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Tones

A tone is the attitude of the author towards the centralidea.Since it is the authors attitude
the tone to a large extent depends on the mood of the author.
Tones can be classified as follows :

Positive
Negative
Neutral

Neutral tone : is also called as an unbiased , objective or disinterested tone.


[please note there is a difference between disinterested and uninterested ; the former
refers to neutral while the latter refers to not interested]
ambivalence : The coexistence of opposing attitudes or feelings, such as love and hate,
toward a person, object, or idea
dispassionate : Devoid of or unaffected by passion
Positive tones : here are a few of them :

positive : when the author feels good about the present situation
optimistic : when this feel good factor is for the future than the tone is optimistic
guarded optimism
advisory : [The world can learn a lot from the example of Switzerland , go small ,
decentralize]
euphemistic : a subtle way of saying something harsh [ A gossip is nothing but
merely exchanging information]
motivational
didactic : Intended to instruct [eg. the kind of tone the authors have in self
improvement books]
moralistic
pedagogic : Characterized by a narrow, often ostentatious concern for book
learning and formal rules
assertive
passionate
nostalgic
surprise
critical appreciation
Negative :
Paradox : it is opposite fo what one expects to happen [All great truths begin as
blasphemies]
scepticism : unsure [Even the most die hard Indian would be wearied by the
current stream of flattering news on India in the English press,especially when he
realises how much of the current euphoria may be due to the good monsoons we
have had this year.]
pessimism : the tendency to expect the worst and see the worst in all things [We
have seen too much defeatism, too much pessimism, too much of a negative
approach]
condescending : Displaying a patronizingly superior attitude [eg. The
independent investors desire to play individual stocks may well worry some market
veterans, but that smacks a little of Wall Streets usual condescending attitude
toward small investors]
flippant : Marked by disrespectful levity or casualness
superficial / artificial
acerbic : bitter
caustic : bitter
harshly critical
indignation : Anger aroused by something unjust
agony
irony : The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning

eg. Woman: I started riding these trains in the forties. Those days a man would give up
his seat for a woman. Now were liberated and we have to stand.Elaine: Its ironic.
Woman: Whats ironic?
Elaine: This, that weve come all this way, we have made all this progress, but you know
weve lost the little things, the niceties.
Woman: No, I mean what does ironic mean?
Elaine: Oh.

pungent : to the point , sharp


prosaic : Lacking in imagination and spirit
exaggeration
cynical : a person who believes the worst about everyone [He is a cynic he
thinks no-one is really unselfish]
disparaging : To reduce in esteem or rank
sardonic : Scornfully or cynically mocking
spiteful : malicious
rude
scathing : Harmful or painful
critical
shock
sophistry : A plausible but misleading or fallacious argument [eg. The Pachuria
committee was accused of sophistry.]
acidic

Humour
facetious : Playfully jocular; humorous
satire : A literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or
wit[serials like Office Office , R.K.Laxman is a satirist]
sarcastic [Because Americas vital national interest were not considered imperiled by
mere genocide ,senior US officials did not give genocide the moral attention it
warranted.]
witty : characterized by clever humour or wit
mocking : To treat with ridicule or contempt
tongue in check :
banter : Good-humored, playful conversation
spoof : A gentle satirical imitation