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Outline of Functional Organization of Nervous - Bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated

System axons
- Enclosed in several layers of connective
Overview of the Nervous System tissue
o Endoneurium
- One of the bodys homeostatic control Wraps each axon
systems o Perineurium
- Contains sensors, integrating centers, Wraps a bundle (fascicle) of
and output pathways axon
- More interneurons in a pathway = o Epineurium
greater number of interconnections and Wraps the entire nerve
ability to integrate info - Mixed Nerves
- 2/48!!!!!! o Contain both afferent and efferent
Each neuron is either
- Most nervous systems are organized into afferent (sensory) or
3 functional divisions: efferent (motor)
o Afferent sensory
o Integrating Nervous Systems Across Animal Groups
o Efferent motor
- Cephalization Occurs in most animals
- Cnidarians are an exception
o Cnidarians and echinoderms lack
o Nervous system is interconnected
web or nerve net
- Organisms with more complex nervous
o Neurons are not specialized into
systems have more neurons = more
diff. divisions
o Neurons carry AP in both directions
o Increased # of synapses allow for
Neurons not specific
more integration of info, and more
complex behaviors
Nervous System Terms: o Memories are stored in synapses, a
complex nervous system also
- Bilaterally symmetrical allows for a greater potential for
o Right and left side are mirror learning
- Cephalization FIGURE 8.4!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
o Sense organs are concentrated at
anterior end The Vertebrate CNS
- Ganglia
o Groups of neuronal cell bodies - High degree of cephalization
- Nuclei - Uniqe in having a hollow dorsal nerve
o Groups of neuronal cell bodies cord (spinal cord)
- Part of Nervous system is encased within
within the brain
- Brain cartilage or bone
o Integrating center made up of o CNS = brain + spinal cord)
- Part of Nervous system extends to
clusters of nuclei
- Tracts periphery of body
o Bunds of many axons within the o PNS = nerves outside CNS
Cranial & Spinal Nerves
- Nerve
o Bundle of many axons outside of Cranial Nerves
- Exit directly from skull
Structure of a Nerve - 13 pairs
- Some afferent, some motor, some mixed
Spinal Nerves Regulate body temp,
reproduction, eating,
- Branch from spinal cord
- Enter and exit between adjacent
Learning and memory in
- Named based on region of vertebral
column from which they emerge Brain Size and Morphology
o Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
and coccygeal - Most groups of verts have the same
- Mixed nerves major brain structures although these
structure vary in relative size
Gray and White Matter - Much of variation due to body size
- Birds and mammals have larger brains
- Brain and spinal cord contain 2 types of
than other verts
- Animals with large brains have more
o Gray Matter (neuronal cell bodies)
o White Matter (tracts of axons and
o More complex integ centers and
myelin sheaths)
more behaviors
- Spinal cord white matter on surface, gray
matter inside Parts of Mammalian Brain
- Cerebral Cortex gray matter on surface,
white matter inside - TABLE 8.2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

CNS is isolated and protected Cerebrum

- Meninges - Outer layer is cortex

o Layers of CT surrounding brain + - Divided into 2 cerebral hemispheres
Spinal Cord o Left side = controls right side of
o # of meninges vary across taxa body
(mammals have 3; fishes have 1) o Right side = controls left side of
- Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) body
o Fills spaces within the CNS and **neurons pass between the
acts as shock absorber 2 sides via corpus callosum
- Blood brain barrier
o Tight junctions in brain capillary Hypothalamus
endothelium limit passage of
solutes from bloodstream into CSF - Located at base of forebrain
o Under thalamus
The Vertebrate Brain - Helps maintain homeostasis
o Body temp, thirst, hunger,
- Brain is an extension of SC reproduction
o Nerve tracts extend between brain o Interaction with autonomic
and SC nervous system
- Several cavities called ventricles o Regulates secretion of pituitary
containing CSF hormones
- 3 regions
o Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) Limbic System
Reflexes and involuntary
behaviors - A network of connected structures that
o Mesencephalon (midbrain) lie between the cortex and the rest of the
Coordination of sensory info brain
Relay center in mammals - Influences emotions, motivation, memory
o Prosencephalon (forebrain) - Sometimes called the emotional brain
Integration of olfactory info - Includes hypothalamus and other parts
o Amygdala
with other senses
Aggression and fear Topology of the Cerebral Cortex
o Hippocampus - Each region of cortex corresponds to a
Converts Short- term specific part of the body that it controls
memory to long term by motor output or from which it receives
memory sensory input
o Olfactory bulbs - Size of brain region devoted to diff. parts
Sense of smell of body varies widely

Thalamus Association Areas of Cerebrum

- Large grouping of gray matter above - Receives info from adjacent areas and
hypothalamus further process and integrate info
- Part of the reticular formation - Size of areas is larger in animals with
- Receives input from limbic system and all more complex behaviors
senses EXCEPT olfaction
- Relays info to cortex PNS DIVISONS!!! FIGURE 7.16!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
- Acts as a filter by blocking some afferent
Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary
Nervous System
- Involved in Homeostasis
- Located above the thalamus - Branches of ANS
- Habenular nuclei o Sympathetic
o Communicates with the Most active during periods
tegmentation of the midbrain of stress/ physical activity
- Pineal Complex Fight or flight system
o Establishes circadian rhythms o Parasympathetic
o Secretes melatonin Most active during rest
- Cortex Rest and digesting system
o Integrates and interprets sensory o Enteric
info Independent of 2 other
o Initiates voluntary movements systems
o Takes over midbrain fxn of lower Affects digestion by
verts innervating the organs of
o Isocortex (outer layer the alimentary canal
For cognition and higher
brain fxn Maintaining Homeostasis
More folded in advanced
- Balancing of sympathetic and
Gyri parasympathetic systems
- 3 mechanisms for regulating autonomic
o Dual innervations
Most organs receive input
Cortical Layers from bothsystems
o Antagonistic Action
- 6 Layers One system stimulates while
- Differs in shape and density of neurons the other inhibits
- Variable number of connections within o Basal Tone
each layer Under resting conditions
Autonomic neurons carry
Cortical Lobes APs
- FIGURE 8.17!!!!!!!!!!!
- Lobes named according to their function
or overlying bones of the skull Antagonistic Action Table 8.3!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Similarities in Autonomic Pathways Autonomic Reflex Arcs

- Pathways contain 2 neurons in series - Most autonomic changes occur via simple
o Preganglionic neural circuits that do not involve
May synapse with many conscious centers of the brain
postganglionic neurons and - Figure 8.22!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
instrinsic neurons
o Postganglionic Somatic Motor Pathways Voluntary Nervous
Neurotransmitter is released System
at effector organ from
- Control only 1 type of effector skeletal
- Pre & post neurons synapse with each muscles
- Usually under conscious control
other in the autonomic ganglia
o Cerebrum
- Cell bodies of motor neurons are located
in the CNS
- Monosynaptic
o Axons are very long, and extend all
Differences in Autonomic Pathways the way muscle
- Axon splits into a cluster of axon
- Differences between the Sympathetic (S) terminals at the NMJ release
and Parasympathetic (PS) branches acetylcholine
o Preganglionic Cell body Locations - Synaptic cleft between motor neuron and
S thoracic and lumbar the muscle is very narrow
regions of spinal cord - Effect on the muscle cell always
PS hind brain and sacral excitatory
region of spinal cord o Eg. Causes depolarization and
o Ganglia location contraction
S chain that runs close to - Some pathways are not under conscious
spinal cord control
PS close to effector o Eg. Knee jerk reflex
- Number of postganglionic neurons that
synapse with a single preganglionic Animal Behaviors
- 3 Categories
Only Sympathetic Innervation o Reflex behaviors
Involuntary and simple
- Some effectors receive only sympathetic o Rhythmic behaviors
innervations Underlie locomotion,
o Adrenal medulla breathing and the fxn of the
Collection of modified heart
postganglionic neurons o Voluntary behaviors
o Sweat Glands Most complex and diverse
o Arrector pili muscles in the skin
o Kidneys Reflex Arcs
o Blood vessels
o FIGURE 8.20 - Least complex integrated responses
- Can involve as few as 2 neurons
Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Systems (monosynaptic) or more than 2
TABLE 8.4!!!!!!!!!!!!!! - Figure 8.23!!!!

Regulation of the Autonomic System Convergence and Divergence in Reflex Arcs

Figure 8.21!!!!! - Neurons in reflex arcs arranged in 2

o Convergence Retention and retrieval of
Allows spatial summation info
o Divergence o Plasticity
Amplify signals Changes in synaptic and
- Some reflex arcs have both convergence neuronal function in
and divergence response to stimuli
- FIGURE 8.24!!!!!!!!!!
Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Rhythmic Behaviors
- Well studied in sea slug (Aplysia)
- Governed by pattern generators - Habituation
o Groups of neurons that produce o Decline in response to a stimulus
self sustaining rhtymic after repeated exposure
depolarizations o Allows animal to ignore
- 2 types of pattern generators unimiportant stimuli and focus on
o Pace maker cell
novel stimuli
A cell generates o Caused by changes in presynaptic
spontaneous depolarizations axon terminal
that control the firing of all Inactivation of Ca2+
the cells in the network channels
Neurotransmitter release
o Emergent property of the network - Sensitization
Rhythmic depolarization o Increase in response to gentle
occurs because of the stimulus after exposure to a strong
organization of neurons in stimulus
the network o Caused by changes in presynaptic
axon terminal
Swimming Behavior of Leech
Involves a secondary circuit
- FIGURE 8.26!!!!!!!!!!!!
Serotonin released by
Tetrapod Locomotion facilitating
interneuron binds to
- Involves pattern generators and reflexes receptors
o Brainstem initiates the process and Activation of G
regulates speed proteins
o The spinal cord acts as a pattern Inactivation of K
generator channels, AP duration
o Afferent signals are sent back to
Ca2+ influx
o Cortex is involved with guiding
release by sensory
locomotion in complex envi
o Cerebellum coordinates locomotion
Mechanism of Serotonins effects
Voluntary movements!!!!! FIGURE 8.28
- FIGURE 8.31!!!!!!!!
Learning and Memory
Memory in Mammals
- Most animals can learn and form
memories due to the plasticity of the - Hippocampus involved in Long term
nervous system memory, but memories are stored in
o Learning cerebrum
Process of acquiring new o Memories are stored by increasing
info the efficiency of the synapse
o Memory
between 2 neurons
- Long term potentiation (LTP) increase in the response of the
o Repetitive stimulation of postsynaptic neuron
hippocampal tissue leads to an