5 views

Uploaded by S.m. Chandrashekar

engineering mathematics

- 02_Mathreview
- Arithmetic Sequences and Series
- Fibonacci
- SANDS_Clark.pdf
- Sequence and series
- Test 2 Review Fall 2014 Sheehan Calc2
- Conjugate Roots
- Cuddy
- The History of the Smarandache Function
- excel formulas.docx
- Go to Statement Considered Harmful
- asymp.pdf
- Solution1_2_19.pdf
- Ib Exercises
- On Smarandache sequences and subsequences
- On an unsolved question about the Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital Subsequence
- bridges2014-79
- topicstartsequences worksheetstage-2
- QA Principles
- A2 Unit 1 Sequences

You are on page 1of 4

1 Sequences

Definition 1. A sequence is a list of numbers written in a definite order: {a1 , a2 , . . . , an , an+1 , . . .}

There is a variety of ways of denoting a sequence. The following are equivalent ways of denoting a sequence.

n=1

Each of a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . and so on represents a number. These are the terms of the sequence. For example, the

sequence {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, ..., 2n, ...} has first term a1 = 2, second term a2 = 4, and n-th term an = 2n.

an denotes the general term of the sequence. The integer n is called the index of an , and indicates where

an occurs in the list. Order is important. The sequence {2, 4, 6, 8...} is not the same as the sequence

{4, 2, 6, 8....}

1. Order of the terms matter, sequence {1, 2, 3} is not same as sequence {3, 2, 1}.

2. Sequence may have repeated elements.

3. Sequence may have infinite or finite elements.

We can think of the sequence as a function that sends 1 to a1 , 2 to a2 , 3 to a3 , and in general sends the

positive integer n to the nth term an . More precisely an infinite sequence is a function with domain as the

set of positive integers.

EXAMPLE: 1.1. The function associated with the sequence {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, ..., 2n, ...} sends 1 to al = 2,

2 to a2 = 4, and so on. The general behavior of this sequence is described by the formula an = 2n.

EXERCISE: 1.1. Find a formula for the nth term of the sequence.

1. {an } = { 1, 2, 3, . . .}.

2. {an } = {1, 12 , 31 , 14 , . . .}

In a recursive formula, each term of the sequence is defined as a function of its preceding term(s).

A recursive formula designates the starting term, a1 , and the n-th term of the sequence, an is an expression

containing the previous terms (the terms before it).

EXAMPLE: 1.2. Find the recursive formula associated with the sequence {0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, ...}.

The sequence {0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, ...} is a famous sequence called the Fibonacci sequence. After

the first two terms, each term is the sum of the previous two terms.

The recursive formula for the Fibonacci sequence is a1 = 0; a2 = 1; an = an1 + an2 .

1

1.2 Limit of a sequence

Given a sequence {an }, one of the questions we try to answer is: what is the behavior of an as n ? Is

an getting closer and closer to a number? In other words, we want to find lim an . Sometimes the numbers

n

in a sequence approach a single value as the index n increases. This happens in the sequence {1, 21 , 13 , 14 , . . .}

whose terms approach 0 as n gets large.

EXAMPLE: 1.3. To which number the sequence {0, 12 , 23 , 34 , . . .} approaching as n is getting larger and

larger.

QUESTION: 1.1. What about the behaviour of the sequences {1, 2, 3, . . .} and {1, 1, 1, 1, . . .} as n

increases.

be made as close as one wants to L, simply by taking n large enough. In this case, we write lim an = L.

n

If L is a finite number, we say that {an } converges. Otherwise, it diverges. Sometimes, we will make the

distinction between diverges to infinity and simply diverges. In the first case, we still know what the sequence

is doing, it is getting large without bounds.

Definition 3. (- concept) The sequence {an } converges to the number L if for every positive number there

corresponds an integer N such that for all n,

If no such number L exists, we say that {an } diverges. If {an } converges to L, we write lim an = L, and

n

call L the limit of the sequence.

1

EXAMPLE: 1.4. Show that lim =0

n n

Definition 4. The sequence {an } diverges to infinity if for every number M there is an integer N such that

for all n > N , an > M . If this condition holds we write

lim an =

n

Similarly if for every number m there is an integer N such that for all n > N we have an < m, then we say

{an } diverges to negative infinity and write

lim an =

n

A sequence may diverge without diverging to infinity or negative infinity. The sequences {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, ...}

and {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, ...} are examples of such divergence.

Theorem 1. Let {an } and {bn } be sequences of real numbers, and let A and B be real numbers. The

following rules hold if lim an = A and lim bn = B. Then

n n

1. Sum Rule:

lim (an + bn ) = A + B

n

2

2. Difference Rule:

lim (an bn ) = A B

n

lim (k an ) = k A

n

4. Product Rule:

lim (an bn ) = A B

n

5. Quotient Rule:

an A

lim = , if B 6= 0

n bn B

QUESTION: 1.2. Does each of the sequences {an } and {bn } have limits if their sum {an + bn } has a limit.

Remark 2. Every nonzero multiple of a divergent sequence {an } diverges. If {an } does not converge, then

{can } does not converge.

Let {an }, {bn } and {cn } be sequences of real numbers. If an cn bn holds for all n beyond some index

N and if lim an = lim cn = L then lim bn = L also.

n n n

cos n

EXAMPLE: 1.5. Show that lim =0

n n

Since

1 cos n 1

1 cos n 1

=

n n n

and

1 1

lim = lim =0

n n n n

cos n

By sandwich theorem lim =0

n n

Theorem 3. (The Continuous Theorem for Sequences)

Let {an } be a sequence of real numbers. If an L and if f is a function that is continuous at L and defined

at all an then f (an ) f (L).

Two concepts that play a key role in determining the convergence of a sequence are those of a bounded

sequence and a monotonic sequence.

3

Definition 5. A sequence {an } is bounded from above if there exists a number M such that an M for all

n. The number M is an upper bound for {an }. If M is an upper bound for {an } but no number less than M

is an upper bound for {an }, then M is the least upper bound for {an }.

A sequence {an } is bounded from below if there exists a number m such that an m for all n. The number

m is a lower bound for {an } . If m is a lower bound for {an } but no number greater than m is a lower

bound for {an }, then m is the greatest lower bound for {an }. If {an } is bounded from above and below,

then {an } is bounded. If {an } is not bounded, then we say that {an } is an unbounded sequence

Definition 6. A sequence {an } is non decreasing if an an+1 for all n. The sequence is non increasing if

an an+1 for all n. The sequence {an } is monotonic if it is either non decreasing or non increasing.

1. {an } = { 1, 2, 3, . . . , }.

2. {an } = {1, 12 , 31 , 14 , . . . , }

3. {an } = {1, 21 , 13 , 41 , . . . , }

4. {an } = { 3n+1

n+1 }

If a sequence {an } is both bounded and monotonic, then the sequence converges .

READING ASSIGNMENT: Section 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 Infinite Series from Thomas Finney Cal-

culus , 9th edition.

Refer Infinite Sequences Reading Material 1.pdf and Infinite Sequences Reading Material 2.pdf on doodle.

- 02_MathreviewUploaded bymushahid980
- Arithmetic Sequences and SeriesUploaded byaunpunn
- FibonacciUploaded byMira Yunita
- SANDS_Clark.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- Sequence and seriesUploaded byYu Shu Hearn
- Test 2 Review Fall 2014 Sheehan Calc2Uploaded byBrenda Anderson
- Conjugate RootsUploaded byDileep Naraharasetty
- CuddyUploaded byEstuardo Molina
- The History of the Smarandache FunctionUploaded byDon Hass
- excel formulas.docxUploaded bymot moctal
- Go to Statement Considered HarmfulUploaded byJoseph Durrant
- asymp.pdfUploaded byShweta Sridhar
- Solution1_2_19.pdfUploaded bySahabudeen Salaeh
- Ib ExercisesUploaded byPavlos Stavropoulos
- On Smarandache sequences and subsequencesUploaded byMia Amalia
- On an unsolved question about the Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital SubsequenceUploaded byMia Amalia
- bridges2014-79Uploaded bypepillo2013
- topicstartsequences worksheetstage-2Uploaded byapi-217131076
- QA PrinciplesUploaded byPablo Luis Sangüeza
- A2 Unit 1 SequencesUploaded byDanielle
- a2 unit 1 sequencesUploaded byapi-321832915
- 3com-lanplexUploaded byxsimio
- Chapter 6 Student Note - Series.pdfUploaded byRetneshwaaran Ganesan
- ap calculus paper 4 sequences and seriesUploaded byapi-312673653
- n-functio14Uploaded bynowheremuthu
- OmarYayenieUploaded byaseemdalal
- To have aUploaded byNguyễn Anh
- Matlab Commands Functions for Signal Processing & ControlUploaded byManish Kumar Naik
- ontheheavens-AristotleUploaded byapi-3756205
- Universality CAUploaded byGutemberg Alves

- 11Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- UNIT 2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Syllabus 1st YearUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- 7-Genomics-22.08.16Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- EmailUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- MVT ExercisesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity I Reading Material Part 3Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Practice Probs SequencesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits Exercises Part2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity I Reading Material Part 2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits AnswersUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Power Series Reading Material 4Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Power Series Reading Material 3Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Power Series Reading Material 2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limit Exercises Part1Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity II Presentation SlidesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- LHopitals Rule ExercisesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity I Reading Material Part 1Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity II Lecture NotesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity II ExercisesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity I Class PresentationUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Limits and Continuity I Lecture NotesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- lecturen2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- LEC n1Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- LEC n2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Infinite Series Reading Material 1Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Infinite Series Reading Material 2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- L Hopitals Rule AnswersUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Infinite Series Reading Material 3Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Infinite Series ExercisesUploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar

- DevSecOps PresentationUploaded bycheenu
- computer-repair.pdfUploaded byPisey
- COS 126_ Assignment 8Uploaded byivaneshubham
- User GuidUploaded byproteor_srl
- 4gUploaded byvenkat4uuu
- NW Tchr CopyUploaded byNisha Joseph
- Siemens CU240 Control Units ManualUploaded bycorado33
- Newton Forward Difference 5Uploaded byMuhammad Hammad Tariq
- Karnan and LogeswariUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Programacion Excel InglesUploaded byAnonymous dkoU9Zw
- 3_30940_163.pdfUploaded bySisira Jayamanna
- BSS Health Check-RevA.pdfUploaded bymahram2008
- srsUploaded bybonsla
- Hybrid Application Development Using Ionic Framework & AngularjsUploaded bykin
- 12.1.17 Freedom of Information Law RequestUploaded byAmerica Rising PAC
- Hacking Biometric Passports- Exposing the Vulnerabilities of ‘Smart Card’ TechnologyUploaded byMicha.Shafir
- String - What is the Difference Between Char s[] and Char -s in C- - Stack OverflowUploaded bytuyenndvtt
- Chapter 7 slides.pptUploaded byMuhammad Farooq
- White Paper - Summarizing Supply Chain Management Using Dynamics AX 2009Uploaded byPopa Alin
- 1. BeePaid ProposalUploaded byMossaddique Ahsan
- Training ProspectusUploaded byElaine Johnson
- Tuto3 (1)Uploaded byaravind
- 4881321-9i-ORACLE-PLSQL-Vol3Uploaded byKiran Kesari
- Red Hat Foundations Slides TranscriptUploaded byapaperino
- Lesson Js1Uploaded bydruidadelbosque
- ShutDown WinCC V6 eUploaded bySivaprasad Kc
- Accord tics OverviewUploaded bysuraj
- Linear ProgUploaded byKrany Dollar
- Sample CodeUploaded byRaja Venkatachalam E
- Unit 4- Logic GatesUploaded byTraian Vladu