14 litres
Answers
729 , l.d 2.a 3.c
Then quantity of water to be added = 1
= 81 litres. Rule 17
Fractional value => Change the ratio into fraction. Theorem: Ifx glasses of equal size arefilled with a mixture
of spirit and water. The ratio of spirit and water in each
J ^ i . 2
Fraction of water in the original mixture = glass are as follows: a, : b , a : b ,... a : b . If the con-
x 2 2 x x
Illustrative Example
Ex.: In three vessels each of 10 litres capacity, mixture of
milk and water is filled. The ratios of milk and water
are 2 : 1,3 : 1 and 3 :2 in the three respective vessels.
7 \ I f all the three vessels are emptied into a single large
10 90 vessel, find the proportion of milk and water in the
mixture.
Therefore, the ratio in which the mixture and water are
Soln: By the above theorem the required ratio is
7 7 1_
to be added is f ^ ^ : = 1 : y = 9 : 1
f 2 3 1 2^
U +l 3 + 1 3 + 2 ; 1,2 + 1 3 + 1 3 + 2
Then quantity of water to be added to the mixture =
2 3 3 1 1 2
729 + + - - + +
= 81 litres. 3 4 5 3 4 5
7 3 W A 3x4x5 3x4x5
1 = 121:59
required amount of water x 729 Note: This question can also be solved without using the
1*1 1+- theorem. For convenience in calculation, you will have
7
to suppose the capacity of the vessels to be the LCM
3_ 7__2 of (2 + 1), (3 + 1) and (3 + 2), i.e. 60 litres. Because it
x729 hardly matters whether the capacity of each vessel is
7*9 9
10 litres or 60 litres or 1000 litres. The only thing is
1 2} 729 that they should have equal quantity of mixture.
x729 = = 81 i e . itr S
3 9)
Exercise
1. Three equal glasses are filled with a mixture of spirit and
346 , PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS
/ ' I
water. The proportion of spirit to water in each glass is Illustrative Example
as follows. In the first glass as 2:3, in the second as 3:4,
in the third as 4:5. The contents of the three glasses are Ex.: I f 2 kg of metal, of which is zinc and the rest of
emptied into a single vessel. What is the proportion of
spirit and water in it?
a)401:544 b) 501:445 c) 544:401 d)455:401 copper, be mixed with 3 kg of metal, of which -~ is
2. Three equal glasses are filled with mixtures of milk and
water. The proportion of milk and water in each glass is zinc and the rest is copper, what is the ratio of zinc to
as follows. In the first glass as 3:1, in the second glass as copper in the mixture?
5:3 and in the third as 9:7. The contents of the three Soln: Detail Method: Quantity of zinc in the mixture
glasses are emptied into a single vessel. What is the _ 2 3 _ 8 + 9 _ 17
proportion of milk and water in it? " 3 4 ~ 12 ~ 12
a)31:17 b) 17:31 c) 15:31 d)31:15 *
3. Four vessels of equal sizes contain mi ture of spirit and Quantity of copper in the metal
water. The concentration of spirit in 4 vessels are 60% ?
70%, 75% and 80% respectively. I f all the four mixtures = 3+2 - H =5 - l I= ^
12 12 12
are mixed, find in the resultant mixture the ratio of spirit
to water. 17 43 ,
r a t i o = - : - = 17:43
a) 57:13 b)23:57 c) 57:23 d)Noneofthese
4. Two equal glasses filled with mixtures of alcohol and
water in the proportions of 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 respectively Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we
were emptied into a third glass. What is the proportion have
of alcohol and water in the third glass? the required ratio
a) 5:7 b)7:5 c)3:5 d)5:3
(Bank PO Exam, 1990) - 1 , 1 2 3
2x + j x - +
Answers . 3 4 j _ l
4M4 H
= 1 7 : 4 3
l.a 2.a
3. c; Hint: Ratio of spirit to water in the different vessels
70 , 80 Exercise
^ = 3:2 2 * . 3:1 = 7:3 = 411
40 ' 25 30 ' 20
1. I f 1 kg of metal of which is zinc and the rest copper be
Now applying the given rule, we have
the required ratio
mixed with 2 kg of metal of which "* is zinc and the rest
3 7
3 4 2 3 1 1
+ ++ + + + copper, what is the ratio of zinc to copper in the mixture?
5 10 4 5 5 10 4 5
a) 5:13 b)6:13 c)13:5 d) 13:6
12 + 14 + 15 + 16 6+6 +5+4
= 57:23 2. I f 4 kg of metal of which is zinc and the rest copper be
20 20
4.b
1
mixed with 5 kg of metal of which is zinc and the rest
Rule 18
copper, what is the ratio of zinc to copper in the mixture?
Theorem: IfM kg ofmixture, of which is A and the rest a)2:7 b)3:7 c)4:7 d)5:7
is B, be mixed with N kg of metal, of which is A and the 3. I f 5 kg of metal of which is zinc and the rest copper be
Rule 19 and 9:5 respectively. Find the ratio milk to water if the
contents of all the four glasses are poured into one large
Theorem: Ifx glasses ofdifferentsizes, say S , S , { 2 -S ,...
3
vessel.
S,
x are filled with a mixture of spirit and water. The ratio a) 13:6 b) 13:7 c) 11:7 d)7:13
4. Three vessels of sizes 3 litres, 4 litres and 5 litres contain
of spirit and water in each glass are as follows, a, : bi, mixture of milk and water. The concentration of milk in
the three vessels are 60%, 75% and 80% respectively. I f
a :b , 03 :b ,...., a : b . Ifthe contents ofallthe glasses
2 2 3 x x
all the three mixtures are mixed, what is the ratio of milk
are emptied into a single vessel, then proportion of spirit
to water in the resultant mixture,
and water in
in it is
is given by a) 11:4 b) 12:5 c)4:ll d)5:12
aS 2 2 Answers
+a +
+ ... + -
a, + Z>, 2 b 2 a + b
3 } 1. b; Hint: Ratio of wine to water, when 20 litres of water are
not added
b,St b-,Sj b,S, bS 13x48 18x42
1 - + + - + ... + - J
7x48 17x42
+
a +b
2 a,+b, 2 a +b x x
20 35 20 + 35
Note: Rule 17 is the special case of this rule. --264:186 = 44:31
Illustrative Example Now, 20 litres of water are added,
Ex.: Three glasses of sizes 3 litres, 4 litres and 5 litres 48 + 42 264
contain mixture of spirit and water in the ratio 2 : 3 , 3 : quantity of wine rrrx44 = - litres
44 + 31 5
7 and 4:11 respectively. The contents of all the three
glasses are poured into single vessel. Find the ratio f 48 + 42 ^
of spirit to water in the resultant mixture. and quantity of water = 2 0 + 1 -^g x 31
Soln: Applying the above theorem,
Spirit: Water 186286n
= + 20 =
2x3 3x4 4x5 3x3 7x4 11x5 5 5
H +
2+3 3+7 4 + 11 2+ 3 3+7 4 + 11 264 286
.-. required ratio = - ~ r ~ = 12:13
:
6 12 20 9 28 55
+ + h + 90 . , 80
5 10 15 5 10 15 2. a; Hint: Ratios are ~ '20 4:1 = 7 : 3
' 30
56 124 3.b 4. a
: = 56:124
~ 15 15
Rule 20
or, Spirit: Water = 1 4 : 3 1 .
Theorem: A man mixes M\ of milk at Rs x per litre
Exercise
1. Two casks of 48 and 42 litres are filled with mixtures of with M 2 litres at Rs y per litre. Amount of water, that
wine and water, the proportions in the two casks being should be added to make the average value of the mixture
respectively 13:7 and 18:17. I f the contents of the two [M,(x-z)+ M (y-z)
2
casks be mixed, and 20 litres of water added to the whole Rs z per litre, is given by ~ litres.
what will be the proportion of wine to water in the re-
sult? Illustrative Example
a) 13:12 b) 12:13 c)21:31 d)31:21 Ex.: A man mixes 5 kilolitres of milk at Rs 600 per kilolitre
2. Three glasses of capacity 2 litres, 5 litres and 9 litres with 6 kilolitres at Rs 540 per kilolitre. How many
contain mixture of milk and water with milk concentra- kilolitres of water should be added to make the aver-
tions 90%, 80% and 70% respectively. The contents of age value of the mixture Rs 480 per kilolitre?
three glasses are emptied into a large vessel. Find the Soln: Detail Method: According to the question,
milk concentration and ratio of milk to water in the re- Cost of 5 kilolitres of milk = 600 x 5 = Rs 3000
sultant mixture. Cost of 6 kilolitres of milk = 540 x 6 = Rs 3240
a) 121:39 b) 131:49 c)39:121 d)49:131 Now, we suppose that x kilolitres of water is added.
3. Four glasses of sizes 3 litres, 4 litres, 6 litres and 7 litres Total amount of the mixture = 5 + 6 + x = (l \ x)
contain mixture of milk and water in the ratio 2:1,5:3,6:3 kilolitres.
348 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS
Total cost of the mixture = Rs 3000 + Rs 3240 = R 6240 the average value Rs 270 per kilolitre. How many kilolitres
From the question, of water has he added?
1
6240 A O n ,, 6240 a) 2 kilolitres b) 2 kilolitres
= 480 or 11 + * = =13
U + jt ' 480 , 1, ^2
' x = 2 kilolitres. c) 3-kilolitres d) 6j kilolitres
Alligation Method: This question should be solved
by the method of alligation.
l.a 2.b 3.a
Cost of milk when two qualities are mixed
5x600 + 6x540 6240 Rule 21
5+6 Rs :
11 per kilolitre. Ex.: In an alloy, zinc and copper are in the ratio 1 :2. In the
Cost of water = Rs 0/ kilolitre. second alloy the same elements are in the ratio 2 :3. In
what ratio should these two alloys be mixed to form a
So, First mixture (milk) Second mixture (water)
new alloy in which the two elements are in ratio 5 : 8?
6240 Soln: Detail Method: Let them be mixed in the ratio x : y
2x
Then, in 1st alloy, Zinc = and Copper =
y
x 1y 2x 3y
960 Now, we have + '-%* ~ ~J~ = 5 : 8 +
Exercise
1. A man mixes 5 kilolitres of milk at Rs 6000 per kilolitre
with 6 kilolitres at Rs 5400, and with sufficient water to Therefore, they should be mixed in the ratio
make the average value Rs 4800 per kilolitre. How many 1 2 1
1 39
39 3
kilolitres of water has he added?
Ts'w o r '^ T x = To o r 3 : 1
a) 2 kilolitres b) 4 kilolitres Note: Now, we try to solve it by taking fractional value of
c) 3 kilolitres d) 1.5 kilolitres
Copper.
2. A man mixes 6 kilolitres of milk at Rs 650 per kilolitre with
1st alloy 2nd alloy
7 kilolitres at Rs 600, and with sufficient water to make
2 3
the average value Rs 540 per kilolitre. How many kilolitres
of water has he added? 3 5
a) 3 kilolitres b) 2 kilolitres
c) 4 kilolitres d) None of these
3. A man mixes 6 kilolitres of milk at Rs 325 per kilolitre with
9 kilolitres at Rs 300, and with sufficient water to make
Alligation 349
Therefore, they should be mixed in the ratio kg, at which he should sell the remaining to get a profit of
1 2 1 39 3 ny - mx
x or, 3: 10 y% on the total deal, is given by Rs P 1 +
65 ' 39 ' 65 2
r X 10 (-/n)l00
150x20-50x10
the required answer = + 1 x7
(l50-50)xlOO
7 / \_
100 50 3000-500
+ 1 x7
. ratio of alcohol to whisky in the replaced mixture 100x100
7 7
= 1:2 35
100 50 -x7 = Rs8.75 per kg.
2 2
quantity of whisky replaced =
T+2~" 3 ' Exercise
1. Sugandha purchased 160 kg of rice at the rate of Rs 25
Rule 22 per kg. She sold 60 kg at a profit of 20%. At what rate per
rem: If a person buys n kg of an item at the rate of Rs kg should she sell the remaining to get a profit of 30% on
kg. If he sells m kg at a profit ofx%, then the rate per the total deal?
350 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATH
y
given by part.
Illustrative Example
Ex.: A container contains 7 part milk and 3 part water.
Now, according to the question,
How many parts of mixture should be taken out and
replaced by water so that container contains half milk
and half water. taken out mixture = replaced water = part.
Soln: Detail Method: Let the container contain 1 litre of Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem,
mixture
1(7-31 2
the required answer < ? part.
Amount of milk = litre and the amount of water
10
Exercise
= - litre. 1. A vessel is filled with a liquid, 3 parts of which are d
and 5 parts syrup. How much of the mixture mus:
Now, let us suppose that x part of the mixture is taken drawn off and replaced with water so that the mixt
2__7x may be half water and half syrup?
out. In the container amount of milk =
10 10 1 1
a) c) d)
5 b ) 7~ "5 "MO
3x
litres. A cask contains 3 parts ale and 1 part porter. How
litres and the amount of water |
of the mixture must be drawn off and porter substir.
If container is replaced by x part of water, then the in order that the resulting mixture may be half and \
amount o f water in the container becomes
1 - 1 1 2
( 3 3x ^ a) b)
+ x litres. 2 C ) I d ) i
Uo 10 3. A container contains 8 parts milk and 4 parts water,
As per the question many parts of mixture should be taken out and rep
by water so that container contains half milk and
7__7x t
water.
10 10 _ 2
3 3x ~ 1^ 1 1 1 1 J
+x a) parts b) - parts c) - parts d) - par
2
\ 10
Alligation 35 I
x-25 Rule 26
or,60-2x = 3jc-75 Theorem: Weights of twofriends A and B are in th
or,5x = 60 + 75 a: b. A's weight increases by x% and the total we
.-. x = 27% and B together becomes w kg, with an increase of \
Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we axlOOxw
Then the weight ofA =
have the (a + b)(l00 + y) kg-
6x25+4x30 270 V bx\00xw
required answer = = = 27 %. Weight ofB kg-
6+4 10 (a + Z>Xl00 + >>)
Alligation
weight of Pran and Prem together becomes 41 kg.
f lOOw A
an increase of 8%. By what per cent did the weight
Total weight = Weight of A + Weight of B = kg
100 + y Prem increase?
and the per cent by which weight of B increases = a) 10% b) 12% c)9% d) None of these
3. Weights of two friends Sudhir and Sudhesh are in the
y(a + b)-ax ratio of 4 : 1. Sudhir's weight increases by 12% and the
%
b \- total weight of Sudhir and Sudhesh together becomes
50 kg, with an increase of 25%. By what per cent did the
Illustrative Example weight of Sudhesh increase?
Ex.: Weights of two friends Ram and Shyam are in the a) 77% b)75% c)74% d)70%
ratio of 4 : 5. Ram's weight increases by 10% and the
total weight of Ram and Shyam together becomes
Answers
l.a 2.c 3.a
82.8 kg, with an increase of 15%. By what per cent did
the weight of Shyam increase?
Rule 27
Soln: Detail Method: Let the weights of Ram and Shyam be
Theorem: Suppose a container contains Munits ofmixture
Ax and 5x.
of A and B. From this, R unit of mixture is taken out and
Now, according to question,
replaced by an equal amount of ingredient B only. This
4xxl00 process (of taking out and replacing it) is repeated n times,
+ Shyam's new wt = 82.8 ....(i)
100 then after n operations,
Amount of A left
and + = 8 2 .8 ft 1- and the
Amount of A originally present M
From (ii),jc = 8 amount of B left = M- amount of A left.
Putting in (i), we get
Shyam's new wt = (82.8 - 35.2 =) 47.6 Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: An 8-litres cylinder contains a mixture of oxygen and
( 47.6-40 nitrogen, the volume of oxygen being 16% of total
% increase in Shyam's wt = I : x 100 | = 19%
40 volume. A few litres of the mixture is released and an
Alligation Method: equal amount of nitrogen is added. Then the same
Ram amount of the mixture as before is released and re-
Shyam
10% placed by nitrogen for the second time. As a result,
15% the oxygen content becomes 9% of the total volume.
How many litres of mixture is released each time?
5 (given)
By the rule of alligation Soln: The cylinder originally contains a mixture of oxygen
and nitrogen. An equal amount of released mixture is
x-15 _4
replaced by an equal amount of nitrogen. So, apply-
15-10 ~ 5
ing the above formula,
o r , x - 1 5 = 4 .-. x = 1 9
Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, Amount of A (oxygen) left _ ' RY
% increase in Shyam's weight Amount of A (oxygen) originally present V. M )
_15x9-4xl0_95_ 1 9 ,
Where, total volume of mixture = Volume of cylinder =
5 5
M = 8 litres.
Exercise Released amount of mixture = R litres
1. Weights of two friends Naval and Keval are in the ratio Number of operations done (n) = 2
of 3 : 4. Naval's weight increases by 16% and the total
weight of Naval and Keval together becomes 83 kg, with 0.09x8 R
1 R=2
an increase of 20%. By what per cent did the weight of 0.16x8
Keval increase?
.-. 2 litres of mixture is released each time.
a) 23% b)32% c)24% d)28%
Ex.2: A dishonest hair dresser uses a mixture having 5 parts
2. Weights of two friends Pran and Prem are in the ratio of pure after-shave lotion and 3 parts pure water. After
taking out some portion of the mixture, he adds equal
2 : 3. Pran's weight increases by 6~% and the total amount of pure water to the remaining portion of mix-
354 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS
.-. Finally, the bottle contains dettol and water in the 2. b; Hint: The alcohol now contained in the vessel
ratio 16:65. \i /...\
1024
Exercise
v 1 5 3125
1. From a cask of wine, containing 64 litres, 8 litres are
drawn out and the cask is filled up with water. If the same 1024 2101
process is repeated a second, then a third time, what will Required answer = 1
3125 3125
be the number of litres of wine left in the cask?
3. a
7
a) 4 2 - i k g b) 4 2 - kg =) 48 kg d) 4 2 - g
k 4. a; Hint: Quantity of a wine left in the cask
1_ 64
2. From a vessel filled with alcohol, 7 of its contents is 1-IlV 4
125
5 5J
removed, and the vessel is then filled up with water. I f
this be done 5 times in succession, what proportion of 64 _ 61
the alcohol originally contained in the vessel will have Quantity of water left in the cask = 1
125 V 125
been removed from it?
64 / 6 1 64
1024 2101 1024 .-.required ratio = / = - = 6 4 : 6 1 .
a) b) c) d) None of these
3125 ' 3125 ' 2101
From a cask full of spirits one-hundredth part is drawn 5 c: Hint: Amount of wine left ---* 1~7>TJ
l >
and the cask filled with water. From the mixture one-
hundredth part is drawn and the cask again filled with 64
water, and a similar operation is again performed. Find = 125 x = 64 litres
the ratio of the quantity of wine left in the cask to the 125
original quantity after the third operation, 6. a; Hint: Required proportion
a)970299:1000000 b)29701:1000000 S 3
2. a; Fineness of the compound (Quantity of 2nd kind of wheat) (Quantity of 1st kind of wlieat I
(Quantity of 1st kind of wheat) (Quantity of 3rd kind of wheal)
6x15 + 5x14 + 4 x 1 2 -
?_ carats 7 11
6 + 5x4 x
1 7
210 . Quantities of wheat of (1 st kind: 2nd kind : 3rd kind |
or 14 carats.
15
7
3. a; Step I. Mix wheats of first and third kind to get a mix- = 1:7: = 11:77:7
11
ture worth Rs 1.41 per kg.?
4. d; We are concerned with solid part of the fruit (pure
CP. of 1 kg wheat CP. of 1 kg wheat
portion). Assume x kg of dry fruit is obtained.
of 1 st kind of 3rd type
.-. Solid part in fresh fruit = Solid part in dry fruit
120P V 174P
or, 0.28 x 100 = 0.8 x x
or, x = 35 kg.
Mean price s
.-. 35 kg of dry fruit can be obtained from 100 kg fresh
141P
fruit.
33
5. b; Here two alloys are mixed to form a third alloy, hence
By alligation rule:
quantity of only one of the ingredients in each of the
(Quantity of 1st kind of wheat) _ 33 _ 11 alloy will be considered. [Refer to Rule 21]
(Quantity of 3rd kind of wheat) ~ 21 ~ 7 Here, pure copper is also added, hence, quantity of
copper in all the three alloy will be considered.
i.e., they must be mixed in the ratio 11:7.
Let the amount of pure copper = x kg.
Step II. Mix wheats of 1st and 2nd kind to obtain a
.. pure copper + copper in 1st alloy + copper in 2nd
mixture worth of Rs 1.41 per kg.
alloy = copper in 3rd alloy
CP. of 1 kg wheat CP. of 1 kg wheat
of 1st kind of 2nd kind
or, x + x l 0 + x l 6 = (l0 + 16 + x)
120 P . 144P 5 4 5 V ;