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March

2017

www.chemengonline.com

Process Control
for Chemical Eye Safety
Refrigerants
Engineers page 42
Burners
Facts at Your Fingertips: Pneumatic Conveying
Fermentation
Control Valves
Focus on Laboratory
Equipment Storage Tanks
The Smart Way to
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www.chemengonline.com

March 2017 Volume 124 | no. 3

Cover Story
42 Control Engineering for Chemical Engineers
Chemical engineers who are aware of process control requirements and
challenges are in a position to improve process designs

In the News
7 Chementator
Single-step production of high-purity silicon demonstrated; Making
bio-ethanol from cassava pulp; Spinning miles of synthetic spider
silk; This project aims for high-efficiency enzyme production; A new
filter mesh with reduced erosion by design; and more
13 Business News
AkzoNobel announces startup of bio-steam facility at Delfzijl
plant; Chandra Asri selects Unipol PE process technology for
new polyethylene plant; Veolia to build iron-removal water-
treatment plant in Senegal; and more
15 Newsfront Refrigerants: New Rules Reinforce
Innovation As new regulations take effect, familiar refrigerants
are being phased out, introducing a variety of next-generation materials and
processes to make them 42
20 Newsfront Building a Better Burner Burner manufacturers
provide low-NOx equipment that meets both emissions and performance goals

Technical and Practical


38 Facts at your Fingertips Fermentation
This one-page reference provides information on a host of potential advantages
for using fermentation-based processes to manufacture chemicals, as well as
51
some of the unique challenges associated with fermentation
40 Technology Profile Sulfuric Acid Production from
Elemental Sulfur This process description outlines a method for
making sulfuric acid via a double-contact process
51 Feature Report Part 1 Beyond Basic Eye Safety 56
How to protect, preserve and enhance workers safety

56 Feature Report Part 2 How to Avoid Fogging in


Protective Eyewear A look at the hidden dangers of lens fogging
and how to prevent them
69
69 Solids Processing Particle Impact Problems in
Pneumatic Conveying Pneumatically conveyed solid materials
inevitably impact pipe walls and other particles, which can create processing
and equipment problems. Provided here is an outline of potential problems
related to particle impacts and the physics behind them
77 Engineering Practice Designing Atmospheric
Storage Tanks Insights into the basics of process design of
atmospheric storage tanks and an example of how to prepare a process
datasheet are presented here

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 1


84 Engineering Practice Key Considerations in
Specifying Control Valves Follow this guidance to pick the right
valve for the application

Equipment and Services


26 Focus on Laboratory Equipment
Disposable filtration units handle a range of fluids; Compact laboratory hood
offers many filter options; Measure chemical concentration with this unit;
Emergency shower heads ensure complete draining; Digital video camera
captures the action in your microscope; Automate tube decapping and barcode
identification; and more

26 31 New Products
A portable gas monitor with an extremely long service life; New chemical
solution for dust suppression; This vibrating-fork level detector has wired HART
connectivity; Firmware adds capabilities to this shaft-alignment system; Monitor
reformer tube temperatures in realtime; and more
60 Show Preview Interphex 2017
31 Interphex 2017, a tradeshow for pharmaceutical and biotechnology professionals,
will take place March 2123 at the Jacob Javits Convention Center in New
York. A small sample of the products scheduled to be on display at Interphex is
described here

Departments
5 Editors Page Going digital
In modern process automation, the concept going digital encompasses
60
much more than in the past, including the Industrial Internet of Things, big data,
streaming analytics, augmented reality and more
92 Economic Indicators

Advertisers
63 Special Advertising Section
83 Hot Products
89 Classified
90 Reader Service
91 Ad Index

Chemical Connections
Follow @ChemEngMag on Twitter
Join the Chemical Engineering Magazine
LinkedIn Group
Visit us on www.chemengonline.com for Latest News,
Webinars, Test your Knowledge Quizzes, Bookshelf
and more

Coming in April
Look for: Feature Reports on Drying; and Filtration; A Focus on
Pipes, Tubes and Fittings; A Facts at your Fingertips on Gas
Detection; News Articles on Ammonia Production; and Sensors;
an Engineering Practice article on Cooling Tower Water; New
Products; and much more
Cover photo: Photo courtesy of Emerson
Cover design: Rob Hudgins
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CRITICAL PROJECT EXECUTION FOR THE REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

Circle 18 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-18
Reliable flow measurement.

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With unique features such as the built-in webserver, WLAN, WirelessHART,
Industrial Ethernet, and Heartbeat Technology with comprehensive diagnostic
and verification functions, Proline maximizes your plant safety and availability.
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Circle 19 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-19
Editor s Page
EDITORS ART & DESIGN
Going digital
DOROTHY LOZOWSKI ROB HUDGINS

I
Editorial Director Graphic Designer n these times of fast-changing automation, more and more com-
rhudgins@accessintel.com
dlozowski@chemengonline.com panies are talking about going digital. Converting to digital data is
GERALD ONDREY (FRANKFURT) PRODUCTION not new, but thanks to new, enabling technologies, todays digital
Senior Editor
gondrey@chemengonline.com SOPHIE CHAN-WOOD culture has evolved into something far beyond what could have
Production Manager
schanwood@accessintel.com been imagined not too many years ago. Going digital is no longer
SCOTT JENKINS
Senior Editor INFORMATION just a reference to switching from analog to digital technology or going
sjenkins@chemengonline.com SERVICES paperless in the office. And, it can mean different things to different
MARY PAGE BAILEY CHARLES SANDS companies, depending on where they are in the digital transition.
Associate Editor Director of Digital Development
mbailey@chemengonline.com csands@accessintel.com At the recent ARC Forum, Industry in Transition: Realizing the Digi-
PUBLISHER, SALES & CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
tal Enterprise (February 69, Orlando, Fla.), one definition, given by
MARKETING
SUZANNE A. SHELLEY
Marty Edwards from the U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security (DHS) in his
MATTHEW GRANT sshelley@chemengonline.com keynote address, is that digital means connected. While being con-
mattg@powermag.com
CHARLES BUTCHER (U.K.) nected is certainly at the core of digitalization, the transition seems to
cbutcher@chemengonline.com
AUDIENCE
DEVELOPMENT
mean something much more holistic to most, and encompasses the
PAUL S. GRAD (AUSTRALIA) Industrial Internet of Things, big data, smart machines, cloud comput-
SARAH GARWOOD pgrad@chemengonline.com
Audience Marketing Director ing, streaming analytics, augmented reality and more.
sgarwood@accessintel.com
TETSUO SATOH (JAPAN)
tsatoh@chemengonline.com
JESSICA GRIER
Marketing Manager
Applications in the CPI
jgrier@accessintel.com JOY LEPREE (NEW JERSEY) Digitalization brings a host of possibilities to the industrial commu-
jlepree@chemengonline.com
GEORGE SEVERINE nity. One concept offered by several companies is that of digital
Fulfillment Manager
gseverine@accessintel.com
twins, where simulation software and actual data can be used to
create a digital shadow, or virtual twin, of a running process. The
JEN FELLING twin can be used in various ways, for example to optimize a pro-
List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700
j.felling@statlistics.com cess or for predictive maintenance.
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Another exciting area with applications in industry is augmented
reality. Photos, videos and more can be used to create a three-
JOHN CARSON JOHN HOLLMANN
Jenike & Johanson, Inc. Validation Estimating LLC dimensional reconstruction of a physical plant. This reconstruction
DAVID DICKEY HENRY KISTER can then be used for a variety of applications, such as for planning
MixTech, Inc. Fluor Corp. maintenance changes and for training purposes.
HEADQUARTERS
Data analytics, such as realtime analyses of incoming data, also
40 Wall Street, 50th floor, New York, NY 10005, U.S. called streaming analytics, is another benefit of digitalization.
Tel: 212-621-4900
Fax: 212-621-4694 In addition to offering data about production and operability, digi-
EUROPEAN EDITORIAL OFFICES
talization can be used in business models by tying the business
Zeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany side to production. Within the chemical process industries (CPI), one
Tel: 49-69-9573-8296
Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 example of the move toward digitalization is a recent announcement
CIRCULATION REQUESTS: by Evonik Industries (Essen, Germany). The company has formed a
Tel: 847-564-9290 new subsidiary called Evonik Digital GmbH to be headed by a chief
Fax: 847-564-9453
Fullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, digital officer (CDO). In Evonik's press release, Christian Kullmann,
Northbrook, IL 60065-3588
email: chemeng@omeda.com deputy chairman of the Executive Board is quoted as saying, Digi-
ADVERTISING REQUESTS: SEE P. 90 talization offers more than new technologies. It also creates new
For reprints, licensing and permissions: Wright's Media, 1-877-652-5295,
sales@wrightsmedia.com
opportunities for collaboration and production, and gives rise to new
business models and marketing options.
ACCESS INTELLIGENCE, LLC
DON PAZOUR
Chief Executive Officer
JONATHAN RAY
Senior Digital Product Director
Sound engineering
With all of the excitement around going digital, one has to keep in
HEATHER FARLEY MICHAEL KRAUS
Chief Operating Officer Vice President, mind the increasing importance of cybersecurity. At the ARC Forum,
Production, Digital Media & Design
DHSs Edwards suggested that depending on your specific process,
ED PINEDO
Executive Vice President STEVE BARBER it may make sense to keep some functions away
& Chief Financial Officer Vice President,
Financial Planning and Internal Audit from being digitized, such as a shut-down function.
MACY L. FECTO
Exec. Vice President, GERALD STASKO
He suggested that one big red button in the fa-
Human Resources & Administration Vice President/Corporate Controller cility may need to be kept unplugged for human
JENNIFER SCHWARTZ engineering to decide when to push it.
Senior Vice President & Group Publisher
Aerospace, Energy, Healthcare Sound engineering principles are, and will re-
main a fundamental need in all CPI facilities re-
ROB PACIOREK
Senior Vice President,
9211 Corporate Blvd., 4th Floor
Rockville, MD 20850-3240
gardless of how far along they are on the road
Chief Information Officer www.accessintel.com
to digitalization.
Dorothy Lozowski, Editorial Director

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 5


A smarter
level transmitter
is taking shape.

At Magnetrol were always thinking


about level measurement solutions.
Wait until you see the latest innovation from the
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magnetrol.com (630)969-4000 info@magnetrol.com 2017 Magnetrol International, Incorporated

Circle 26 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-26
Chementator
Single-step production of high-purity silicon
demonstrated Edited by:
PyroGenesis Canada
Gerald Ondrey
HCl H2

DENOX CATALYSTS
Quartz
Last month, Haldor Top-
se A/S (Lyngby, Denmark;
Conventional Electric MG silicon
Coal arc Metallurgical- Refining of Siemens High-purity www.topsoe.com) an-
process dissolved in HCl HSiCl3 reactor
furnace grade (MG) to form HSiCl3 silicon nounced its participation in
Wood chips silicon
ProNOx, a new four-year,
$4-million research program
to improve selective cata-
lytic reduction (SCR) cata-
Quartz
lysts. Together with two re-
Purevap Vacuum
Carbon arc High-purity search teams from the Dept.
process silicon
furnace of Chemistry and the Inter-
Reactive gas disciplinary Nanoscience
Center at Aarhus University
(Denmark; www.au.dk),

A
chieving silicon of acceptable pu- scale, PyroGenesis announced a contract Topse aims to optimize tita-
rity for solar-energy applications worth over $6 million with Canadian mining nium dioxide nanoparticles
typically requires several purification company HPQ Silicon Resources, Inc. to to improve the efficiency of
steps. Now, a new process has been develop a pilot plant to produce 200 metric catalysts used for cleaning
off-gases from engines, in-
demonstrated that can produce high-purity tons per year of high-purity Si. The company
dustry and power plants.
Si from low-quality quartz in a single step. expects the plant to start up in late 2017. Currently, the most effective
The PureVap technology from PyroGenesis In January 2017, PyroGenesis announced catalyst for removing oxides
Canada Inc. (Montreal, Que.; www.pyrogen- a series of successful trials, demonstrat- of nitrogen (NOx) consists of
esis.com) utilizes a powerful vacuum-arc fur- ing both the scalability and repeatability of TiO2 crystals covered with
nace, combining the carbothermic reduction the PureVap system, as the company be- highly dispersed vanadium
of silicon and purification into one process, gins scaling up production from grams to oxides. ProNOx research-
explains Pierre Carabin, chief technology of- kilograms. We have proven that we can ers aim to identify an indus-
ficer for PyroGenesis Canada. remove the contaminants and make sig- trially viable nano-design
Traditional arc furnaces produce relatively nificant quantities of silicon. Weve also of the vanadium-covered
titanium oxides that will im-
low-purity Si, around 98.5% purity, requiring proven that we can consistently produce
prove the catalysts perfor-
subsequent purification. Inside the PureVap 99.9% purity silicon. We have been able mance by 30%.
furnace, low-quality (97.5%) quartz and a to produce, on occasion, 99.99% purity, The program will utilize the
carbon source are exposed to heat from a says Carabin. He goes on to say that the most recent research on
plasma arc, creating CO2 and Si. The vac- companys current objective is to increase how to control materials syn-
uum-arc furnace allows for the vaporization this purity to at least 99.999%. According thesis at the atomic scale by
of contaminants, including boron and sulfur. to Carabin, this is the only process in the closely integrating synthesis,
By manipulating the metallic vapors partial world to convert low-quality quartz into Si characterization, modeling
pressures, the contaminants are removed. of higher than 99.9% purity. As far as we and tests. The end-goal is to
In 2016, following successful demonstra- know, no one else is doing purification di- identify the optimal SCR cat-
alysts and how to produce
tion of the PureVap process at the laboratory rectly from the quartz itself.
them in a controlled way.
Approximately $2.8 mil-
lion in funding for ProNOx is
Making bio-ethanol from cassava pulp provided by Innovation Fund
Denmark (Copenhagen;

S
apporo Holdings Ltd. (SHL; Tokyo, of ethanol. IGE has begun a feasibility study, www.innovationsfonden.dk).
Japan; www.sapporoholdings.jp) based on the results of the pilot project.
and Innotech Green Energy Com- Cassava pulp is a waste product generated NEW MATERIAL
pany Ltd. (IGE) in Thailand are col- during the extraction of starch from cassava A team of researchers, led by
laborating on a project to achieve the worlds in the production of tapioca. In Thailand, it scientists at the University of
first practical fermentation process to make is estimated that 2 million tons of cassava California at Riverside (www.
ethanol from cassava pulp. pulp waste were generated in 2012, which ucr.edu) and the University of
The two companies have completed stud- corresponds to 656 million L of bio-ethanol Colorado at Boulder (www.
ies on an 80,000-L/yr pilot demonstration if the new technology is used. Because of its colorado.edu), has devel-
oped the first self-healing,
plant, which was part of a project funded by high fiber content, it has not been possible
mechanically stretchable,
the New Energy and Industrial Technology to utilize cassava pulp as a raw material. A conductive material for pos-
Development Org. (NEDO, Kawasaki City, new heat-tolerant yeast, developed by SHL sible applications in bat-
Japan; www.nedo.go.jp) that began in 2014. and Iwata Chemical Co., Ltd., makes it fea- teries, electronic devices,
The next step will be the design and construc- sible to ferment the pulp (for more details,
tion of a plant with a capacity of 60 million L/yr see Chem. Eng., June 2014, p. 12). (Continues on p. 8)
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 7
robotics and artificial muscles. Spinning miles of synthetic spider silk
The transparent material is a

A
custom-made polymer that n international team of scientists,
uses ion-dipole interactions led by senior researcher Anna Ris-
to promote crosslinking of the ing and professor Jan Johansson at
polymer chains, the research- the Swedish University of Agricultural
ers say. Details of the material Sciences and the Karolinska Institute (both
were recently published in the Stockholm, Sweden; www.slu.se and www.
journal Advanced Materials. ki.se), has developed a process that makes
Researchers say it is the first it possible to spin kilometer-long fibers of a
time anyone has managed
chimeric recombinant spider silk protein. The
to incorporate these diverse
properties in a single mate-
achievement published in Nature Chemical
rial. The materials self-healing Biology is expected to pave the way for a
ability and conductivity could number of applications that take advantage
be used to extend the lifetime of spider silk, which is lightweight yet stronger
of batteries, for example. than steel. It is well tolerated when implanted
To develop the material, the re- in tissue and is biodegradable. Prior to this, it
search team had to find a way had not been possible to make long threads
to make bonds that are stable of artificial spider silk in a biomimetic way due
and reversible under electro- to the low solubility of the proteins in water.
chemical conditions. Most self-
The process mimics the spinning mecha-
healing polymers use non-co-
valent bonds that are adversely
nism of native spiders, which involves a pH
affected by electrochemical gradient from 7.6 to less than 5.7 along the
reactions. The researchers spider silk glands. The starting protein a
found attractive forces that are minispidroin composed of an NT (N-terminal
stable under electrochemical domain) from E. australis MaSp1 and a CT
conditions. They utilized bond- (C-terminal domain) from A. ventricosus MiSp Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ing between charged chemical is prepared in cultures of E. coli, producing
groups in a high-ionic-strength 125 mg/L of protein (after purification). with diameters of 40 m (photo, b and c)
ionic liquid, and the polar re- To biomimic the spinning process, the and 15 m (photo, d).
gions of a stretchable polymer,
protein is fed through a capillary (1030-m In the future, this may allow industrial pro-
the team says. The result is a
material with the desired com-
tip size) into an acidic buffer bath, and the duction of artificial spider silk for biomaterial
bination of properties. fibers are drawn from the liquid and rolled applications or for the manufacturing of ad-
The research team says the onto frames (photo, a and b). Depending vanced textiles, says Rising. Industrial part-
rubber-like material is low- on the tip diameter, fibers can be produced ners are now being sought.
cost, easy to produce and can
stretch to 50 times its original
length. After being cut, the ma- This project aims for
terial can re-attach completely
in 24 hours at ambient condi-
high-efficiency enzyme production
tions, the researchers say.

T
he European Unions Horizon 2020 improve the product recovery process by
Research and Innovation program 40% and reduce overall product cost by at
DIGITAL GAS PLANTS has awarded a grant to a consor- least 15%. To accomplish this, the project will
Last month, Air Liquide (Paris, tium working to raise yields and lower follow a multi-scale approach, where enzyme
France; www.airliquide.com)
costs of large-scale industrial enzymes. The productivity will be improved at the laboratory
inaugurated an operation cen-
ter that is unique in the indus-
grant will fund a three-year project to increase scale and in small pilot plants, while obtain-
trial gas sector. The operation yields of an enzyme product derived from My- ing insights for further scale-up, says the re-
center enables the remote celiophthora thermophilia C1, a microbe used search team. In parallel, the effect of enzymes
management of production in the production of biologically sourced natu- on biogas yield will be quantified, using five
for 22 of the groups units in ral gas (biomethane) from organic waste. commonly used biomass substrates.
France, optimizing their energy Currently available enzymes have not spe- The Demeter project team plans to dem-
consumption and improving cifically been developed for the production of onstrate the improved fermentation and
their reliability. biogas, project leaders say, and therefore have downstream process in a 15,000-L pilot
Located near Lyon, the remote not met expectations. The enzyme product plant and to demonstrate use of the enzyme
operation and optimization
derived from M. thermophilia has shown the in eight field trials at European biogas plants.
center can stop or restart a site
remotely, as well as adapting
ability to reduce the cost of producing biogas Demeter consortium partners include en-
in realtime the production from organic waste by 10%, project leaders zyme producer Genencor International, en-
level of the plants according to say, but yields have been too low to make it zyme retailer Miavit, pilot plant facility BioBase
user demand. Through the viable for industrial-scale production. Europe Pilot Plant, anaerobic digester expert
analysis of big data, collected The objectives of the enzyme project, OWS, and independent biogas research cen-
24/7 for 22 sites in France, Air known as Demeter (www.demeter-eu-proj- ter DBFZ, along with Ciaotech for indepen-
Liquide is developing predic- ect.eu), are to increase the yield of this indus- dent economic and environmental evaluation,
(Continues on p. 12) trial fermentation process by at least 20%, and a large farm, Biomoer, for field trials.
8 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Circle 12 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-12


WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 9
A new filter mesh with reduced erosion by design
GKD
permeability of 4,800 L/m2/s at a

P
orometric mesh is a new
weave mesh designed by pressure of 200 Pa. In contrast,
GKD-USA, Inc. (Cambridge, a plain weave with the same
Md.; www.gkdusa.com) using pore size has a permeability level
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of only 2,500 L/m2/s at 200 Pa.
simulations (photo), in a study aimed at So, at the same volumetric flow-
reducing erosion and abrasion caused rate, the more-open structure
by sand in oil-and-gas pipelines. of the new mesh almost halves
Porometric mesh has a very open, 3-D the local pore velocity. The lower
mesh construction that, while main- maximum pore velocity results in
taining a constant volumetric flow- lower wear of the filter material
rate, reduces local pore velocity by from particles.
up to 40% compared to conventional Currently, the company of-
filtration meshes, with throughput in- fers Porometric mesh with a geo- the values calculated in the simula-
creasing by a similar factor, says the metric pore opening of 150 and 175 tion. The company is also working on
company. With a pore size of 150 m, m, and the mesh is now undergo- a Porometric mesh family with pore
this new mesh type achieves an air ing practical tests that are confirming sizes between 20 and 750 m.

Batch or continuous?
This methodology can help making the decision

S
o far, there is no high-level dress cost and regulatory concerns. been operated in the groups labora-
evaluation that gives a sim- The groups proposed methodology tories at both batch and continuous
ple guideline on the benefits consists of three stages: initial screen- mode. The reactions are: synthesis of
and feasibility of converting a ing, extended evaluation and process -hydroxyester via the Reformatsky
batch to a continuous process. Now execution. The initial screening aims route; synthesis of 4,D-erythronolac-
a group from the Agency for Science, to uncover key business requirements tone; and phase-transfer catalysis of
Technology and Research (A*STAR; and potential pitfalls, such as sticky re- O-alkylation of 3-phenyl-10-propanol.
Singapore; www.ices.a-star.edu.sg) agents, with simple yes/no/maybe eval- Liquid-phase reactions that pro-
has developed a practical method- uations. Successful candidates are then ceed quickly and release or absorb
ology that enables a process-devel- broken down into flowchart analysis that large quantities of energy proved to
opment team to evaluate its existing identifies issues such as possible equip- be particularly favorable for continu-
batch process holistically. This can be ment and control schemes. If the analy- ous processing. For example, the
especially valuable for fine chemicals sis makes economic sense, a final stage group showed that the Reformatsky
and pharmaceuticals industries that of process execution is put in place. reaction an organo-zinc-catalyzed
might want to look into the possibility The A*STAR group has applied its reaction that frequently overheats with
of achieving step-change improve- methodology to three reactions with batch processing could profit from
ments in an existing process to ad- fairly complex molecules that have a continuous approach.

Heap leaching targets nickel from laterite

T
he NiWest Nickel Laterite Proj- The project will be a heap leach- finishing up with electrowinning.
ect located at Murrin Murrin in ing operation combined with a pro- The heap-leach solution circuit will
the North Eastern Goldfields cessing plant utilizing direct solvent include the removal of iron and the
of Western Australia, has the extraction and electrowinning to up- acid-regeneration process through
potential to become a significant grade purified nickel solutions from its use of a dynamic on-off pad sys-
long-term, low-cost nickel producer the heap leach to produce LME (Lon- tem where the spent ore and resi-
through the development of heap don Metal Exchange) nickel cathode. due will be removed and discarded
leaching. The project is 100% owned GME Resources has also developed into a pit.
by GME Resources Ltd. (Fremantle; and patented a regeneration and lat- A scoping study highlighted that the
www.gmeresources.com.au) through erite-agglomeration technology that proposed processing route offers a
its subsidiary NiWest Ltd. will enable all ore types to become significantly lower capital cost over the
Total metal content of more than heap leachable. alternative and more complex high-
1,000,000 metric tons of nickel has Multistage leaching of the ore will pressure acid-leach process. The Ni-
been defined by extensive drilling produce LME cathode nickel as well West processing plant will be capable
programs. While most laterites have as a cobalt carbonate precipitate of producing 540 m.t./yr of cobalt car-
a high iron content of about 40%, after being exposed to acid regen- bonate and 14,000 m.t./yr of nickel
Murrin Murrin has an iron content of eration, the removal of iron, neutral- cathode. The mine life will be longer
about 18%. ization and solvent extraction before than 20 years.
10 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
A new adsorbent for
wastewater treatment

A
team at the Graduate School of Energy, Environ-
ment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) of Korea
Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
(KAIST, Daejeon; www.kaist.ac.kr), led by pro-
fessor Cafer T. Yavuz has developed a water-treatment
adsorbent that can selectively remove water-soluble
micromolecules, such as those of dyes and pesticides,
which cannot be removed completely during conven-
tional water-treatment processes. The adsorbent has
the added advantages of being inexpensive, easily syn-
thesized and renewable.
In order to remove very small molecules which
also tend to be electrically charged with high solu-
bility in water, and to do so selectively, the team had
to develop a new adsorbent technology. It developed
a fluorine-based nanoporous polymer that has all the
desirable properties. By controlling the size of the pores,
this adsorbent can selectively adsorb aqueous micro-
molecules of less than 12 nm in size.
To separate specific contaminants, the adsorbent
had to be able to interact strongly with the target sub-
stance. Fluorine, the most electronegative atom, inter-
acts strongly with charged soluble organic molecules.
The incorporation of fluorine enabled the adsorbent to
separate charged organic molecules up to eight times
faster than neutral molecules.
The adsorbent could see wide industrial application,
such as in batch-adsorption tests, and in column separa-
tion for size- and charge-specific adsorption. Yavuz says the
charge-selective properties of fluorine could be used in de-
salination or water-treatment processes using membranes.
ATEX Certified
Chemicals from bagasse
Centrifuges

T
oray Industries, Inc. (www.toray.us) and Mitsui
Sugar Co. (both Tokyo, Japan; www.mitsui- Excellence Down to the
sugar.co.jp) have started a six-year project to Smallest Detail
demonstrate the production of useful materials
from bagasse, with support from the New Energy and
Industrial Technology Development Org. (NEDO; Kawa-
saki City, Japan; www.nedo.go.jp). Cellulose Biomass Safe and ecient for applications with
Technology Co. (CBT) a joint venture (JV) estab- ammable liquids: Gastight, ATEX certied
lished by Toray (67%) and Mitsui Sugar (33%) plans design various options and sizes of package
to demonstrate the production of cellulosic sugar from units available.
the waste bagasse that is generated at the sugar fac-
tory. The cellulosic sugar will then be used as feedstock
More information: www.gea.com/contact
for making other useful chemicals.
A demonstration plant is being constructed that will
include pulverization, pretreatment, enzyme-sacchariza-
tion and membrane-separation processes, and will pro-
cess 15 ton/d of dried bagasse, which corresponds to
the production of 1,400 ton/yr of cellulose sugar.
Among the new technologies to be demonstrated
are: energy-saving, membrane-based separation
technology, developed by Toray; and extraction tech-
nology, developed by Mitsui Sugar. The high-quality
GEA CP-01-008

cellulose sugar product can be used as a feedstock


for making useful bio-chemicals and chemicals, such
as ethanol, lactic acid, succinic acid, poly-phenol and
phenol compounds.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM 11


Circle 21 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-21
tive maintenance for production sites New technique simplifies doping for
by identifying the weak signals that organic semiconductors
precede a malfunction. Algorithms
devised by Air Liquide engineers are

A
new solution-based method for type (electron hole) electrical doping to a
used to fine-tune equipment adjust-
ments in plants in order to optimize
introducing doping into organic depth of 1020 nm from the surface of the
energy consumption, leveraging semiconductor films could sim- film, the researchers say.
nearly 15 years of data gathered plify the manufacture of efficient The p-doped regions show increased
from all industrial sites. In the plants, single-layer photovoltaic cells and move electrical conductivity and high work
new technologies (touch tablets, 3-D them closer to a commercial reality. Be- function, reduced solubility in the pro-
scanning, video tutorials and so on) yond solar cells, the doping technique cessing solvent, and improved photo-ox-
are also being introduced to simplify could be more broadly used in other areas idation stability in air, says the Georgia
maintenance and inspection man- of organic electronics. Tech team.
agement operations and the orga- Developed by a team of research- Electrical doping of organic semicon-
nization of daily tasks for operators.
ers at the Georgia Institute of Technol- ductors is traditionally accomplished using
ogy (Atlanta; www.gatech.edu), along vacuum-based techniques, which require
WASTEWATER TREATMENT with partners at three other institutions, costly equipment. This solution immersion
Catexel (www.catexel.com) has se-
cured two patents to protect man- the technique could expand the potential method provides a simpler alternative to air-
ganese and iron complexes capa- applications for this technology, such as sensitive molybdenum oxide layers used in
ble of generating chlorine dioxide wearable electronics and small-scale, dis- the most efficient polymer solar cells, the
from chloride salts. The technology tributed power generation. researchers say.
could enable more efficient onsite The process involves immersing organic Sponsored by the Office of Naval Re-
generation of ClO2 for the preven- semiconductor films into nitromethane search (Arlington, Va.; www.onr.navy.mil),
tion of bacterial contamination and solutions of polyoxometalates, which are the work was reported in a recent issue
biofilm formation. The technology polyanions containing transition metals of Nature Materials. The research also
is said to have the potential to re-
(tungsten or molybdenum atoms, in this involved scientists from the University of
duce the chemical load and deliver
significant energy savings in waste-
case). When exposed to the solution for California at Santa Barbara, Kyushu Uni-
water treatment. several minutes, the metal atoms diffuse versity (Japan), and the Eindhoven Uni-
into the organic film, leading to efficient p- versity of Technology (the Netherlands).

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12
Circle 14 on p. 90 or go toCHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-14 MARCH 2017
Business News
Plant Watch nitrogen production. The new liquefier is to be LINEUP
AkzoNobel announces startup of onstream in October 2018. This investment
will add hundreds of tons per day of liquid AIR PRODUCTS
bio-steam facility at Delfzijl plant
February 13, 2017 AkzoNobel N.V. (Amsterdam, nitrogen capacity. AKZONOBEL
the Netherlands; www.akzonobel.com) and
Chandra Asri selects Unipol PE process AMEC FOSTER WHEELER
utility company Eneco announced the startup
of a bio-steam facility at AkzoNobels Delfzijl technology for new polyethylene plant ARCHROMA
site in the Netherlands. Eneco has converted its January 31, 2017 PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical
ARKEMA
biomass plant into a combined heat and power Tbk (CAP; Jakarta, Indonesia; www.chandra-
(CHP) plant, which provides both electricity asri.com), has selected Univation Technologies BASF
and steam from renewable biomass. Enecos Unipol PE Process for its new polyethylene
BRASKEM
biomass plant processes around 300,000 plant that will be built in Cilegon, Indonesia, at
metric tons per year (m.t./yr) of timber scrapped CAPs Naphtha Cracker Complex. The plants CHANDRA ASRI
from demolition projects and waste to produce capacity will be 400,000 m.t./yr. This will be DOW
electricity and steam. the second Unipol PE Process line for CAP.
DUPONT

Veolia to build iron-removal Momentive breaks ground in INEOS


water-treatment plant in Senegal Leverkusen for new silane plant
January 30, 2017 Momentive Performance MOMENTIVE
February 13, 2017 Veolia (Paris, France; PERFORMANCE
www.veolia.com), through subsidiaries OTV and Materials Inc. (Waterford, N.Y.; www.momentive.
com) broke ground on a new dedicated MATERIALS
SADE, has been awarded a contract to design
and build an iron-removal water-treatment manufacturing facility for silane products in PENTAIR
plant in Dakar, Senegal for Socit Nationale Leverkusen, Germany. Momentive will invest
approximately $30 million in the plant, which SABIC
des Eaux du Sngal. The facility will have a
daily capacity of 40,000 m3 of water. Treatment is expected to begin production in late 2017. SHELL
will consist of raw water aeration, physical- SK INNOVATION
chemical treatment and sand filtration, followed Tosoh announces PVC capacity
by disinfection using chlorine produced onsite expansion in the Philippines SOLVAY
by electrochlorination. The contract represents January 27, 2017 Philippine Resins Industries,
SUMITOMO CHEMICAL
revenue of 7.6 million. Inc. (PRII), a subsidiary of Tosoh Group (Tokyo,
Japan; www.tosoh.com), plans to increase its TOSOH
Archroma expands capacity for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production capacity.
TRINSEO
tetrasulfonated brightening agents Completion of construction for the additional
February 9, 2017 Archroma (Reinach, PVC manufacturing facilities is expected in UNIVATION
December 2018. The new facilities will add TECHNOLOGIES
Switzerland; www.archroma.com) will invest
110,000 m.t./yr of PVC, doubling PRIIs PVC
in a new production facility for tetrasulfonated VEOLIA
production capacity. Commercial operations
optical brightening agents at its existing VICTREX
are to start in January 2019.
production site in Prat del Llobregat, Spain.
The new capacity is expected to come
Mergers & Acquisitions
onstream in May 2017, and is designed to
Victrex establishes JV for
be further extended over the next few years.
polyketone composites production
Amec Foster Wheeler wins boiler February 9, 2017 Victrex plc (Thornton
contract for Louisiana methanol plant Cleveleys, U.K.; www.victrex.com) and Tri-Mack
February 3, 2017 Amec Foster Wheelers Plastics Manufacturing Corp. have established
(London, U.K.; www.amecfw.com) Global a joint venture (JV), TxV Aero Composites,
Power Group (GPG) has been awarded a to accelerate the commercial adoption of
contract from Yuhuang Chemical Inc. (YCI) polyketone composite applications within the
for the design and supply of an auxiliary boiler aerospace industry. The multi-million- dollar
that will provide 580,000 lb/h of steam for investment includes the establishment of a
the first phase of YCIs methanol facility in St. new U.S.-based manufacturing facility.
James Parish, La. In addition to the boiler, the
scope of supply includes the fan, ductwork, BASF acquires photoalignment
combustion system and selective catalytic- materials provider Rolic
reduction equipment. February 8, 2017 BASF SE (Ludwigshafen,
Germany; www.basf.com) has acquired Rolic
Air Products to boost liquid nitrogen AG (Allschwil, Switzerland), a provider of
production at Middletown, Ohio plant photoalignment materials. The transaction
January 31, 2017 Air Products (Lehigh includes Rolics affiliates in Eindhoven, the
Valley, Pa.; www.airproducts.com) plans to Netherlands and Shanghai, China. Both Look for more
install a new liquefier at its air separation plant companies have agreed not to disclose financial latest news on
located in Middletown, Ohio to increase liquid details of the transaction. chemengonline.com
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 13
Pentair acquires carbon-capture (Wilmington, Del.; www.dupont.com). Chemical for an undisclosed price.
specialist Union Engineering Energain technology and formulations SSPC produces polycarbonate resins
February 3, 2017 Pentair plc enlarge Solvays existing portfolio of at production facilities in Niihama City,
(Manchester, U.K.; www.pentair. salts and additives for electrolytes. Ehime, Japan.
com) has completed the acquisition
of Union Engineering A/S (Fredericia, Braskem to acquire Cetrel Ineos announces intent to acquire
Denmark), which specializes in shares from Odebrecht Arkemas Oxo Alcohol business
capturing, recovering and purifying January 31, 2017 Braskem (So January 26, 2017 Ineos (Rolle,
carbon dioxide. Union Engineering has Paulo, Brazil; www.braskem.com. Switzerland; www.ineos.com) plans
offices in China, Brazil and the U.S. br) will acquire a controlling interest to acquire Arkemas (Colombes,
Odebrecht Utilities Cetrel business France; www.arkema.com) Oxo
Dow to divest EAA unit. Cetrel is responsible for waste Alcohol business, which will include
copolymers business treatment and disposal, environmental the acquisition of Arkemas stake in
February 2, 2017 The Dow Chemical monitoring and water supply at Oxochimie, a JV between Ineos and
Co. (Midland, Mich.; www.dow.com) Braskems Camaari Petrochemical Arkema that produces butanol and
agreed to sell its global ethylene acrylic Complex. Under the agreement, 2-ethyl hexanol.
acid (EAA) copolymers and ionomers Braskem will acquire 63.7% of the
business to SK Innovation (Seoul, Cetrel shares held by Odebrecht for Shell to sell stake in Sadaf
South Korea; www.skinnovation. around $195 million. Chemicals JV in Saudi Arabia
com). The divestiture agreement January 22, 2017 Sabic (Riyadh,
includes production assets located in Sumitomo Chemical buys out Saudia Arabia; www.sabic.com) will
Freeport, Tex., and Tarragona, Spain. Trinseo stake in SSPC JV acquire Shells (The Hague, the
January 26, 2017 Trinseo S.A. Netherlands; www.shell.com) 50%
Solvay acquires Energain Li-ion (Berwyn, Pa.; www.trinseo.com) and share in the companies Sadaf
technology from DuPont Sumitomo Chemical Co. (Tokyo; www. petrochemicals JV for $820 million.
February 1, 2017 Solvay S.A. (Brussels, sumitomo-chem.co.jp) have signed a The Sadaf JV encompasses six
Belgium; www.solvay.com) announced definitive agreement for Trinseo to sell petrochemical plants with a total output
the acquisition of Energain Li-ion its 50% share in their Sumika Styron of more than 4 million m.t./yr.
high-voltage technology from DuPont Polycarbonate (SSPC) JV to Sumitomo Mary Page Bailey

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Newsfront

Refrigerants: New Rules


Reinforce Innovation
As new regulations take effect, familiar refrigerants are being phased out and a variety of
next-generation materials and processes are being introduced
Chemours
IN BRIEF
A
greed upon in October
2016 after negotiations
GROWTH IN HFOS
from over 170 nations,
the Kigali Amendment COMPATIBILITY FACTORS
to the Montreal Protocol seeks BEYOND THE
to phase out the use of hydroflu- COMPRESSION CYCLE
orocarbon (HFC) refrigerants due
to their high global-warming po-
tential (GWP), paving the way for
newer, low-GWP refrigerant ma-
terials to enter the marketplace.
Although the Kigali Amendment
is certainly the most prominent
refrigerant-related ruling in re-
cent years, several other regu- FIGURE 1. Chemours breaks ground on a major production site for low-GWP
lations focused on reducing the HFO refrigerants
use of high-GWP chemical refrigerants have There are multiple factors involved in
been implemented, including major delistings phasing down a generation of substances
of HFCs in Europe, the U.S. and Japan. This like HFCs, says Banavali, including costs,
article provides perspective on low-GWP re- the availability of replacement substances,
frigerants and some attendant operational the resources required to produce replace-
considerations, and also highlights two refrig- ments and the readiness of current applica-
erant-free cooling technologies. tions to accept replacements without sig-
nificant retrofitting. To make the transition to
Growth in HFOs new refrigerants as seamless as possible,
Although the Kigali Amendment was not fi- HFO producers strive to make their products
nalized until late last year, the industry has drop-in replacements for legacy refrigerants,
been preparing for an eventual phasedown and Honeywells Solstice suite of HFO-based
of HFCs for many years. Manufacturing ca- products has been reviewed by several regu-
pacity for low-GWP hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) latory and industrial organizations for use in
refrigerants is set to ramp up significantly in the intended applications. Low- and medium-
the coming years, thanks to investments from pressure chillers are an area where Solstice
companies like Honeywell (Morris Plains, N.J.; products have been especially adaptable,
www.honeywell.com) and The Chemours Co. as 15 chiller manufacturers have launched
(Wilmington, Del.; www.chemours.com). models based on Solstice refrigerants, says
Honeywell anticipated the need for next- Banavali. Increased energy efficiency is also
generation replacements to HFCs more than possible with HFOs in some applications, he
a decade ago, and has invested $900 million explains, describing medium-temperature
in R&D and new capacity to produce HFC supermarket refrigerant applications as an
alternatives, says Rajiv Banavali, vice presi- area where HFO blends have demonstrated
dent and chief technical officer for Honeywell as much as 16% lower energy consumption
Advanced Materials. The company is nearing when compared with previous refrigerants.
startup of what is said to be the worlds larg- In February, Chemours broke ground in
est manufacturing site for next-generation mo- Ingleside, Tex. for a new manufacturing fa-
bile air-conditioning refrigerants in Geismar, La. cility to produce the low-GWP refrigerant

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 15


Jason Richards, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy

Yadav, president and CEO of SRFs with HFOs, and are also compatible
Fluorochemicals & Engineering Plastics with HFCs and HFC-HFO mixtures.
business. Based on market needs in Tadas team is currently conducting
India, SRF will progress to commercial- trials of these oils with clients to eval-
scale manufacturing, mentions Yadav, uate for commercial use.
citing rising car production as an accel- Potential compatibility problems
erator for refrigerant demand. SRF is can be introduced long before sys-
preparing to meet this expected rise in tems are running for instance,
demand in the future with next-gener- the chemistry of metalworking fluids
ation low-GWP refrigerants, he says. (MWFs) used in fabricating refrigera-
tion equipment can negatively im-
Compatibility factors pact operations. Residual MWFs may
As industries begin implementing new become mixed into refrigerant and
refrigerants, additional operational compressor lubricants, causing inef-
considerations must be reviewed, in- ficiencies and premature failures. A
cluding compatibility with lubricating team of engineers from Chemtool Inc.
oils and other auxiliary chemicals. A (Rockton, Ill.; www.chemtool.com)
FIGURE 2. The magnetocaloric refrigeration system group from JX Nippon Oil & Energy and CPI Fluid Engineering (Midland,
being developed at ORNL uses a magnetic field to Corp. (NOE; Tokyo; www.noe.jx- Mich.; www.cpieng.com) has been
remove heat group.co.jp) is developing polyol ester studying the effects of MWFs on re-
HFO-1234yf, tripling the companys (POE) refrigerant oils specifically for frigeration systems. Each MWF and
global capacity (Figure 1). The new use with HFO refrigerants. Refrigera- metal-cleaning solution should be
plant is expected to start produc- tion oils are generally required to have evaluated before doing any refrigera-
tion in the third quarter of 2018. The good miscibility with the refrigerant, tion machining, parts washing or even
new HFO manufacturing processes good lubricity and chemical stability applying metal protective film during
are directionally similar to incum- under the refrigerant atmospheres. manufacture and assembly, ex-
bent HFC processes; although vari- In the case of HFO refrigerants, the plains Richard Butler, Chemtool fluids
ous additional manufacturing steps chemical stability could be a prob- technical manager. The researchers
are included, making them generally lem, says Akira Tada, an engineer findings indicated that some MWFs,
more complex, says Diego Boeri, with NOEs Grease & Refrigeration Oil such as those containing chlorinated
vice president of Chemours Fluoro- R&D Group. Tada cites HFOs double alkanes, could still cause corrosion
chemicals business. bonds as the source of these insta- even after parts are washed, lead-
Chemours was the first supplier to bility concerns, as they increase the ing the team to recommend the use
commercially produce HFO-1234yf, refrigerants likelihood of decomposi- of functional alternatives. The effects
initially starting in 2011 from a facil- tion when compared to HFCs. If air of MWF-derived corrosion in refrig-
ity in Japan. Since then, the industry gets into refrigeration systems using eration processes can be severe,
has seen the introduction of numerous HFOs, the decomposition of HFOs describes Butler: Increased acid
environmental regulations, making in- proceeds drastically, and it leads to number will cause oxidation and deg-
vestments in low-GWP solutions all the the formation of hydrogen fluoride, radation of the compressor lubricant.
more crucial. Chemours Opteon low- he explains. The presence of hydro- Similarly, corrosion of ferrous materials
GWP product line was initially driven gen fluoride not only accelerates the will produce abrasive particles, lead-
by mobile air-conditioning applications, degradation of refrigeration oils, it also ing to premature compressor failure.
but has seen an increase in more com- can attack the systems materials of For common refrigerants, like R134a
plex applications on the horizon. Che- construction, resulting in serious oper- and R410A, compatible MWFs and
mours is actively developing several ational problems. It is these concerns lube oils do exist, says Butler. How-
new refrigerant fluids based on HFO- driving NOEs development of new re- ever, further work remains in the area
1336mzz technology for a variety of frigeration oils for use with HFOs. of next-generation refrigerants. The
applications, including traditional chiller New additive formulations have teams next project will include com-
systems and the emerging arena of given way to POE oils that have patibility tests for the low-GWP re-
waste-heat recovery, such as high- shown high chemical stability under frigerant HFO-1234yf, as well as an
temperature heat pumps and organic HFO atmospheres, even when con- expansion to evaluate more metals,
Rankine cycles, comments Boeri. taminated by air. Furthermore, low including aluminum and copper.
In India, SRF Ltd. (Gurgaon, India; miscibility of oils with refrigerants can
www.sfr.com) is constructing a pilot generally lead to separation at low Beyond the compression cycle
plant to demonstrate a new HFO- temperatures, which can cause con- A handful of new cooling technologies
1234yf manufacturing process. SRF gestion of oil in capillaries and de- forgo some of the concerns associ-
is one of the very few companies to crease the amount of oil in the com- ated with refrigerants by eliminating
develop its own technology for manu- pressor. However, these new oils them altogether. Oak Ridge National
facturing HFO-1234yf, says Prashant exhibit good miscibility and lubricity Laboratory (ORNL; Oak Ridge,
16 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017

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Circle 24 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-24
Thermo Fisher Scientific
Tenn.; www.ornl.gov) is developing design challenges he mentions Functional principle of Peltier
one such technology, leveraging a are the complex valving system module in cooling mode
thermal phenomenon known as the required for the process and Heat output
magnetocaloric effect. The key to optimizing the design to bring Cooling
magnetocaloric cooling is the pre- down system costs. It is itera-
cise application of a magnetic field tive research that we are per-
to specialized powdered metallic forming right now, he explains. External fan Chamber fan
materials. The magnetocaloric ma- The systems overall safety is
terials can expel and absorb heat another advantage, since the
through a cycle of being magnetized magnets are shielded, making Heat output
and de-magnetized. Studies have exposure to the magnetic field
shown that these materials have unlikely. Also, the use of the in-
the potential to be 2025% more nocuous working fluids and solid
efficient than conventional vapor- magnetocaloric refrigerants Environment Usable space
installation
compression systems, says Ayyoub decreases leakage concerns. location
Momen, lead researcher for ORNLs Additionally, the magnets and Cooling
Heat output
magnetocaloric refrigeration proj- the refrigerant materials can be
ect, which is working along with GE recycled when their service life FIGURE 3. Based on Peltier thermoelectric technology, this
refrigerated incubator consumes much less energy than a
Appliances toward commercializing is up, adds Momen. The target traditional compressor-based cooling system
the first magnetocaloric refrigerator. is to make the system as robust
When you put these materials inside as a conventional refrigerator with a Peltier system generates no vibrations.
of a magnetic field, their temperature lifetime of around ten to fifteen years, Another advantage is that the Peltier
suddenly goes up, explains Momen, he explains. In addition to investigat- system generates very little heat ex-
but when you remove the magnet, ing magnetocaloric cooling for refrig- haust, so its operation will not impact
their temperature goes down. The erator applications, the ORNL team is a laboratorys ambient conditions.
project aims at leveraging this cool- also looking into scaling the system Within the Peltier element, the con-
ing effect in a refrigerator. The critical into a small air-conditioning unit. nection between two metals with
property for magnetocaloric materi- Thermoelectric devices those different electric conductivities pro-
als is the temperature at which they that leverage the heat flux between motes heating on one side and cool-
lose their magnetism, or the Curie two materials of differing conductiv- ing on the other side. In the refriger-
temperature. Researchers at ORNL ity and require no refrigerant chemi- ated incubator, we switch the sides
have fine-tuned cooling performance cals are also being increasingly when we need cooling or heating
by layering as many as 1520 differ- considered for cooling applications. the cool side is on the inside, and the
ent magnetocaloric materials based A new refrigerated incubation system hot side is on the outside, and vice
on their Curie temperatures to ex- from Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. versa, explains Knauss. While the
pand the temperature span of the (Waltham, Mass.; www.thermofisher. Peltier effect is extremely efficient in
refrigerator, says Momen. com) is based on the thermoelectric the near-ambient range, there are ef-
Beyond manipulating the magne- Peltier effect, providing both cool- ficiency disadvantages when operat-
tocaloric materials to improve their ing and heating in a single module. ing at extremely high or low tempera-
cooling behavior, a second facet of The company developed the Peltier- tures, says Knauss.
the research is to design the refrig- based Heratherm incubator (Figure Although Peltier cooling systems
eration machine itself (Figure 2). In- 3) in order to overcome some of the are available commercially for small-
side the refrigeration process, the disadvantages of traditional com- scale applications like household wine
magnetocaloric materials are peri- pressor-based cooling processes coolers, Knauss says refrigerated in-
odically magnetized and de-magne- used in similar products, explains cubation is the first commercial appli-
tized while a working fluid, such as Konrad Knauss, global product man- cation of the technology in the indus-
water or glycol or a mixture of the ager of Thermo Fishers constant trial science sector. Peltier Heratherm
two, moves into and out of the sys- temperature products. Compressor- incubators are currently available in a
tem. As the fluid passes through the based systems are especially en- 178-L benchtop model and a 381-L
particulate materials, on one side, a ergy consuming when systems must floor model, but with the addition of
cooling effect is generated, while the regulate temperatures near ambient, more internal Peltier elements, the
other side generates a heating effect. because both the compressor and system could effectively be expanded
Analogous to a vapor-compression heating element run simultaneously for higher capacities. According to
refrigeration cycle, here, the cool side to stabilize temperature. In tests con- Knauss, the company plans to even-
acts as the evaporator and the hot ducted by Thermo Fisher, the Peltier tually scale up the system for a larger
side acts as the condenser. units consumed a fifth of the energy offering, but there are several chal-
One of the main challenges, from required for running a compressor- lenges to overcome with regard to
a performance point of view, is the based cooling system. cost and ease of operation.
pressure drop, says Momen. Other Unlike compressor systems, the Mary Page Bailey
18 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
the intelligent production
oftomorrow
Phoenix Contact your partner for Industrie 4.0
With our experience in machine building and automation, we are ideally placed to
turn the digitalization of our world into the intelligent production of tomorrow.
Roland Bent, Executive Board Marketing and Development

For additional information call +49 52 35 3-00


or visit phoenixcontact.com

COM21-16.000.L1
PhOenix COntaCt 2016
Circle 30 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-30
Newsfront

Building a Better Burner


Burner manufacturers provide low-NOx equipment that meets both emissions
and performance goals
John Zink Hamworthy

S
everal decades ago, regulatory ac-
IN BRIEF tion that necessitated reductions
BURNER IMPROVEMENTS in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from
TIGHTER CONTROLS industrial sources led to the devel-
opment of new technologies, such as low-
HEAT RECOVERY
NOx and ultra-low-NOx burners. In the years
EQUIPMENT
following, burner technologies were studied
and changed until they were eventually able
to achieve startlingly low levels of NOx emis-
sions as mandated by ever tightening regu-
lations. However, after actively using this
specialized equipment in chemical and other
processes for extended periods of time,
both end users and burner manufacturers
discovered that achieving these very low
levels of NOx emissions often resulted in a
tradeoff, in the form of reduced efficiency of FIGURE 1. The COOLstar burner applies internal fluegas re-
circulation and fuel staging, which results in stable, compact
the equipment. Now, burner manufacturers flames and low NOx emissions
are working to improve the performance of
low-NOx and ultra-low NOx burners. ity of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
studies has allowed burner manufacturers
Burner improvements to study what is transpiring inside process
Historically, process burners were supplied heaters when low- and ultra-low-NOx burn-
to provide heat to a process, so the require- ers are placed inside. CFD studies have
ment was simply to provide reliable heat and revealed that, in many cases, the burners
reliable combustion, explains Erwin Plat- themselves are not the root cause for the is-
voet, process burner product director with sues, but more the way they are arranged in-
John Zink Hamworthy Combustion (Tulsa, side the firebox, so rather than trying to build
Okla.; www.johnzinkhamworthy.com). a better mousetrap to provide even lower
However, in the early 1990s, emissions of NOx levels, burner manufacturers are fo-
[NOx] became very important and required a cusing on how to improve existing designs.
redesign of their burners in order to generate We have created rules-of-thumb for burner
less nitrogen oxides. placement and firebox design that allow us to
Platvoet says the burner industry devel- get much better behavior out of these burn-
oped new fuel- and air-staging principles ers, he says. This better understanding of
and combustion techniques that allowed firebox aerodynamics and different arrange-
burners to generate low NOx and found that ments inside the firebox allows us to not only
within their own test furnaces, the burners lower emissions, but also to improve heat-
achieved all emissions and performance flux profiles, prevent hot spots and improve
goals. But by the time these were in the field the efficiency of this equipment.
for several years, it was noted that a lot of For example, John Zink Hamworthy Com-
the designs did not behave as well as older bustions COOLstar burner applies internal
burners with simpler combustion principles, fluegas recirculation and fuel staging (Figure
he says. So for the last several years, the 1). This results in stable, compact flames
industry has begun to examine and under- and guaranteed NOx emissions as low as
stand what happens inside low- and ultra- 15 parts per million by volume, dry (ppmvd)
low-NOx burners. while minimizing CO emissions during
Platvoet says that the increasing feasibil- startup and turndown conditions.
20 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
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24742
Zeeco
Selas Heat Technologies

FIGURE 3. The Selas Isgad is an ultra-low NOx,


flat-flame burner for a variety of applications

are using a primary and a secondary


air source as a way to start combus-
tion while keeping the flame cool,
says Chris Vandegrift, vice president
of engineering and quality with Selas
Heat Technologies (Streetsboro,
Ohio; www.selas.com). When the
flame is cooler, you make less NOx,
FIGURE 2. The GB Single Jet burner is a staged, round-flame low-NOx burner that uses a non-symmetri-
cal design to boost internal fluegas recirculation and staged air and fuel to reduce NOx emissions but we need heat in the burner to
more efficiently complete the pro-
Parker Imel, a senior design en- ment or employing new methods of cess, so air staging often led to that
gineer with Zeeco (Broken Arrow, air staging. tradeoff between lower emissions
Okla.; www.zeeco.com) says that A common way to achieve low and reduced performance. However,
burner manufacturers are making emissions in a burner is to add a lot there are ways to improve air staging
strides when it comes to improving of excess air, which reduces the flow via premixing of gases that will keep
the performance of low-NOx equip- temperature of the burner and pro- NOx low and performance high.
ment. We try to utilize as many de- duces less NOx, but throwing all that He says there are different types of
sign approaches as we can to re- air into a burner consumes energy nozzle mix and premix burners avail-
duce emissions in the burner while and it becomes an anchor on the effi- able. In premix designs, the air and
keeping in mind that these pieces ciency of the burner, especially in indi- gas are together and will light im-
of equipment are operated con- rect applications, such as when using mediately in the pipe, thus meeting
tinuously, so they must be reliable. a boiler to generate steam or a ther- emissions and performance goals.
They also need to be efficient in the mal fluid heater, notes Todd Ellerton, Nozzle mix means that air and gas
process and feature adequate flame global product marketing director for have to be placed together in the
patterns and heat transfer, so we are thermal transfer systems with Honey- burner itself, which is less efficient.
combining new technology with old well Thermal Solutions (Morris Plains, When you premix, all the mixing is
technology to create the next gen- N.J.; www.honeywell.com). done ahead of time, which creates
eration of equipment. For applications where more ef- a hotter flame that allows more effi-
As such, Zeeco offers the GB Single ficiency and lower NOx emissions cient combustion and provides less
Jet burner, which is a staged, round are a requirement, Ellerton says the time for NOx formation, says Van-
flame low-NOx burner that uses a Maxon Kinedizer LE may be a solu- degrift. While this technology isnt
non-symmetrical design to boost in- tion. The nozzle-mix, medium ve- always embraced, weve been try-
ternal fluegas recirculation and staged locity design uses advanced mixing ing to educate processors on the
air and fuel to reduce NOx emissions technology to produce low emis- value of the premix technology, its
(Figure 2). The burners single-fuel gas sions with very little excess air. Built increased efficiency and the safety of
tip and cone design offers high turn- with a reinforced refractory block our system. The companys Isgad
down, predictable flame characteris- and steel burner body and nozzle, it low-NOx hydrogen burner offers this
tics and low probability of flame in- burns natural gas, propane or other type of technology (Figure 3).
teraction. This design also preserves gaseous fuels. With turndown as In some situations, air staging can
continuity with standing maintenance high as 20:1, the burner can be used be used to offset fluegas recircula-
practices and operator training re- on oxidizers, process heaters, kilns, tion, while still providing increased
quirements for raw gas burners dat- furnaces, dryers and other high-tem- efficiency and low NOx emissions in
ing back to the 1950s. perature applications. natural draft burners. While the use
Similarly, many burner manufactur- Improved air staging is another of fluegas is a good way to reduce
ers are finding ways to achieve lower method to reduce NOx without sac- NOx, a lot of processors place their
emissions while improving burner rificing performance, note the ex- process heaters outside, which cre-
efficiency and performance by intro- perts. Staged air distribution allows ates a problem when temperatures
ducing less excess air into the equip- us to reduce emissions because we are below freezing because the recir-
22 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Metgec Systems

at two different points, allowing us


to achieve lower emissions without
fluegas recirculation.
Gas is fired through a two-stage,
fixed-center mounted gun and mul-
tiple spud system. He says as the
burner fires, it creates natural cur-
rents within the furnace. The burner
entrains some of the internal gas in-
side the furnace, which helps dilute
the fuel and is referred to as internal
fluegas recirculation. This recircula-
tion is enough to reduce emissions
while preventing the efficiency prob-
lems caused by freezing in traditional
recirculation situations.

Tighter controls
FIGURE 4. The Air Gas Ratio Control (AGRC) system measures and controls gas and air flows continuously In the past, burners were simple
through a PID loop to provide less energy use and lower emissions rates devices that didnt require complex
controls, but todays more compli-
cuated air brings in moisture, which way weve overcome this problem is cated systems often require ratio
can freeze in winter weather condi- to develop burners, such as our L2E regulators in order to optimize the
tions, building up inside the ducts burners, that dont require recircula- burner and provide lower emis-
and fans and around the burner, tion of fluegas but still meet less than sions, says Scott Latusek, applica-
says Joseph Arnold, head engineer 30 ppm emission guarantees. This tion engineer with Megtec Systems
with Faber Burner Co. (Lock Haven, burner runs off the principle of stag- (De Pere, Wis.; www.babcock.com/
Pa.; www.faberburner.com). The ing the entry of fuel into the burner megtec). The goal of ratio regula

NOW AVAILABLE IN THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING STORE

Pump Essentials
Most engineers would agree that pumps represent the workhorse component in any chem-
ical process industries (CPI) facility. Every day, countless decisions must be made related to
the proper selection and specification, sizing and installation, operation and maintenance, Pump Essentials
and troubleshooting of these critical machines.

This Chemical Engineering reference book provides a wealth of practical engineering guid-
ance on the proper use and operation of several different types of pumps. Articles focus on
the sizing and selection of centrifugal pumps, and tips for managing the impact of pumps
whose operation deviates from the best efficiency point (BEP). Others provide engineering
tips for understanding and optimizing magnetically driven and sealless pumps, and guid-
ance for calculating net positive suction head (NPSH).

Valve Essentials
Engineers are routinely challenged when it comes to the proper selection, specification and
sizing, and installation, operation and maintenance, and troubleshooting of valves to control Valve Essentials
fluid flow while ensuring overall reliability and safety.

This resource provides engineering articles which focus on the proper selection and oper-
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 23


Epcon

tors is to measure the amount of most efficient of


combustion air and fuel and provide optimum air-fuel
the correct amount of combustion ratios, explains
air for every possible flowrate during Ellerton. It also
the process, he says. This tighter offers variable
control provides reduced fuel con- frequency drive
sumption while also providing better (VFD) compat-
NOx performance. ibility and control,
Megtec provides the Air Gas Ratio so users can con-
Control (AGRC) system to measure serve energy on
and control gas and air flows continu- the combustion
ously through a PID (proportion, inte- air blower and a
gration, derivative) loop (Figure 4). The range of valves
system provides low energy use and and actuators are
emissions rates. With most burner part of the system
systems, the air-to-fuel ratio is set at to help with pre- FIGURE 5. Epcon specializes in creating systems that employ heat-recovery
the maximum firing rate of the burner cise control and techniques, such as this fabrication of a custom high-efficiency tube-and-
shell, air-to-air heat exchanger.
and the minimum air flow is set at low overall perfor-
fire position. Between these settings, mance optimization of the combus- ery steam generator/hot water gen-
the air and gas valves are usually con- tion system. Finally, it has Internet- erator on the back end of the ther-
trolled by the valve positions between based connectivity so customers mal oxidizer. Regardless of which of
these limits. This is done either me- can remotely access the system. these strategies is employed, using
chanically with linkage or electroni- this energy in other parts of the plant
cally through aprogrammable logic Heat-recovery equipment offers the potential to eliminate or
controller (PLC) or relay logic. While Previously, processors might not greatly reduce the size of a burner
this method works, if the burner op- have been compelled to add primary elsewhere in the plant, resulting in
erates under its maximum firing rate, heat recovery or secondary heat re- a reduction in the overall NOx emis-
a significant amount of excess air is covery for fuel savings because they sions for the plant.
typically used and the burner oper- thought they couldnt justify the ex- Heat recovery, whether its pri-
ates outside of the stoichiometric pense based on fuel savings alone, mary heat recovery or secondary
ratio, resulting in higher fuel usage. says Vipul Patel, CPI sales applica- heat recovery, can be an invaluable
Rather than mechanically link- tion engineer with Epcon Industrial method of reducing the burner load
ing combustion air and natural gas, Systems (The Woodlands, Tex.; and/or reducing the burner size,
we can have individual control and www.epconlp.com). However, the therefore reducing the net NOx emis-
measurement of combustion air and objective to reduce NOx emissions is sion level for the facility, allowing the
natural gas and through PLC con- changing the [return on investment; processor to stay within the total site
trol, we can regulate the flow of each (ROI)], dramatically, in some cases. NOx limit, says Patel. So clearly,
to maintain the optimum air-to-fuel Patel says his company special- heat recovery can be used as a NOx-
ratio, maintaining a stable flame and izes in creating systems that employ reduction strategy that will also help
minimizing production of combustion heat-recovery techniques (Figure 5). improve efficiency of the plant, both
byproducts, says Latusek. In areas Depending on the needs and goals of which provide the ROI many pro-
where low NOx is a requirement, this of the process, some systems may cessors are seeking.
system can also maintain a burner in use primary heat recovery, such as While NOx emissions limits vary
a low NOx state when it is combined when a recuperative thermal oxi- from location to location, ensuring
with a low-NOx burner. dizer is used to preheat the process that burner users meet those limits
Honeywells Ellerton agrees that vent stream so that a larger burner while employing a combustion sys-
controls, which permit the burner doesnt need to be fired at higher tem that is appropriate to achieve
to work at its optimum in the full rates to bring the process up to the targeted product quality and pro-
spectrum of conditions, will lead operating set point. In this type of duction rate is equally important.
to better performance and lower system, we can often use a smaller We in the burner industry are work-
emissions. The companys SLATE burner to reduce the amount of NOx ing on achieving this by trying to
control technology provides con- being generated, he says. understand every detailed level of
figurable safety and programmable In other cases, secondary heat re- burner performance, as well as the
logic in one platform so it is adapt- covery can be integrated to improve customers process and their expec-
able to range of applications. It in- efficiency and performance of the fa- tations of the combustion system,
cludes integrated O2 trends to max- cility. There are a host of interesting says Platvoet. It is critical to do so
imize fuel efficiency and looks at the ways to employ the recovered en- if were going to achieve continually
stack to optimize air-to-fuel ratio to ergy, from directing the hot second- tightening emissions levels as well as
make sure the burner is operating ary air to a curing or drying system or top-notch burner performance.
at a safe range and is providing the through the addition of a heat recov- CE Staff
24 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Circle 31 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-31
Focus

Laboratory Equipment
MilliporeSigma Disposable filtration units Compact laboratory hood
handle a range of fluids offers many filter options
This company has recently ex- The DWS Downflow Workstations
panded its portfolio of EZ-Fit filtra- (photo) ensure safety and low noise
tion units (photo). These ready-to- levels for laboratory operators. They
use, disposable filtration devices recirculate air (rather than discharg-
are designed for bioburden test- ing expensive conditioned air to the
ing. The newer EZ-Fit pink filtration atmosphere). This reduces HVAC
units come with a wide range of strain and lowers overhead costs,
membrane sizes to suit many ap- says the company. The DWS Work-
plications, and they feature a new stations are designed to provide a
patented drain design to accelerate small bench-mounted unit with un-
processing of turbid or hard-to-filter restricted access for operations that
matrices. Both the newer pink and may be hard to perform in a conven-
the original blue units are said to tional fume hood. A variety of filters
conform to international standards can be selected to meet the needs of
(USP/EP) and water-testing regula- the laboratory; these include 14 dif-
tions, and can be used for filtration of ferent types of carbon and specialty
liquid samples, including water, raw media for vapors such as organics,
materials, in-process samples and solvents, acids, mercury and form-
final products. They are available in aldehyde. HEPA filters for particu-
100-mL and 250-mL funnel sizes. late filtration are also available.
The optimized membrane remains AirScience, Fort Myers, Fla.
perfectly flat after filtration to stay www.airscience.com
in constant contact with the culture
media, says the manufacturer. Measure chemical
MilliporeSigma, Billerica, Mass. concentration with this unit
www.emdgroup.com

Emergency shower heads


Speakman ensure complete draining
The Lifesaver Emergency Shower
Head (photo) is designed for labora-
tories, industrial buildings and other
settings that require emergency
shower capabilities. Its spray engine
delivers water quickly in a stream that Anton Paar
is forceful but comfortable enough The DMA 4500 M chemicals meter
for the user to stand under the spray (photo) measures concentration from
for a full 15 minutes (the amount the measured density, and has 140
of time required to ensure effective built-in concentration tables covering
washing after exposure to hazard- salts, acids, alkalis, alcohols, sugar
ous chemicals), says the company. and more. Individual tables can be
It features an integral flow regula- added at any time. The meter pro-
tor that controls water flow to 20 vides fully automated sample chang-
gal/min. Its integral flow-control ca- ing and data processing, and its touch
pabilities allow for simultaneous screen technology uses chemically
emergency shower head and eye- hardened glass for maximum protec-
wash use. Three versions are avail- tion. It requires a small sample vol-
able: 80-in., bright yellow ABS plas- ume (2 mL) and delivers fast results
tic, 8-in. stainless-steel finish, and (30 s), and the automated conversion
AirScience 1-in. stainless-steel finish (featured of the density reading into a concen-
on recessed shower and combi- tration value elminates human error,
nation units). Speakman, New says the manufacturer. Anton Paar
Castle, Del. USA, Ashland, Va.
www.speakman.com www.anton-paar.com
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 90, or use the website designation.
26 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Digital video camera captures needed during product formulation
the action in your microscope and manufacturing. The Turbiscan
family of stability analyzers includes
the Turbiscan TLAb (photo), which
is a compact, benchtop model with
temperature regulation. It is de-
signed to detect all types of desta-
bilization, including coalescence, Visit us in New York, March 21-23, 2017
flocculation, creaming, sedimenta- Booth 2464 & 3918
tion and more. Three versions are
Fastec Imaging available, to providing a range of
features that enable quick, conve-
This companys IL5 High-Speed nient characterization of concen-
Camera (photo; p. 32) is easily trated dispersions, says the com-
mounted on a micrscope, enabling pany. The device lets users carry
users to record high-speed video out quick, single-point measure-
of microscopic events. Both spatial ment to enable a rapid signature
and temporal magnification work in (sample fingerprint) of the product
tandem to clarify understanding in being analyzed. Rapid results are
applications such as microfluidics, especially essential during quality
where particles often move through control, says the company. Full-
the field of view very quickly, says brook Systems Ltd., Hemel Hemp-
the company. With four models to stead, U.K.
choose from, each records over www.fullbrooksystems.com
3,200 frames per second (fps) at
VGA resolution, and more than Automate tube decapping and
29,000 frames per second at lower barcode identification
resolution. Able to save images to
an SSD or SD card while record-
ing high-speed bursts of hundreds
or even thousands of images at a
time, the IL5 captures high-speed
snapshots of high-speed events,
in addition to video. The Fastec
IL5 camera can be controlled over
STATE-OF-THE-ART
Gigabit Ethernet via Fastec soft- MIXING TECHNOLOGY
ware on a PC or Mac, or via the
built-in web interface with any web
browser on a PC, Mac, tablet or Technologically optimized
even smartphone. Unlike traditional for your application
high-speed camera systems that Hamilton Storage
only record for a few seconds and Cost effective
require careful triggering, the IL5s This company has recently upgraded
Long-Record (LR) option can re- its LabElite DeCapper (photo) to im- mixing technology
cord at high speed for many min- prove workflow efficiencies in tube-
utes at high resolution, to many based sample management. Its six- Available in 4 weeks
hours at lower resolution. Fastec channel head enables use of 24-well
Imaging, San Diego, Calif. tube racks on the LabElite DeCap-
www.fastecimaging.com per and I.D. Capper, in addition to
48- and 96-well tube racks. A variety Your fast lane to
Compact, benchtop system of internally or externally threaded advanced mixing technology:
provides formulation analysis microtubes, cryovials and specialty
The ability to test the aging and tubes can be rapidly decapped and Phone: +1 201 825 4684
shelf life of emulsions, suspensions, capped, so that laboratories can
dispersions and foams is a critical work with tube volumes and types Ext.: 205
step in research and development that are appropriate for their appli-
and quality control, across a wide cations. The compact LabElite I.D. usa@ekato.com
range of chemical process opera- Capper adds efficiency by combining
tions, including cosmetics, inks and decapping/capping and high-speed
cosmetics production. Many tradi- 2-D barcode reading without the www.ekato.com
tional testing methods are reliable, need for additional hardware. These
but do not provide quick results devices are designed for applications
Circle 17 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-17

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 27


Hemco such as biobanking, forensics, ge- ods of Bchner filtration and over
nomics, drug discovery and life sci- drying, says the manufacturer. For
ence research. Hamilton Storage, instance, the new GFD supports
Franklin, Mass. laboratory process development,
www.hamiltoncompany.com combining filtration, solids isola-
tion, cake washing and vacuum
Walk-in fume hoods drying in one step. The final prod-
accommodate large systems uct is fully recovered through a re-
The UniMax Floor Mount Hoods movable filtration basket. With its
(photo) have recently been ex- latest advances in data logging,
panded to include a wider selec- accurate control of agitator speed
tion of models that feature fire-sup- and recipe input, the GFD can run
pression systems. Standard models autonomously (without human in-
range from 624 ft wide, 48 ft deep, tervention), says the company.
and 716 ft high. These hoods are Data can be saved and exported
constructed of chemical-resistant, for futher analysis and repeatability
non-conductive modular panels and studies. Designed with advanced
feature composite-resin surface ma- ergonomics in mind, the GFD can
terials. This modular design allows be integrated into fume hoods but
for onsite assembly, and the ability to still maintain good process visibility,
easily disassemble, move and reas- batch homogeneity and reduced
semble the units at a later date. They product exposure. Powder Sys-
can easily accommodate tall appa- tems Ltd., Boise, Idaho
ratus, distillation processes, roll-in www.powdersystems.com
reactors, or long-integrated instru-
mentation systems. Custom sizes Laboratory pH sensor family
and designs can be built to exact serves many applications
specifications. Hemco, Indepen-
dence, Mo.
www.unimaxfumehoods.com

Laboratory cooler combines


low price, high cooling power
The HTS-PS1 (photo) is a low-cost,
compact cooling system that is de-
Hber Kltemaschinenbau signed for laboratory use. Typical
applications include the removal
of process heat or for tempera-
ture control for pipetting elements
and bioreactors. The air-water
cooler does not include an active
refrigeration unit; instead, it uses a
circulating cycle of cooling water
in the form of a heat exchanger.
Sensorex
Since there is no compressor,
the device requires no mainte- This companys laboratory pH sen-
nance, says the company, and it sors (photo) are designed for basic,
is quiet and easy to install. The advanced and research-grade ap-
circulating pump has a pumped plications. They offer a variety of
capacity of up to 8 L/min, and a customizable features that can help
pressure output of 0.2 bar. The users to eliminate overspending on
HTS-PS1 can be operated over a overly sophisticated sensors, and
temperature range from 5 to 80C. minimize frequent sensor replace-
Hber Kltemaschinenbau, ment in challenging process envi-
Offenberg, Germany ronments. All pH sensors provide
www.huber-online.com accurate, reliable measurements
across full pH ranges (014), says
Powder Systems
Filter dryer has advanced data- the manufacturer. The company of-
logging capabilities fers an interactive sensor-selection
The GFD bench-top Nutsche fil- tool on its website. Sensorex,
ter dryer (photo) overcomes chal- Garden Grove, Calif.
lenges with commonly used meth- www.sensorex.com
28 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Laboratory-scale hot plates interface. Broughton Software,
withstand aggressive media Skipton, U.K.
www.broughtonsoftware.com

Controllers manage bioculture


and fermentation operations
Designed as a
drop-in replace-
ment system for
benchtop and pi-
lot-scale reactors,
the AFC bioreactor
controllers feature
a reliable, dedi-
cated and open
process control
ILS Automation
system. The AFC
928 Dual Bioreactor Controller (photo)
uses micropumps instead of syringe
TorreyPines Scientific pumps for very-low flow applications,
providing precise control down to
The EchoTherm Model H270 Pro- 0.05 mL/h, says the company. The
grammable Stirring Hot Plate (photo) system can be equipped with a vari-
is designed to be purged using an ety of probes to measure pH, pCO2,
inert gas through a fitting on the rear
of the chassis. Purging provides a
redox, cell density and more. ILS
Automation, Inc., Warrenville, Ill.
GLOBAL EXPERTISE
positive pressure inside the unit to pre- www.ils-automation.com
vent corrosive gases from entering the IN AUTOMATION
chassis and attacking the electronics High-temperature bench oven
of the stirring mechanism. These units reaches 1,000F
feature ten-program memory with
ten steps per program, temperature
Electric actuators for
ramping, RS-242 I/O port, membrane industrial valve automation
keyboard and full-function liquid-crys-
tal display (where all parameters are Reliable, powerful, efficient.
continuously visible). Heater tops are AUMA offer a large portfolio of
8-in. square, solid ceramic with 600 W
of power. Temperatures can be set to actuator and gearbox type ranges.
450C, are controlled by PID software,
and are accurate to 1C and 1F,
says the company.The units are sup- Automating all types of
plied with a 6-in. Teflon immersion industrial valves in all market
probe for controlling solution tempera-
tures directly. TorreyPines Scientific, segments
Carlsbad, Calif. Integration into all commonly
www.torreypinesscientific.com
used control systems
Software manages laboratory High corrosion protection
The Grieve Corp.
data and information
The intuitive LabHQ LIMS labora- The No. 1017 (photo) is a high-tem- Service worldwide
tory information-management sys- perature bench oven that features
tem software is designed to support 5-in. insulated walls, stainless steel
many information and quality-control exterior, Type 304 stainless steel inte-
activities in the laboratory. It was rior, integral oven stand, and an 8-by-
designed with input from a network 10-in., double-pane Pyrex/Vycor
of regulatory, quality and labora- viewing window. Incoloy-sheathed
tory professionals. The software tubular elements heat the oven Find out more on our
capabilities ensure data integrity for chamber, while a recirculating blower
regulatory compliance, increasing provides airflow. The Grieve Corp., automation solutions
operational and testing efficiency Round Lake, Ill. www.auma.com
and reducing costs, says the com- www.grievecorp.com n Circle 41 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-41

pany, and it offers an intuitive user Suzanne Shelley

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 29


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Best Practices for Challenges, Safety & Solutions
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Solids handling problems can be difficult to solve without some understanding of
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New Products
A portable gas monitor with an Extremely long submersible Honeywell Analytics
extremely long service life canned-motor pumps
The BW Clip4 (photo) is a new four- As a replacement for conventional
gas, portable monitor that can op- submersible pumps, this company
erate continuously for two years supplied two eight-stage, sealless
without the need to change sensors canned-motor pumps of the TCAM
or charge batteries. BW Clip4 moni- 30/4+4 Series to a Swiss fine-chem-
tors significantly reduce maintenance icals company as an alternative to
costs associated with fleets of porta- conventionally sealed pumps. The
ble gas detectors by eliminating repair supplied submersible pumps (photo)
work and the need to stock additional are the longest pumps this com-
sensors and spare units. Because it is pany has ever produced, with an im-
always on, the BW Clip4 helps drive mersion depth of more than 15 m,
safety compliance by assuring that and a pump shaft of only 1 m. The
workers wearing the device are pro- submersible pumps, in tandem de-
tected. Using non-dispersive infrared sign, convey the medium (ammo-
(NDIR) technology, the BW Clip4 re- nia) at a temperature of 33C. The
portedly consumes 1,000 times less delivery head is 260 m at a flowrate
battery power than a catalytic bead of 12 m/h. The pump units are de-
(pellistor) sensor, the traditional tech- signed for a nominal pressure of 40
nology used to detect flammable bars and are suitable for operation
gases in a portable device. Other fea- with frequency converters (3060
tures include the following: simultane- Hz). Hermetic-Pumpen GmbH,
ous monitoring of H2S, CO, O2 and Gundelfingen, Germany
combustibles; realtime display for in- www.hermetic-pumpen.com
stant gas readings, even in non-alarm Hexion
conditions; and internal test functions This vibrating-fork level detector
that alert users when the unit should has wired HART connectivity
be replaced. Honeywell Analytics, Rosemount 2140 (photo) is said to be
Inc., Lincolnshire, Ill. the worlds first wired HART vibrating-
www.honeywellanalytics.com fork level detector. The Rosemount
2140 detects level in applications
New chemical solution with high temperatures and harsh
for dust suppression conditions that are unsuitable for
Sentinel dust suppressant (photo) is a other level-monitoring devices. It is
proprietary chemical that is designed easy to install and maintain, as there
to adhere the finest silica particles to are no moving parts. The device is
larger particles to prevent the fines virtually unaffected by flow, bubbles,
from becoming airborne. The chemi- turbulence, foam, vibration, sedi-
Hermetic-Pumpen
cal is sprayed onto sand grains and ments content, coating, liquid proper-
adheres to the small dust particles, ties and product variations, according
effectively trapping them. Silica dust to the manufacturer. It can be used to
inhalation can be hazardous to the monitor not only liquids, but also liq-
health of workers, and recent OSHA uid-to-sand interfaces, which enables
ruling has limited the permissible ex- the detection of buildup of sand or
posure limit (PEL) for respirable silica sludge deposits in a tank. For safety-
dust in order to have a safer work critical applications, a dedicated ver-
environment. This liquid dust-con- sion of the Rosemount 2140 certified
trol agent is effective on sands of all to IEC61508 is available. For installa-
mesh size, including 100-mesh sand. tions within safety instrumented sys-
The mobility of the application sys- tems (SIS), a fully integrated remote
tem allows it to be applied at any site proof-testing capability eliminates the
without impacting normal operations, need to access the top of the vessel
and the robustness of the chemi- for extracting the device from the pro-
cal helps it maintain its performance cess. This saves time and increases
after multiple transfer points, says process availability, worker safety and
the manufacturer. Hexion Inc., efficiency. Emerson Automation
Columbus, Ohio Solutions, St. Louis, Mo.
www.hexion.com www.emerson.com
Emerson Automation Solutions

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 31


Prftechnik Dieter Busch Firmware adds capabilities to to be predefined in advance of the
this shaft-alignment system physical movement of the machine.
The Rotalign touch (photo) is a Prftechnik Dieter Busch AG,
cloud-based shaft-alignment sys- Ismaning, Germany
tem that combines precision mea- www.pruftechnik.com
surement with mobile connectivity.
The latest free firmware release for Contact-free pump operation
the system version 1.2 now minimizes contamination
adds shaft-application capabili-
ties. Cardan shaft alignment with
specially designed brackets and a
patented measuring method allows
Cardan shafts to be aligned without
removing the shaft, which signifi-
cantly reduces the alignment time,
effort and cost, says the company.
Vertical machine measurement with
Rotalign touch is now as easy as
horizontal alignment, thanks to ver-
tiSweep, the new continuous verti- Gardner Denver Nash
cal-measurement mode: just rotate
the shaft to measure flange-mounted The Dry-Pro line of dry vacuum pumps
vertical machines. Soft-foot diag- (photo) feature contact-free opera-
nostics assist the user in identify- tion that requires no lubrication in the
ing the possible causes of machine pumping chamber, minimizing process
soft foot. The new Move Simulator contamination and pollution caused
capability enables the shim values by the pump operation. The Dry-Pro

Circle 33 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-33
32 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
line offers dry-screw vacuum-pump trol room. During startup, burners
designs with fixed- or variable-pitch that are not operating correctly can
screw rotors. The pumps achieve an be quickly identified and the effect
ultimate vacuum of .0015 in. Hg, and of impinging flames can be seen,
can operate at any pressure between helping to optimize performance and
end vacuum and atmospheric pres- reduce downtime. Ametek Land,
sure. The pumps design offers high Dronfield, U.K.
vapor and liquid tolerances and can www.landinst.com
handle corrosives, organics, inorgan-
ics and solvents because of its oil-
free, non-contacting screw design.
Faster tank cleaning with lower
water consumption
PROVEN
In this design, the shafts and screws
are one solid piece, which eliminates
PERFORMANCE
corrosion between the screw rotor
and shaft that can occur in other
pump designs, says the company. A
low rotational speed avoids noise and
vibration. Gardner Denver Nash,
Bentleyville, Pa. ROTOFORM
www.gdnash.com GRANULATION
FOR PETROCHEMICALS
Monitor reformer-tube
temperatures in realtime AND OLEOCHEMICALS

Bete

Orbitor Eco fast-cycle impingement High productivity solidi cation of


cleaners (photo) are an alternative products as di erent as resins, hot
melts, waxes, fat chemicals and
to spray balls for cleaning tanks and
Ametek Land caprolactam has made Rotoform the
storage vessels. Rather than being granulation system of choice for
The near-infrared borescope NIR-B geared for maximum power, Orbitor chemical processors the world over.
3XR (photo) delivers continuous, Eco devices are instead configured Whatever your solidi cation
high-accuracy reformer-tube-wall for maximum speed and water ef- requirements, choose Rotoform for
temperature (TWT) measurement, ficiency. These new machines can reliable, proven performance and a
furnace optimization and monitoring, complete a cleaning cycle in under premium quality end product.
giving operators the ability to mea- two minutes with flowrates as low
sure temperature point data and to as 45 L/min. When compared with High productivity
store this data for future analysis. spray balls, Orbitor Eco products on-stream factor of 96%
Proven Rotoform technology
Operating with a wide-angle field of operate at a similar pressure (23
nearly 2000 systems installed
view (90 deg) and a high-resolution bars), while offering a larger clean-
in 30+ years
image, the NIR-B 3XR allows multi- ing range (up to 10-m diameter), as Complete process lines or
ple reformer tubes to be imaged and much as 95% reduction in water retro t of existing equipment
measured simultaneously. That ca- consumption per cycle and a shorter Global service / spare parts supply
pability is critical to extending asset cleaning-cycle time. With the avail-
life and maximizing efficiency, as a ability of universal fittings, connec-
10C measurement error over time tors, a range of threads and where
can result in either 1% lost produc- required, adaptors, it is likely that in
tivity, while a +10C error can result many cases, existing tanks, pumps
in a 25% reduction in tube life. The and pipework will not need to be Sandvik Process Systems
Division of Sandvik Materials Technology Deutschland GmbH
NIR-B 3XRs advanced digital-com- changed significantly for cleaning Salierstr. 35, 70736 Fellbach, Germany
Tel: +49 711 5105-0 Fax: +49 711 5105-152
munications capabilities mean that with Orbitor Eco devices. Bete info.spsde@sandvik.com
both image and data can be viewed Ltd., Lewes, U.K. www.processsystems.sandvik.com
in realtime from the safety of the con- www.spray-nozzle.co.uk
Circle 35 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-35

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 33


CUT Membrane Technology Tubular membrane modules A powerful radar level sensor
for recycling pickling acids for powders and bulk solids
With cross-flow microfiltration, sus- The NCR-80 non-contact radar level
pended particles can be removed from sensor (photo) for powders and bulk
pickling acid effectively. Due to their solids features an 80-GHz frequency
high resistance against acids, caus- focused in a narrow 4-deg beam
tics and abrasive metal particles, the angle, enabling precise aiming to avoid
T-CUT tubular modules (photo) are the flow stream, internal structure or
particularly suitable for this application. sidewall buildup. This ensures reliable
The symmetric tubular membranes are performance at measurement ranges
constructed from polypropylene (PP), up to 393 ft and accuracy within 0.2
offering resistance against abrasion, in. The NCR-80 is resistant to inter-
as well as mechanical and chemical ference, and its firmware constantly
stability. Microfiltration of pickling acids tracks echoes and automatically elimi-
enables the contaminated liquid to be nates false echoes for reliable perfor-
concentrated to a factor of up to five, mance. The NCR-80 is suitable for
which means a reduction of waste continuous, single-point level mea-
volume by the same amount. The re- surement in tall and narrow vessels
maining concentrate contains up to where there is excessive noise or dust.
3540% solids. T-CUT PP modules Mounting the instrument is simple,
ensure a stable permeate flux of about due to the availability of 0- and 30-deg
80 L/(m2.h). The filtration performance mounting plates for slanted roofs and
is maintained by backflushing the sym- 10- and 8-deg swiveling holders with
metric membranes for a few seconds directional aiming. A variety of flange
every 30 min. CUT Membrane sizes and adapter flanges are available.
Technology GmbH, Erkrathm Germany BinMaster, Lincoln, Neb.
BinMaster www.burkert.com/cut www.binmaster.com

It's more than a check valve...


IT'S A CHECK-ALL
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26033

Circle 13 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-13
34 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
New models added to
this series of seal pumps
This company
has added four
new sizes to its
existing series
of universal-seal
pumps (photo),
bringing the of-
fering to a total
of 16 different
sizes, with avail-
able flows up to
364 m3/h. This Viking Pump
includes the ad-
dition of a smaller-sized pump for flows of less than 2
m3/h. These heavy-duty, foot-mounted pumps are de-
signed for a broad range of applications that require con-
tinuous operation at pressures up to 200 psi. As a whole,
the models in this series can be applied to both viscous
and non-viscous liquids, and are capable of operating
under suction lift conditions. Seal options include pack-
ing, single component seals, cartridge lip seals and car-
tridge single- and double-mechanical seals. Various seal
flush plans are also available. Different models are con-
structed of various materials, including cast iron, ductile
iron, carbon steel or stainless steel with optional coatings
and treatments to satisfy specific application needs.
Viking Pump Inc., Cedar Falls, Iowa
www.vikingpump.com

This distributor box makes


connecting actuators easy
With the universal
M12 distributor
boxes (photo), ac-
tuator connectors
(such as those for
solenoid valves)
can be connected
quickly and easily.
Thanks to the full
wiring of the M12
slots, both the
Phoenix Contact
switching wires,
as well as the PE connection of valve connectors, are
safely and easily connected to controllers and relays
in the central control cabinet. The wire cross-sections
of the permanently connected master cables (1.0 mm
for the supply wires and 0.5 mm for the signal wires)
are sufficiently large and have low cable resistances. If
even larger wire cross-sections are required, these can
be flexibly connected to sensor/actuator boxes with
plug-in screw connections or spring-cage connections.
LED status indicators, as well as the M12 Speedcon
fast-locking technology (which reduces installation time
by up to 90%) can also be added to the products.
Phoenix Contact, Blomberg, Germany
www.phoenixcontact.com
Circle 07 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-07
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 35
WTA Vogtland These hybrid membrane ferent standard sizes ranging from
modules offer many advantages 20 to 500 m2 of membrane sur-
The new Submerged Membrane face area. WTA Vogtland GmbH,
Module, dubbed H2L (photo), is Plauen, Germany
this companys second-generation www.wta-vogtland.de
submerged membrane module for
filtration applications in water and Explosion protection for plastic
wastewater-treatment applications. extrusion applications
H2L combines the advantages of The EBP Series of explosion burst
two existing submerged module plugs (photo) are used to protect
concepts, such as back-wash- plastic extrusion equipment from
ability and high-packing density overpressurization. The EBP Series
(hollow fibers), easy pre-treatment welded design provides a flush at-
and good hydraulic behavior (flat- tachment, preventing potential prod-
sheet). In addition, the multi-layer uct buildup. Stronger welded joints
design of the membrane pockets, make EBP devices more resistant to
called Safe Guard Technology, en- increased temperatures, eliminating
sures a safe rejection of bacteria spurious bursts and product con-
and solids, even if the membrane tamination. Joint failure is avoided
layer suffers damage. The product during increased temperatures and
is especially suitable for limited tank pressure cycling. The welded design
height and areas. The design con- also removes material creep ensur-
cept of H2L is modularly built from ing burst repeatability. The burst
the so-called USBs (Ultrafiltration tolerance is 10%, and all units are
Single Blocks), which are available leak-tested and thread-verified using
in different sizes. Based on this an optical comparator, and are ultra-
ZOOK USA concept, H2L is available in 64 dif- sonically cleaned prior to shipment.
ZOOK USA, Chagrin Falls, Ohio
www.zookdisk.com

Why should you Software add-on enables


apps that integrate with CAD
This company has updated its Live-

filter your water? Link for SolidWorks products. As an


add-on to the companys Multiphys-
ics software, LiveLink for SolidWorks
allows a computer-aided design
Scale formation reduces (CAD) model to be synchronized
the heat transfer rate between the two software pack-
and increases the water ages. The latest version of LiveLink
for SolidWorks allows easy access
pressure drop through for launching and running simula-
the heat exchanger and tion apps that can be used in syn-
pipes. In fact, one study chronicity with SolidWorks software.
has shown that .002" Simulation specialists and analysts
can now build apps with the Appli-
fouling will increase cation Builder to enable users, such
pumping needs by as design engineers, to analyze and
20%. modify a geometry from SolidWorks
software right from the tailor made
interface of the app. Comsol, Inc.,
Burlington, Mass.
www.comsol.com

Level transmitter series newly


launched in North America
2672 S. La Cienega Bl vd, Los Angeles, C A 90034 USA K-TEK LMT Series magnetostric-
(800) 336-1942 (310) 839-2828 www.t ekleen.com inf o@t ekleen.com tive level transmitters have been
launched in the North American
Circle 37 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-37
36 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
market. By adopting a two-wire Submersible pressure WIKA Alexander Wiegand
common transmitter design com- sensors with many options
bined with advanced signal process- This company has introduced two
ing, the LMT Series delivers reliable high-performance submersible pres-
measurements with an integrated sure sensors with a slimline design
setup menu, advanced diagnostics (photo). The model LW-1 is suitable
with waveform display and signal for level monitoring of water and
conditioning. The first phase of the wastewater. The model LF-1 features
LMT Series comes with 420-mA long-lasting resistance within all com-
HART output, and will be available mon oils and fuels. Both submersible
with Foundation Fieldbus and Profi- pressure sensors are, with their slim-
bus PA later in 2017. LMT devices line case (22-mm dia.), suitable for
are available as an insertion-style use within pipes. Thanks to a newly
wetted transmitter (LMT100) with developed sealing concept, special
probe lengths up to 22.86 m (75 ft) in cable and further options, such as
length, or as an externally mounted, Ex and overvoltage protection dur-
non-intrusive design (LMT200) for ing lightning strikes, the instruments
use with the KM26 magnetic level work reliably even under harsh condi-
gage or with any other float and tions. The new sensors are available
level chamber. LMT200 transmit- with a variety of output signals. The
ters can be easily changed from LF-1 features optional temperature
top to bottom mount or from left-of- output for density compensation and
chamber orientation to right with no temperature monitoring. WIKA
modification of equipment required. Alexander Wiegand SE & Co. KG,
ABB Measurement & Analytics, Klingenberg, Germany
Zurich, Switzerland www.wika.com
www.abb.com/measurement Mary Page Bailey and Gerald Ondrey

Call the Experts


for all your solids processing
Protect Your
Solids Mixing Applications:
Product with Faster
Ribbon & Cone Blenders
Fluidizing Mixers
APIs Ag-Chemicals Extraction
Biologics Catalysts Our POD Contactor delivers efficient, consistent
Sigma Blade Mixers
(also for high-viscosity mixing) Ceramics Chemicals
extraction from fermentation broth, so you can
avoid degrading the active product in conditions
Food Ingredients
Size Reduction that cause short half-lives.
Herbicides Minerals
Wet & Dry Size Reduction
Steel & Ceramic Lined Mills Nutraceuticals Pesticides Talk to us about lab-scale
Jars & Jar Rolling Mills trials at our Technical
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Circle 28 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-28 Circle 08 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-08

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 37


Facts At Your Fingertips
Fermentation
Department Editor: Scott Jenkins

F
or intermediate and specialty catalyzed under mild, low-energy FIGURE 2. The oxygen Vent

chemicals, the incorporation of conditions, contrary to many indus- transfer rates and the
amount of dissolved
biotechnology-based processes trial chemical processes. This can oxygen in the liquid are
has become a viable option for the reduce some risks associated with strongly affected by mix-
chemical process industries (CPI). high-pressure and high-temperature ing in a fermenter
This one-page reference discusses processes, and possibly eliminate the
some of the benefits and challenges use of more dangerous chemicals. SP
FIT
1
of fermentation-based processes. Sustainability. Conventional chemi-
cal processes usually start from FCV
1

Fermentation advantages nonrenewable resources (petroleum,


Compressed air
Among the potential advantages of natural gas or coal), while fermenta-
fermentation processes over conven- tion processes typically convert plant
tional processes are the following: residues (biomass) or other renew- This risk can be addressed through
Improved selectivity. Bioengineer- able resources into the same product. operating procedures that adjust
ing techniques generally allow the This makes fermentation processes process parameters to slow down
elimination of byproducts from the generally more sustainable. the fermentation rate to maintain
outset, by designing a microorganism temperature control. Given the lower
to carry out the fermentation so that Fermentation challenges operating temperatures and aqueous
byproducts are not produced. Fermentation processes carry unique streams, it may be necessary to ac-
Reduced costs. Fermentation can challenges, including the following: count for the possibility of freezing in
dramatically reduce the number of Removing water efficiently. Fermen- a fermentation plant.
process steps, as well as operational tation processes operate in aqueous Maintaining sterility. For fermenta-
costs. Because the single unit opera- environments. Effective handling and tion processes, it is generally required
tion of fermentation can replace mul- purification of aqueous streams may to design, build and operate the pro-
tiple unit operations in conventional dictate specialized unit operations. cess in a way that excludes viable
chemical processes, the cost per ton Key concerns include energy-efficient foreign microbes. This is particularly
may be significantly lower (sometimes techniques to remove water and the critical in fermenters and associated
2040% lower) for bio-based process ability to recycle and reuse water. systems, and can extend into down-
technologies. Also, capital equipment Understanding impurities. Fer- stream processing as well.
for fermentation-based processes rmentation feedstocks are often car- Preventing contamination. Prevent-
may be less expensive because bohydrates, which can lead to prod- ing contaminants in fermentation is
fermentation runs at near-ambient uct-quality issues, such as color and of paramount importance. This is ac-
temperature and pressure and near- odor. If present in products, the color- complished with extensive clean-in-
neutral pH, compared to more chal- and odor-causing compounds must place (CIP) and sterilize-in-place (SIP)
lenging conditions often required in a be separated. Operators of fermenta- systems, and by using equipment that
conventional chemical process. Re- tion processes must be familiar with lends itself to being cleaned and ster-
duced byproducts can lower down- carbohydrate chemistry, as well as ilized (Figure 1). CIP systems remove
stream processing costs. protein and amino acid chemistries, foreign organisms and non-biological
Fewer safety risks. With fermen- to understand possible impurities. contaminants, such as grit, scale and
tation, complex chemistry can be Managing feedstock variability. organic matter. All may have an ad-
CIP supply FIGURE 1. In a typi- Techniques for managing feedstock verse effect on process performance.
cal CIP system, CIP variations are different for bio-based Providing oxygen. Aerobic fermen-
solution is sprayed processes than for conventional pro- ters are essentially mass transfer de-
into the tank to clean cesses, and may include feedstock vices that promote the transfer of oxy-
internal surfaces, and
is drained or pumped testing (to determine attributes), col- gen from gas bubbles into the liquid
through a separate laboration with feedstock suppliers medium where the microbes live (Fig-
Process CIP-return line
vessel to optimize consistency versus cost, ure 2). Oxygen transfer rate (OTR) can
rethinking the design of microorgan- be a limiting factor in a fermentation
isms to efficiently handle greater vari- process, so maximizing OTR is key to
ation in feedstock properties, as well a successful fermenter design. n
as adjusting operating parameters.
Maintaining temperature control. References
Process Insufficient cooling capacity can ruin 1. Miley, B. and others, Large-Scale Fermentation Systems,
Chem. Eng., November 2015, pp. 5965.
CIP return
fermentation due to temperature 2. Gregory, J. and Green, B., Mass Transfer in Fermentation
run-up, with consequences that can Scaleup, Chem. Eng., March 2014, pp. 4448.
extend into downstream processing. 3. Weiss, S., Harnessing Biotechnology, Chem. Eng., April
CIP return pump 2016, pp. 3843.
38 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Circle 27 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-27
Technology Profile
Sulfuric Acid Production from Sulfur
By Intratec Solutions
Sulfur dioxide Double contact Gas treatment + Smelter off-

S
ulfuric acid (H2SO4) is among (SO2) process double contact gasses
the most important industrial
chemicals, with large-scale Elemental sulfur Sulfur burning + Sulfuric Wet gas process
Hydrogen sulfide
double contact acid gases
uses in several industry sec-
tors, such as basic chemicals, fertiliz-
ers, petroleum refining, metals, explo- Spent sulfuric Decomposition +
H2O2 abatement SO2-rich
acid double contact tail gas
sives, detergents and plastics. H2SO4
is broadly used in different concentra- n Raw material n Pathway n Main product
tions and grades. Major applications FIGURE 2. Several production pathways are available for sulfuric acid, a major industrial chemical
include its use as a dehydrating agent,
catalyst, reactant in chemical process- tical converter. The gases from the targeting the construction of a H2SO4
es, solvent and absorbent. third bed leave the reactor and are di- plant in the U.S. The analysis was
rected to an intermediate absorption based on a production capacity of 1.5
The process step downstream, in which part of the million metric ton/yr, and from econom-
The following paragraphs describe a SO3 formed reacts with existing wa- ic data from the 4th quarter 2013. The
double-contact process for sulfuric ter in the recirculating H2SO4, forming estimated capital investment required
acid production (Figure 1) in which el- more H2SO4. After this intermediate would be about $160 million. This fig-
emental sulfur is the source of sulfur absorption step, the column off-gas is ure includes production units, storage
dioxide (SO2). SO2 can also be ob- routed to the fourth and fifth beds for installations, utilities facilities and auxil-
tained from several sulfur-bearing raw the last catalytic oxidation stages. iary buildings, as well as working capi-
materials, including spent H2SO4 and The oxidation product is sent to the tal and additional capital requirements.
smelter off-gases. final absorption step, which is analo- Due to the large scale of this plant,
Sulfur burning. Elemental sulfur (in gous to the intermediate absorption. the raw material costs represent a
molten form) and dried air are fed The concentrated H2SO4 is then fed significant portion of H2SO4 produc-
into a combustion furnace, in which to the intermediate absorption circuit. tion cost. According to the afore-
the sulfur is burned to produce SO2. The final product (98.5 wt.% H2SO4) mentioned analysis, gross raw mate-
The proportion of airflow relative to is discharged from the intermediate rial costs were about $30 per ton of
sulfur feedrate is controlled so that a absorber circuit. H2SO4 produced.
sufficient concentration of oxygen is This column is based on Sulfuric
maintained in the process gas. This H2SO4 production pathways Acid Production from Sulfur via Dou-
ensures proper conversion of SO2 to The double-contact process is current- ble-Contact Process Cost Analysis,
SO3 in the subsequent steps. This ly the most widely employed process a report published by Intratec. It can
combustion furnace is equipped with for producing H2SO4. However, SO2 be found at: www.intratec.us/analysis/
a waste-heat boiler that cools down starting material can be obtained from sulfuric-acid-production-cost. n
the reaction gas and generates high- several sources, depending on local Edited by Scott Jenkins
pressure steam, which, in turn, is fed availability. Aside from elemental sulfur,
to a turbine for generating electricity. spent H2SO4 and smelter off-gases Editors note: The content for this column is supplied by
Intratec Solutions LLC (Houston; www.intratec.us) and ed-
The cooled reaction product gas is di- are the main sources (Figure 2). ited by Chemical Engineering. The analyses and models
rected to the SO2 converter. presented are prepared on the basis of publicly available
Double-contact process. In the SO2 Economic performance and non-confidential information. The content represents
the opinions of Intratec only. More information about the
converter, SO2 is oxidized to SO3 in The process described here was con- methodology for preparing analysis can be found, along with
five catalyst beds within a single ver- sidered in an economic assessment terms of use, at www.intratec.us/che.

Steam
6 Electricity
1. Combustion furnace
BFW 2. Drying column
Exhaust steam 3. SO2 converter
4 4. Intermediate absorption
3 Water
Sulfur 1 5. Final absorption
6. Turbine generator
7. Cooling tower

CW Cooling water
Tail gas BFW Boiler feedwater
2 Sulfuric acid
Water
5

Air

FIGURE 1. The diagram shows the production of sulfuric acid CW 7


from elemental sulfur via double-contact process
40 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 41
Cover Story

Control Engineering
for Chemical Engineers
Chemical engineers who are aware of process control requirements and challenges are in a
position to improve process designs

Lou Heavner

C
hemical engineers SODT vs INPUT
Emerson are ideal candidates (Non-integrating)
1.0
for control engineer-
ing jobs. They under- 0.9
IN BRIEF stand processes and process 0.8
Percent change in process output

A BRIEF HISTORY OF design. However, many have 0.7


PROCESS CONTROL never considered or studied
0.6
DESIGN BASIS AND
process dynamics. Process
engineers often provide the 0.5
PROCESS VARIABILITY
preliminary instrumentation and 0.4
CONTROL BASICS control requirements for new 0.3
ADVANCED PROCESS projects. Control engineering is
0.2
CONTROL just the next step. Control engi-
neers try to identify and under- 0.1
BATCH PROCESS
CONTROL
stand sources of process vari- 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
ability that can impact product Time, s
PROCESS SAFETY IN quality, and then reduce the FIGURE 1. Responses to process inputs in self-regulating processes can take the
CONTROL variability to mitigate its adverse form of first-order plus deadtime (FODT) or second-order plus deadtime (SODT)
PROCESS DATA economic effects.
There are many renowned chemical engi- Electronics gave the advantage of faster
CONCLUDING REMARKS
neers who have made careers and reputa- communications between field instruments
tions for themselves as control engineers, in- and controllers located in a central control
cluding the prolific author Greg Shinskey, the room, as well as space savings and some
father of model-predictive advanced control, improved features. They generally mimicked
Charles Cutler, and academics like Thomas pneumatic controls, but electrical engineers
Edgar, Thomas McAvoy and Dale Seborg. began to displace mechanical engineers as
Even if a process engineer never becomes control engineers. Relay systems were used
a control engineer, being aware of process to provide interlocks, logic control and se-
control requirements and challenges will lead quence control.
to better process designs. This article pro- Inevitably, analog single-loop controllers
vides information to aid chemical engineers in were replaced with multi-loop digital control
their understanding of how to reduce process systems first, control computers and later,
variability by better controlling processes. distributed control systems (DCS). Also at this
time, programmable logic controllers (PLCs)
A brief history of process control began to displace systems of relays for logic
Early process controllers were mechani- and sequential control. Modern control sys-
cal devices using pneumatics and hydrau- tems are now leveraging the Internet, wireless
lics. Mechanical engineers were common technologies and bus technologies in new
in control engineering, especially since the and effective ways. Field instruments and
most common final control element the final control devices are becoming increas-
control valve is inherently a mechanical ingly more intelligent, providing for more
device. Pneumatic controllers were gradu- non-control information than control informa-
ally replaced with analog electronic systems. tion. Tools and user interfaces are becoming
42 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
friendlier to use and more capable, offer- FODT vs INPUT
(Non-integrating)
ing tremendous productivity gains.
Electrical engineers continued to 1.0
dominate the field of automation and 0.9
control. But the additional computing

Percent change in process output


0.8
capability in microprocessor- and com-
0.7
puter-based systems led to an oppor-
tunity for more advanced control strat- 0.6
egies. Chemical engineers, with their 0.5
knowledge of process behavior and 0.4
process requirements, have been work-
0.3
ing for years in the field of automation
and control, and are often able to gain 0.2
more value out of control systems than 0.1
others with less process understanding 0
might achieve. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Time, s
160 180 200 220 240

Design basis and variability frequency (fast) variability (less than a FIGURE 2. Typical first-order plus deadtime
Process engineering focuses on process few seconds). (FODT) responses are characterized by a
rapid initial response to a process input,
design, and defines or assumes a de- Fortunately, process design can often followed by slowing response as a new
sign basis. That basis typically includes be used to attenuate fast variability. steady state is reached
normal, maximum and minimum pro- Surge vessels can be used to attenuate
duction rates, and the process engineer highly variable flows between units, for
tries to optimize the process design, first example, reducing the disruption to the
in terms of capital cost and second in downstream unit from variability in the
terms of operability. At this stage, project upstream unit.
cost considerations and the availability Control engineers need to understand
of standard process equipment may re- process dynamics, a topic area that is
quire design compromises that lead to a not always considered as part of the
process design with control challenges. core of process design. It is convenient
The design basis is a guideline, but to think of process dynamics in terms
operating conditions in a commissioned of process inputs and process observa-
plant may change over time. Equip- tions. Process inputs are material or en-
ment (especially control valves) wear, ergy flows, and they may be flows into,
feedstock qualities vary, catalysts age, out of, or intermediate within a given
processes are impacted by varying am- process. As flows are changed, the
bient conditions, and other sources of process is affected, as seen by process
variability impact production. Market observations. Process observations are
and regulatory conditions may also measured as variables like tempera-
vary, shifting demand for certain prod- tures, pressures, levels, compositions
ucts and byproducts or penalizing the and flowrates.
production of waste products. The con- As process designs are optimized
trol system of the plant is intended to for energy recovery and minimization
mitigate the effect of incoming sources of both capital cost and operating cost
of variability on product quality variabil- for a plant, they incorporate increasing
ity. As plants become increasingly com- integration between process streams.
plex, operators are faced with bigger If variability is not controlled in a highly
challenges, and simply operating the integrated process with a high degree
process manually is no longer an op- of process interactions, there are more
tion. A frequently cited analogy is the pathways for it to create quality issues.
pilot in an advanced meta-stable jet de- Therefore, it is increasingly important for
pendent on advanced avionics. design and control engineers to work
Perhaps the best way to look at au- together to ensure operability and strat-
tomation and control is as the business egize how to attenuate variability.
of managing process variability in real-
time. One important thing to understand Control basics
is that control systems are generally able Most process responses can be classi-
to attenuate low-frequency (slow) vari- fied into self-regulating and non-self-reg-
ability (on the order of seconds, minutes ulating (or integrating). Self-regulating pro-
or more), but cannot attenuate high- cesses respond to a change in process

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 43


TUNING A PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE (PID) LOOP

P
ID controllers are defined by the control algorithm, which gener- action is sensitive to noise in the error, which magnifies the rate of
ates an output based on the difference between setpoint and change, even when the error isnt really changing. For that reason,
process variable (PV). That difference is called the error, and the derivative action is rarely used on noisy processes and if it is needed,
most basic controller would be a proportional controller. The error is then filtering of the PV is recommended. Since a setpoint change
multiplied by a proportional gain and that result is the new output. The can look to the controller like an infinite rate of change and pro-
proportional gain may be an actual gain in terms of percent change of cesses usually change more slowly, many controllers have an op-
output per percent change of error or in terms of proportional band. tion to disable derivative action on setpoint changes and instead of
Proportional band is the same as gain divided by 100, so the effect is multiplying the rate of change of the error, the rate of change of the
the same, even if the units and value are different. When tuning a control PV is multiplied by the derivative term.
system, it is important to know whether the proportional tuning param- There are two steps to tuning a controller. First the process dy-
eter used in the controller being tuned is gain or proportional band. namics must be identified. This can be done with an open-loop or
When the error does not change, there is no change in output. This closed-loop step test. In open loop, the controller is put in manual
results in an offset for any load beyond the original load for which the mode and the output is stepped. The PV is observed and the pro-
controller was tuned. A home heating system might be set to control cess deadtime, gain, and time constants are estimated. Several
the temperature at 68F. During a cold night, the output when the steps should be made to identify any nonlinearity and to ensure the
error is zero might be 70%. But during a sunny afternoon that is not response is not being affected by an unmeasured disturbance. In
as cold, the output would still be 70% at zero error. But since not closed loop, the controller is forced to oscillate in a fixed cycle by
as much heating is required, the temperature would rise above 68F. stepping the output, forcing it to oscillate with an amplitude that
This results in a permanent off-set. will be dependent on the process gain and step size. This can be
Integral action overcomes the off-set by calculating the integral of achieved with a controller by zeroing the integral and derivative
error or persistence of the error. This action drives the controller error terms and adjusting the proportional gain until the cycle is repeat-
to zero by continuing to adjust the controller output after the propor- ing, or by using logic that switches the output when the cycling PV
tional action is complete. (In reality, these two actions are working crosses the setpoint value.
in tandem.) The integral of the error is multiplied by a gain that is The second step is calculating the tuning parameters. There are
actually in terms of time. Again, different controllers have defined the different guidelines proposed by different authors and even software
integral parameter in different ways. One is directly in time and the that will calculate the tuning parameters for the tuner to achieve
other is the inverse of time or repeats of the error per unit of time. the desired response. One guideline that is wisely favored is the
They are functionally equivalent, but when calculating tuning param- lambda tuning method. Lambda refers to the closed loop time
eters, the correct units must be used. Adding further complication, constant in a controller response. The advantage of this kind of tun-
the time can be expressed in different units, although seconds or ing is that the tuner is free to choose the speed of response or the
minutes are usually the design choice. aggressiveness of the controller tuning. There is a tradeoff in loop
And finally, there is a derivative term that considers the rate of tuning. As noted earlier, faster response or more aggressive tuning
change of the error. It provides a kick to a process where the error may result in some overshoot or even cycling response that is un-
is changing quickly and has a gain that is almost always in terms of desirable and the loop could become completely unstable if there is
time. However, again the units of time may be seconds or minutes. any nonlinearity in the process. Therefore, robustness is the sacrifice
Derivative is not often required, but can be helpful in processes that for more aggressive control and lambda can be used to strike an
can be modelled as multiple capacities or second order. Derivative optimal balance between robustness and aggressiveness.

input by settling into a new steady-state more steam enters the heat exchanger.
value. For example, if steam is increased First, the steam pressure in the exchanger
to a heat exchanger, the material being rises and heat transfers to the tubes and
heated will rise to a new temperature. Re- finally to the colder stream. The tempera-
ponses often take the approximate form ture of the cold stream takes some time
of first order plus deadtime (FODT) or before it begins to rise. Then it rises grad-
FIGURE 3. Integrating, or non-self-regu-
lating process variables do not settle into
second order plus deadtime (SODT) (Fig- ually and increases its rate of change until
a new steady-state value within allowable ures 1 and 2). In a heat exchanger, for ex- it approaches the new steady-state tem-
operating limits ample, when the steam valve is opened, perature, where the temperature rise be-
gins to slow. The characteristic response
SODT vs INPUT
(Integrating) is a SODT.
0.24 The steam flow began increasing as
0.22 soon as the valve started moving. But if
0.20 a controller was telling the valve to open,
Percent change in process output

0.18 there might have been a short delay be-


0.16 fore the valve actually moved and the
0.14 steam flow changed. The steam flow
0.12 begins to increase quickly and begins to
0.10 increase more slowly as the new steady-
0.08 state flow is achieved. This is a typical
0.06 FODT response.
0.04 Self-regulating control loops can be
0.02 tuned for closed-loop control response
0.00 to assure that the process observation
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
Time, s (sometimes known as the process vari-
44 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
able, or PV) is driven to and main- mon, and when it occurs, it tends to
tained at its target setpoint. The con- be minimal.
trol response can be tuned for faster Fortunately, controllers can also
or slower response, but as the speed be tuned on integrating processes
of response increases, so does the to achieve a first-order response.
risk of overshoot or oscillation. However, the response does not
Different measures of performance look exactly like the response of a
have been developed with tuning self-regulating process. Following a
rules to approximately achieve these setpoint change, the PV will move
objectives. Early performance ob- to the new setpoint and overshoot
jectives focused on minimizing error,
square of the error, or absolute error
over time. Tuning to achieve quar-
ter-amplitude damping was often
described in early control literature.
Zeigler-Nichols tuning rules were
proposed to achieve this kind of re-
sponse. But this kind of aggressive
tuning results in some cycling.
Recent thought in automation
prefers to attenuate variability, and
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tion, so most loops today should
be tuned for a first-order response,
with the response time being de- The Chemical Processing Industry covers a broad range of products such
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interact, one can be slowed relative
to another to prevent the interacting
loops from fighting with each other.
Important time constants are the
deadtime, which is the time before
the process observation is observed
to change, and a first-order time
constant, which is the time it takes
once the process begins moving to
achieve approximately 63% of the
way to the target setpoint. A first-
order process normally takes about
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time, to reach steady-state at the
target setpoint.
Non-self-regulating process
variables do not settle into a new Written for engineers by engineers, Chemical Engineering delivers solid
steady-state value, at least not
engineering essentials and developing industry trends to keep its readers
within allowable operating limits
(Figure 3). Changing the rate of feed abreast of everything they need to keep their facilities running smoothly.
into a vessel will change the rate at
which the level rises (or falls). In the
absence of some kind of control, the Missing archived issues or what to share
level would continue to rise until the
tank overflowed. Usually integrat- Chemical Engineering with your colleagues?
ing process responses can be de-
scribed as deadtime and integrating
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 45


robust and a good fit for the job as long
Elements of a feedback control loop
as the process response is not exces-
Load sively nonlinear or characterized by a
Set point Error Output Final control element or Fluid Product dominant deadtime dynamic. Propor-
Controller
slave loop process
tional, integral and derivative are the ac-
Sensor/ tions the controller can apply to drive the
Process value transmitter PV to setpoint. Every controller manufac-
turer may employ a slightly different form,
FIGURE 4. Most process control is accom- slightly before turning around and set- structure and options, but the functional-
plished by using a feedback control loop tling back at the target value. Following ity and results are the same. The propor-
a disturbance, the PV will deviate from tional, integral and derivative parameters
the target setpoint until finally being ar- can be adjusted by the control engineer
rested and returning to setpoint. Dead- to provide the best controller response.
time is the same as for a self-regulating In order to properly tune a control loop,
process. There is no open-loop time it is necessary to understand the things
constant by definition. However, the that influence loop performance and
closed-loop time constant for an inte- process profitability (Figure 5).
grating process is defined as the time Often, process inputs can impact
it takes to first cross the target setpoint more than one important process obser-
following a setpoint change or the arrest vation. If the heat exchanger was the re-
time for a disturbance. An integrating boiler of a distillation column, increasing
process normally takes about six time the steam could affect the levels in the
constants, plus the deadtime, to reach base of the column and the reflux accu-
steady-state at the target setpoint fol- mulator and compositions at the top and
lowing either a setpoint change or a load bottom of the column. It might also af-
disturbance. fect the column pressure and differential
pressure, and will affect temperatures up
Feedback controllers and down the column. Similarly, a pro-
Process control usually takes the form cess observation might be affected by
of a feedback controller (Figure 4). Some more than one process input. The dis-
process inputs can be manipulated in tillate composition may be affected by
order to drive important process obser- the steam flow to the reboiler, the reflux
vations to targets or setpoints. Other flow, the feed flow, the product flows
process observations may not be con- and other process inputs. An interac-
trolled to a target setpoint, but they are tive process requires that the controls
not allowed to exceed upper or lower be designed to minimize the detrimental
constraint limits. A control-loop includes impact of multivariable interaction, where
a measurement of the process obser- two or more loops could fight with each
vation to be controlled (the PV), a final other. One way to do this is with a de-
control element (usually a control valve) coupling strategy, which is something
that varies the process flow to be ma- easily understood by process engineers.
nipulated and a controller that makes a Feed-forward control and sometimes
move based on where the process ob- ratio-control strategies are used to de-
servation is relative to its setpoint. couple process interactions. The inter-
The workhorse controller in the pro- acting process inputs may be controlled
FIGURE 5. Several aspects of a process-
control loop can influence performance cess industry remains the PID (propor- or could be wild disturbances. Another
and profitability tional-integral-derivative) controller. It is way to decouple loop interactions is by
tuning one loop for a relatively faster
response and the other for a relatively
Feedback control: What in this loop limits profitability? slower response. This technique is very
Operator practices? Dead band? Vessel design? effective and is naturally applied when
Control strategy? Sizing?
Flow characteristic? tuning cascade loops.
Load
Set point

Error Output Final control element or Fluid Product Advanced process control
Controller
slave loop process There are different definitions of ad-
Sensor/ vanced process control (APC). Some
Process value transmitter people consider ratio control and over-
Tuning? ride control to be advanced control.
Algorithm?
Nonlinearity?
Control strategies that use feed-for-
Sampling, filtering?
ward, override-control, cascade and
46 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
ratio loops and other complexities are
often referred to as advanced regulatory $$$
Limit or spec
control (ARC). Another type of control-
ler is the multivariable, model-predictive Setpoint
controller (MPC). The response models
Before APC After APC
of all process outputs to changes in any
process inputs are modelled and incor-
porated into the controller. dustries. It is an excellent platform for FIGURE 6. Advanced process control (APC)
The controller attempts to maintain constraint optimization. Many process- techniques help allow processes to oper-
ate closer to the limit through constraint
the controlled variables at targets and control problems benefit from constraint optimization
constraint variables within limits while optimization. Optimization objectives,
minimizing the moves of process inputs. such as maximizing production and
It does this with an algorithm that con- yield, and minimizing give-away and
trols a prediction sometime in the future energy consumption are examples of
rather than the current process value. It where constraint optimization can gen-
is an ideal approach for interactive prob- erate substantial benefits over single-
lems, since instead of decoupling the loop control. Maximizing or minimizing
interactions, it coordinates the moves some variables can drive the process to
to compensate for or accommodate the constraint limits and the models allow
known interactions. Those interactions for tight control at constraint limits with-
are identified in the embedded models. out violating them (Figure 6).
It is also the only truly effective means of
handling deadtime-dominant processes Batch process control
because the deadtime is inherently de- Up to this point, the discussion has cov-
fined in the controller models. ered continuous processing. Continu-
APC has been widely applied in the ous processes dominate the chemical
petroleum refining industry and is gain- process industries (CPI), but some sec-
ing greater acceptance in other in- tors of the CPI, including pharmaceuti-

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 47


GLOSSARY OF CONTROL TERMINOLOGY
APC Advanced process control. A general term for types of con- to plan moves in the future to provide control over a future
trols more elaborate than the basic loops. MPC is a type of time interval. This technology is helpful with processes that
APC, and MPC is often used interchangeably with APC. Other have long process delays or a high degree of interaction be-
examples of APC include fuzzy logic and expert systems tween multiple process inputs and outputs. It is the ideal
ARC Advanced regulatory control. A complex control strategy platform for constraint optimization
often involving more than one PID controller (examples in- (2) Multivariable process control. Means controlling more
clude cascade control, ratio control, feed-forward control, than one measurement or variable at a time from the same
override control and inferential control) calculation. Since most model-predictive controllers are also
CV Control variable. A process observation that has a setpoint multivariable controllers, the definitions are often used inter-
that may be provided by the operator or by a supervisory changeably
controller MV Manipulated Variable. A process input that is an output of
DCS Distributed control system. A digital process control plat- a controller
form in which various controllers are distributed throughout PID Proportional, integral, derivative. The name used for the
the system most common control loop algorithm seen in the process
DV Disturbance variable. Measured process inputs that are industries. PID controllers are SISO feedback controllers
not manipulated by the controller (also known as feed-for- PLC Programmable logic controller. Computer for industrial
ward inputs) control
HC Hand control. Used to indicate a manually positioned valve PV Process value. The term commonly used for the CV of a
LV Limit variable. A constraint variable or process observation PID control loop
without a setpoint SIMO Single-input, multi-output. A term describing an uncom-
MIMO Multi-input, multi-output. A term describing a multivariable mon multivariable controller with one process output (an ex-
controller ample would be split-range control)
MISO Multi-input, single output. A term describing a multivari- SISO Single-input, single-output controller. A term describing
able controller with one output typical PID controller or any controller with one input and one
MPC (1) Model predictive controller. A controller that controls output
future error rather than current error. To do this, it incorpo- SP Set point. The target value for the control variable
rates process response models that describe the dynamic TSS Time to steady state. The time required for a self-regulating
behavior of process observations (CVs and LVs) to changes process to come to a new stable steady state after a change to
in process inputs (MVs and DVs). This allows the controller a process input

cals and specialty chemicals, rely heavily batch quality. There is a standard de-
on batch processing. Some engineers fined (ANSI/ISA S88) for batch process
muse that all processes are batch pro- control that standardizes the concepts
cesses, but some batches are longer of control, equipment and unit modules
than others. A batch control engineer in a batch process.
might suggest that a batch process is And batch processes are often de-
just a continuous process that never signed to make a variety of products or
gets the chance to reach steady-state. product grades. Furthermore, there may
Both are valid points of view. Designing be multiple trains of equipment with some
batch process sequences and recipes common process equipment or utilities.
fall right in the comfort zone for chemi- These plants may involve special recipes.
cal engineers. But the more interesting Recently in batch control, the focus has
part of batch control is not defining the been on managing multiple recipes and
normal sequence of steps. Rather, it is optimizing equipment selection for maxi-
defining what should happen when an mum or optimum production.
abnormal event occurs. Can a batch be Because product flaws in the phar-
saved following an upset or must it be maceutical industry can be devastating,
scrapped? What is required to rework a traceability is a major concern. This in-
batch that suffered an abnormal upset? cludes traceability of the materials con-
Thinking through the possible problems sumed in the production of pharmaceu-
that could disrupt a batch process and ticals, and traceability of the equipment
defining safe sequences to abort or re- and processes used to produce the
cover a batch are classic chemical engi- pharmaceuticals. Regulatory involve-
neering exercises. ment is high, and validation is an inte-
Another opportunity for batch optimi- gral part of pharmaceutical processes.
zation involves trying to minimize transi- This requires more data collection and
tion times between steps. This can be more rigorous adherence to manage-
done with equipment selection, but also ment of change (MOC) procedures than
with logic in the batch sequence. Ramp most other processes, whether batch
rates and dwell times can be minimized or continuous.
to the extent practical without impacting
48 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Process safety in control pact is data management and analysis.
Another area of process control deals Control systems have access to a great
with safety instrumented systems (SIS). deal of data other than control data. His-
Up to this point, the discussion has torization and archiving of process data
centered on control requirements to enables process engineers to identify
keep the process running in the face of and prioritize continuous improvement
variability. Safety systems have a single opportunities and allows management
function, which is to safely shut down to make more effective decisions regard-
a process if a catastrophe is imminent. ing operation and future investment.
Process engineers may be better pre- Business systems that manage main-
pared to consider process safety than tenance processes, quality processes,
most disciplines, at least with regard to planning processes and other work pro-
the CPI. The general concept is to evalu- cesses can be integrated with process
ate the risks, in terms of probability, and control. This has been enabled by modern
the magnitude of the consequences. technology for networking, databases,
Layers of protection are defined and operator interfaces and enterprise-man-
deployed to reduce the risk of a serious agement software all working together.
safety or environmental exposure. High- While the nature of integration of these
risk possibilities need to employ engineer- various systems requires more knowledge
ing solutions to reduce the risk. Some in computer programming, database ad-
solutions will include process design, ministration and networking than chemical
such as dikes around tanks and pressure- engineers might learn in their academic
relief equipment. Controls will also be em- programs, the process management re-
ployed to reduce the risk, including safety quirements require an understanding of
interlocks. The requirement for high on- the process plant and its economic sen-
demand availability of the safety-protec- sitivities. Chemical engineers are likely to
tion systems leads to specialized safety have a better understanding than most
systems with redundancy (including triple of the information required by company
redundancy) and pro-active diagnostics managers at both the local and corpo-
to monitor the health of the safety sys- rate level in order to make best use of the
tems. One of the first layers of protec- data and systems in place. The increasing
tion is alarm management, although it is wealth and richness of data makes analy-
limited by the presence of the human el- sis of that data with evolving big data
ement to respond to an alarm (for more tools a real opportunity. Networking, data
on alarm management, see Chem. Eng. sharing, and collaboration between the
March 2016, pp. 5060). Designing plant and specialized resources located
safety-instrumented control systems is a far away is the promise of the Industrial
specialized area that is critical in managing Internet of Things (IIOT).
the risk of hazards in the process. There is
a growing trend to design safety systems Concluding remarks
to be integrated into but still separate Often the greatest knowledge gap for
from the basic control systems. Care a chemical engineer who wants to be-
is taken during design to ensure the inte- come a process automation engineer
gration does not create a vulnerability or is deep knowledge of instrument and
common point of failure of the safety sys- control hardware. This is not an insur-
tem function and reliability. mountable problem, however, because
Along with this trend is the increasing vendors are happy to share the infor-
use of diagnostics and capabilities of mation you need. A good salesperson,
smart instruments and field devices to perhaps contrary to popular opinion,
reduce the probability of failure on de- can be a valuable and trusted advisor.
mand. This is a critical consideration for The best salespeople know that exag-
safety systems, because they may not gerating the benefits of one offering for
be employed for long periods of time, immediate sale may win the order, but
if ever, but then must work when called will lose the confidence and trust of the
upon to shut a process down safely. customer for future opportunities.
In most cases, vendors truly do want
Process data to recommend the most economical so-
A final area of process control where pro- lution. To do that, they need to under-
cess engineers can have a significant im- stand the process and control require-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 49


ments and the expected life cycle of the ested in process control can find many
unit where the offering will be deployed. resources to gain a deeper understand-
They can recommend the best mea- ing in the further reading section.
surement technology or valve selection Edited by Scott Jenkins
and help size the instrument as well.
They can help evaluate the value and Further reading
return of additional options or choices. 1. Shinskey, F.G., Process Control Systems: Application, Design
So leverage their special knowledge and and Tuning, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, 1996.
expertise. Often on a larger project, an 2. McMillan, G., Handbook of Control Engineering, McGraw Hill,
1999.
engineering firm with its own subject-
3. Blevins, T. and Nixon, M., Control Loop Foundation Batch
matter experts may help with selection and Continuous Control, International Society for Automation
and procurement, or selection may be (ISA), 2011.
defined by corporate guidelines or pro-
cess licensing requirements. Author
In the final analysis, the control engi- Lou Heavner is a control engineer at
neer is trying to identify and understand Emerson (1100 West Henna Boulevard,
Round Rock, TX 78681; Phone: +1
the sources of variability that can impact (512) 834-7262; Email: Lou.Heavner@
product quality, production throughput, Emerson.com). Heavner has been with
yields, utility consumption and other Emerson for over 30 years, with respon-
sibility for project engineering, sales and
economic impacts, and tries to design consulting with customers across all of
controls to attenuate the variability or the process industries and all over the
world. His current role is to scope and
move it to a part of the process where lead advanced control and optimization projects, primarily in
it has less economic impact. By simply the oil-and-gas industry. Prior to joining Emerson, Heavner
reducing variability, it is possible to op- worked for Olin Corp. as a process automation and control
engineer. Heavner earned a B.S.Ch.E. degree from the Mas-
erate nearer to constraints and hence sachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1978. When he
maximize the processing capability of isnt helping customers control their processes, Heavner en-
the existing plant. joys controlling his own home brewery operation. He may be
contacted on LinkedIn at www.linkedin.com/in/louheavner.
Chemical engineers who are inter-

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Achieve precise control over every aspect of your chemical operation.

MODEL 521 MODEL 1049


The Model 521 is a sliding The Model 1049 Secure-Gard
stem, globe style, bellows is a pilot-operated vent valve
intended for installation
MODEL 1078 sealed, pneumatically
on atmospheric and low-
The Model 1078 actuated control valve
designed for maximum pressure storage tanks,
Vacu-Gard is a pilot- vapor recovery systems,
operated valve, corrosion resistance in pure
chemical service. and process systems.
specifically designed to
reduce blanketing gas
losses on low-pressure
storage tanks.
MODEL 3100
The Model 3100 is a
MODEL 987 pressure/vacuum vent
The Model 987 is a pneumatic control designed to vent the tank
valve designed to control moderate vapor away to atmosphere
to severe corrosive applications but and to relieve vacuum
may be applied in general service pressure within the tank.
applications also. The 3100 is a weight
loaded style.

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Circle 11 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-11
50 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Feature Report

Eye Protection, Part 1

Beyond Basic Eye Safety


How to protect, preserve and enhance workers safety

S
afety eyewear (Figure Wanda Sanchez-
1) is among the most Miller
prevalent types of Honeywell Safety and
personal protective Productivity Solutions
equipment (PPE) worn across
the chemical process indus- IN BRIEF
tries (CPI). It protects an indi-
CHOOSE THE RIGHT
viduals most valuable sense
PROTECTION
vision through which we
gain up to 85% of our total SELECTING LENSE TINT
knowledge. Due to the eyes LENS COATINGS
delicate construction and lo-
cation, they are vulnerable to ENSURE PROPER FIT
a wide array of hazards found AND COMFORT
in nearly every environment, STYLES ROLE IN
from airborne particles and COMPLIANCE
flying objects to chemicals
ADDRESS VISION
and harmful radiation. CORRECTION
To help protect individu-
als eyes at work, national
and employer-based safety
standards are in place that
require the use of safety eye-
wear based on the hazards
present. Specifically, the Oc-
cupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA; Wash-
ington, D.C.; www.osha.gov)
calls for employers to provide
employees with proper eye
protection wherever haz-
ards to the eyes exist, and
such eyewear must meet the
American National Standards
Institutes (ANSI; www.ansi. FIGURE 1. Among all the different types of personal protection equipment used in
org) Z87.1-2015 standard the chemical process industries, safety eyewear is among the most prevalant
for impact protection. Safety
eyewear styles range from spectacles and sion loss, permanent blindness or the loss
goggles to sealed eyewear, each intended of an eye, which can diminish quality of life
to provide a specified level of protection. and the capacity to earn a living. Further-
Despite comprehensive safety standards, more, the cost to U.S. industry is staggering,
recordable eye injuries continue to occur at estimated to exceed $300 million each year
an alarming rate of 2,000 per day in the U.S. [2]. Most injuries are attributed to use of the
alone [1], incurring a massive toll on affected wrong eye protection for the hazard or the
individuals and employers alike. For individu- absence of safety eyewear altogether.
als, eye injuries often result in short-term vi- Most experts agree that up to 90% of eye

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 51


injuries can be avoided through the sealed eyewear looks and fits like
Americas Best Values proper use of safety eyewear [3]. Its a spectacle and can offer protec-
In Emissions Control easy to see that selecting the proper
eye protection for the application is
tion similar to a goggle-type seal in
a comfortable, secure, low-profile
vital to worker safety. Lesser known design. Recognized for its versatil-
factors, however, such as specialized ity, sealed eyewear is available in an
lens tints, anti-fog coatings, proper fit array of lens tints and coatings, with
and modern styling, all play major reader options for magnification, as
roles in compliance and eye safety. well as with optional head straps for
This article looks beyond basic eye a tighter seal and removable foam
protection to reveal the ways in which inserts that convert the eyewear to
safety eyewear can be used to pro- regular spectacles.
tect, preserve and enhance worker
Wet Scrubber for vision across the CPI. Selecting lens tints
Chemical Processes While safety eyewear is designed
maintains stack emissions to speci c Choose the right protection primarily to protect the wearer from
ppm levels for all input concentrations
The first step toward workplace eye physical hazards, in many applica-
Talk with Daryl Haley safety is for the safety manager to tions its lenses also serve to protect
(989) 723-7838 dhaley@tri-mer.com conduct a thorough facility walk- against other visible and invisible
through to assess the hazards faced hazards. Optical radiation is an eas-
by employees in each zone. Look ily overlooked hazard yet exposure
for machinery, flying objects and to natural and manmade sources of
airborne debris, and chemicals that radiation can cause short-term in-
could come in contact with the eyes. juries such as photokeratitis, as well
Review material safety data sheets as long-term effects including cata-
(MSDS) for specific safety precau- racts and permanent blindness. From
tions, as well. Based on this infor- blocking blinding laser light to invisible
mation, determine the appropriate ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) rays,
kind of eye protection required for lens tints can provide the added pro-
each individual and for each task he tection workers require to stay safe
or she conducts. Remember, OSHA and conduct their jobs effectively.
calls for employers to provide eye- In outdoor environments, it is vital
wear that meets the ANSI Z87.1- that workers eyes be protected from
Whirl Wet Dust Collector 2015 standard for impact protection; the suns damaging visible and invis-
99%+ ef ciency, low operating costs;
ideal for dusts 3+ microns
such eyewear is marked with Z87 ible rays. In fact, long-term exposure
on every major component. For high- to the suns invisible UV light is a
Talk with Todd Ainsworth impact hazards, eyewear that meets leading cause of cataracts and blind-
(989) 723-7838 tainsworth@tri-mer.com military-grade ballistic protection, ness. Employees who spend any
known as Military Velocity Sub-Zero, time outside should be outfitted with
should be considered. eyewear that blocks more than 99%
There are three basic styles of of UV rays. Look for safety lenses
safety eyewear from which to choose marked with a U, which denotes
(Figure 2). Plano eyewear looks like ANSI-rated protection from both
regular glasses and provides basic UVA and UVB spectrums.
impact protection; sport-inspired Outdoors, workers are also ex-
wraparound styles afford the user posed to direct sunlight and glare,
increased coverage and peripheral visible optical radiation also com-
protection. Safety goggles, which monly overlooked in safety audits.
seal tightly to the face, are mandated Overexposure to direct and reflected
Tri-Flow Dry Dust Collector for individuals in high-dust environ- light causes headaches as well as
The Performance of a HEPA Filter
with self-cleaning technology
ments and for those exposed to eye fatigue, redness, dryness and ir-
hazardous chemicals. However, be- ritation, all of which can undermine
Talk with Asa Halliday cause they are sealed, goggles are productivity. To combat natural light
(989) 723-7838 ahalliday@tri-mer.com prone to fogging, and some may feel hazards, eyewear with standard
clunky, heavy or uncomfortable. gray, brown or mirrored lens tints
www.tri-mer.com Sealed eyewear is a relatively new offer suitable protection and may be
and increasingly popular option for selected based on user preference.
Since 1960 Factory & Headquarters: Owosso, MI
Copyright 2017 Tri-Mer Corporation extreme environments. A hybrid In environments where glare from
between spectacles and goggles, sunlight is reflected off surfaces such
Circle 39 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-39

52 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017


FIGURE 2. Among the various styles for safety
eyewear are the plano (top), which provides basic
impact protection, and safety goggles (bottom),
which seal tightly to the face for protection against
hazardous chemicals

as water, sand, glass, sheet metal protecting from harmful IR rays. tion with both the worker and the en-
or concrete, look for lenses that are Remember, many colored lenses vironment, fogging is nearly impossi-
mirrored, polarized or darkly tinted affect the wearers ability to identify ble to avoid. How to prevent fogging
and are marked with an L for effec- colors correctly; selecting lenses with is discussed in more detail in part 2,
tive glare reduction. true color recognition is essential for pp. 5659.
To support visual function in indoor traffic signal identification and other Scratch resistance. A lenss abil-
applications with specialized lighting, applications that rely on color coding. ity to resist scratches is of utmost
unique dyes are incorporated into importance especially in high-
the polycarbonate lens material that Lens coatings hazard environments like hot, dry,
absorb select wavelengths of radi- Lens coatings deliver anti-fog prop- windy outdoor conditions where fly-
ant energy (light). Such lenses can erties, anti-scratch properties, or a ing dust, sand, debris and fragments
manipulate light to reduce a spec- combination of the two. Together, are most likely to make contact with
tral hazard or to provide distinctive such coatings prolong a clear, un- lenses and cause scratching. Once
filtration for specific viewing tasks. obstructed view of the environment, scratched, lenses no longer afford
For instance, in operations where a improving worker safety. Further- the wearer a clear, uninterrupted or
high level of yellow light is present, more, effective anti-fog and anti- comfortable view of the workplace
specialized blue lenses counteract scratch coatings extend lens life, and hazards, and they should be re-
color distortion and help prevent eye adding longevity and value to your placed. To combat scratching, scuff-
fatigue. Vermilion (scarlet) lenses are eyewear investment. ing and degradation from a variety of
useful in certain inspection opera- Anti-fogging. Lens fogging is a chemicals and to prolong safety
tions where the color shift enhances leading problem faced by workers lens life overall look for eyewear
contrast or highlights shadowing wearing any type of safety eyewear with a proven, long-lasting, scratch-
for better inspection results and in- and it affects safety, productivity resistant hard coat.
creased productivity. While orange and compliance. Factors that cause
lenses effectively filter blue and violet fogging include the temperature vari- Ensure proper fit and comfort
light present with UV curing lamps, ance between a workers body heat Easily overlooked, the comfortable
amber lenses are commonly used to and cooler outside air temperatures; fit of safety eyewear directly sup-
aggregate reflected light for a brighter the change in temperature when ports protection and compliance.
view in low-light environments. Deep workers transition from warm indoor When eyewear fits poorly, it slides or
cobalt lenses are valued by furnace environments to cold outdoor sur- slips off the wearer or causes pain-
workers for their ability to deliver ex- roundings; and perspiration caused ful pressure points on the temples or
cellent spectral performance while by exertion. Given its direct associa- nose bridge. If eye protection isnt in

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 53


its proper place when an accident gered nosepieces, for instance, en- over safety or fit, which can lead to
happens, the risk of injury to the sure a secure grip, while cushioned serious performance problems.
eyes is significant. or hinged temples allow a person- Given the leading role style plays,
Another result of ill-fitting eye- alized fit behind the ear. Ratcheting look for modern, lightweight options
wear is worker discomfort, distrac- temples allow workers to achieve a such as wraparound frames, float-
tion and frustration all of which gap-free fit against the face to maxi- ing lenses or sophisticated metal
disrupt productivity and lead to the mize protection. For the best chance frames. Many safety eyewear styles
removal of eyewear to eliminate the of selecting a single style that is including prescription frames
hassle of making frequent adjust- comfortable for most, look for manu- are fashioned after popular recre-
ments. When eyewear is removed facturers that invest in anthropomor- ational and sport-inspired sunglass
due to poor fit, workers face in- phic research and design, and offer designs. The goal is to select safety
creased risk of injury, and employ- solutions proven to fit up to 85% of eyewear that workers are willing to
ers risk fines for non-compliance. the workforce right out of the box. wear even when a safety manager
Well-fitting safety eyewear should isnt looking. By offering eyewear
provide snug, gap-free coverage and Styles role in compliance that is best suited to workers safety
all-day comfort. But beware: a style While protection is the most impor- needs first followed closely by style,
that fits one worker comfortably may tant attribute of safety eyewear, at- employers support a stronger culture
prove uncomfortable for another. tractive styling directly supports of acceptance and compliance.
An increasingly diverse workforce is consistent wear. Studies show that
contributing to vast differences in the workers who are not comfortable Address vision correction
height, width and location of cheek- with the style of their eyewear are A very important and often
bones, nose bridges and ears, as more likely to remove it even in the overlooked aspect of deliver-
well as overall head size and shape. presence of hazards. Furthermore, ing a comprehensive safety eye-
To meet the needs of a variety of when workers are allowed to select wear program is vision correction.
facial profiles, look for fit and comfort their own safety eyewear without According to the Vision Council,
features designed and proven to proper guidance, they are likely to 70% of workers require vision cor-
deliver a custom fit. Padded or fin- make their selection based on style rection, and that number is on the

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Circle 25 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-25

54 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017


rise with the growing population of is available in a multitude of styles to
Baby Boomers in the workforce. meet each individuals preferences
Furthermore, the Council estimates and safety requirements. Prescription
that uncorrected vision problems lenses are now available in sealed
cost businesses more than $8 bil- eyewear styles as well, delivering the
lion in lost productivity each year. comfort and fit benefits of spectacles
When vision loss goes uncorrected, while providing the increased protec-
employers not only suffer from de- tion of a goggle. When manufactured
creased productivity, but they put properly, prescription safety eyewear
themselves and their employees at delivers fantastic results: an individu-
risk. When unable to see their work als vision is corrected, workers feel
and surrounding hazards clearly, more comfortable in their eyewear,
workers are more prone to experi- and as a result they are more likely to
ence a serious injury and individual leave it on throughout the day, thus
companies can pay thousands, improving worker safety.
even millions, in costs. When it comes to protecting work-
A popular solution to delivering ers vision, taking a comprehensive
eye protection for individuals who approach to safety eyewear is a win-
require corrective lenses is over- ning strategy. By considering the
the-glass (OTG) safety eyewear. various factors beyond basic impact
However, because OTGs are worn and chemical protection, employers
over existing prescription frames, can deliver the safest solution as well
drawbacks abound, ranging from as one that workers are most likely OKTALINE ATEX
poor comfort and fit, to limited vis- to put on and leave on all day.
ibility and reduced peripheral view, As a result, employers benefit from Magnetically coupled
to unattractive styling. As a result, reduced recordable eye injuries and Roots pump combines
workers are more likely to remove related costs, and a healthier, more
their OTGs and simply rely on their productive and compliant workforce.
a magnetic coupling with
standard prescription lenses. But Theres no better time than now for category 2 or 3 explosion
street wear is not rated for impact CPI companies everywhere to bol- protection
protection, so workers who forgo ster their commitment to safety,
OTGs are exposed to the same level starting with their workers eyes. Explosion safety due to reliable
of risk as those not wearing any pro- Edited by Gerald Ondrey construction and temperature
tective eyewear. Like goggles, OTGs monitoring installation without
that are large or heavy can feel un- References additional flame arrester possible
comfortable, especially during long- 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The National Hermetically sealed (leakrate
term wear; look for lightweight, Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), < 10-6 Pa m3/s) risk of zone
Eye Safety, Washington, D.C., www.cdc.gov/niosh/top-
low-profile styles with adjustability entrainment is minimized
ics/eye/
features that allow for a customized ATEX protection in case of passive
2. Occupational Safety & Health Administration, (OSHA),
fit. Finally, because OTGs require Safety & Health Topics: Eye and Face Protection, Wash- rotation
a worker to look through both the ington, D.C., www.osha.gov/SLTC/eyefaceprotection Flexible application pump can
corrective lenses and the OTG lens, 3. Prevent Blindness, Eye Safety at Work, Chicago, Ill., www. start against atmospheric pressure
preventblindness.org/eye-safety-work Pressure surge resistance accord-
there is potential for optical distor-
ing to EN 1333, PN level 16
tion. Safety managers should check
with workers wearing OTGs to rule Author
out potential interference. Wanda Sanchez-Miller is senior
While OTGs are an excellent op- product marketing manager for
Honeywell Safety and Productivity
tion for visitors and short-term use, Solutions Uvex Safety Eyewear
the best option for protecting work- Business (10 Thurber Blvd.,
ers who require corrective lenses Smithfield, R.I. 02917, Phone:
401-757-2694; Email: wanda.
and all-day protection is prescription sanchez-miller@honeywell.com). Are you looking for a
safety eyewear. Each pair is manu- Honeywell Uvex is a top-selling perfect vacuum solution?
protective eyewear brand. San-
factured individually to meet the chez-Miller has more than 20 years product develop- Please contact us:
workers specific vision needs and fit ment and marketing experience for global brands in-
with a single, comfortable solution. cluding Hasbro and BIC. She has overseen the Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH
successful launch of more than 50 new products and
And, like planos, prescription safety has developed brands in emerging and mature markets Headquarters/Germany
eyewear can feature optional side including the U.K., France, Russia, China, Mexico, Tur- T +49 6441 802-0
shields for added coverage. key and Brazil. She holds an MBA in marketing from the www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com
University of Hartford.
Today, perscription safety eyewear
Circle 29 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-29

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 55


Feature Report

Eye Protection, Part 2

How to Avoid Fogging


A look at the hidden dangers of lens fogging and how to prevent them

Phil Johnson
Honeywell Safety and FIGURE 1. Fogging is the main problem faced by safety
eyewear users in the chemical process industries
Productivity Solutions

IN BRIEF Fogging

FACTORS THAT CAUSE


FOGGING

IMPACT ON SAFETY
Headaches due to comfort, fit
IMPACT ON
PRODUCTIVITY

THE COST OF Not stylish/cool enough


NONCOMPLIANCE

ANTI-FOG SOLUTIONS Visual distortion/headaches


DIFFER WIDELY

ANTI-FOG TECHNOLOGY Lens scratch too easily


SELECTING ANTI-FOG
EYEWEAR

F
ogging is the number one problem strive to develop longer-lasting anti-fog
faced by safety eyewear users in the coatings. But not all anti-fog-coated lenses
chemical process industries (CPI; deliver the same level of protection or con-
Figure 1). Across applications, both sistency, and until now lenses with anti-fog
indoors and out, the environments where coating didnt necessarily stand up to the
CPI workers conduct daily tasks are de- demands of the workplace.
manding. Fogging on untreated lenses is Recent innovations in anti-fog lens coat-
nearly impossible to avoid. ings have dramatically improved perfor-
Lens fogging might seem like no big mance. This article examines the dangers
deal. But maintaining a clear, fog-free view and costs of fogging and the differences
is vital to the wellbeing of CPI workers among anti-fog lens coatings, to help guide
and employers alike. When tasks are con- safety managers in selecting those that de-
ducted with fog-obscured vision, work- liver the consistent, long-lasting results re-
ers risk not only eye injury but also bodily quired to keep workers safe and productive,
harm. It takes seconds or less for a and to support employers bottom lines.
potentially catastrophic event to occur: a
slip or fall; getting struck by equipment or Factors that cause fogging
caught in machinery; or coming into con- Lenses fog due to several factors, all of which
tact with harmful chemicals or electrical are related to temperature and humidity.
current. Productivity and compliance are Environmental heat and humidity. The
at serious risk, too. most obvious reason for fogging is a hot or
With so much at stake, its easy to see humid (or both) environment. Whether work-
why employers seek effective anti-fog so- ers are outdoors in sticky summer condi-
lutions, and why eyewear manufacturers tions or inside a steamy boiler room or food
56 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
manufacturing plant, moisture in the time lenses are cleaned with soap Removal of safety eyewear has
air causes tiny droplets of water to and water they are exposed to other safety implications, as well. In
collect on lenses, primarily the out- moisture the very element they addition to the obvious physical haz-
side surface. are designed to manage. With each ards, safety eyewear also protects the
Worker exertion. Lenses fog when washing, most lenses anti-fog eyes from harmful visible and invisible
workers exert themselves. As an properties erode, making them less light. The effects of overexposure to
individuals body temperature rises, capable of managing water from optical radiation range from eye fa-
the heat and sweat produced around the environment. tigue, dryness and irritation, to short-
the eyes, face and head need to dis- Given the variety and preva- term and permanent vision loss. In
sipate into the atmosphere. Since lence of factors that contribute to fact, long-term exposure to the suns
safety spectacles, goggles and fogging, it is easy to see how fog invisible ultraviolet (UV) rays is a lead-
sealed eyewear all restrict ventilation, impacts the majority of workers ing cause of cataracts and blindness
moisture condenses and forms fog across most environments. in the U.S. [1]. Therefore, when work-
on the inside surface of the lens. ers remove their safety eyewear
Transitions between warm and Impact on safety and keep it off due to fogging, they
cool environments. Whether Whatever the cause, workers with vi- face greater risk from physical and
workers move from warm to cool sion that is obscured by fog cannot optical radiation hazards alike.
environments, such as a hot load- clearly see the hazards around them,
ing dock to a refrigerated storage and are therefore left vulnerable to an Impact on productivity
unit, or from cool to warm settings, array of injuries, from minor bumps to Foggy lenses negatively impact pro-
such as a wintry outdoor site to a life-threatening harm. Workers who ductivity, too. When safety eyewear
heated vehicle, transitions between remove their eyewear in the pres- fogs, workers have little choice but
warm and cool environments cause ence of hazards to avoid the hassle to remove it and wipe it clear, which
fogging, primarily on the outside of and distraction of fog are vulnerable can lead to repeated interruptions
the lens. to eye injury from falling objects, air- throughout the shift. When eyewear
Lens washing. A lesser known fac- borne particulate matter and splash- is removed in the work zone, even
tor behind fogging is washing. Each ing chemicals. briefly, work is interrupted and in-

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Circle 32 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-32

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 57


dividuals are unprotected. When ers to take off fogging eyewear tions are easy for inspectors to spot.
workers leave the site to dry their and leave it off rather than deal While regulatory fines for noncom-
lenses away from hazards, produc- with the ongoing hassle and distrac- pliance may seem sizable, consider
tivity takes an even greater hit. The tion of fog. But when workers leave the cost of noncompliance resulting
cumulative cost of fog-related inter- eyewear off altogether, not only are in an eye injury, such as the following:
ruptions adds up to big reductions in they risking eye injury, they are also The cost of lost vision to an indi-
productivity at worksites nationwide. in noncompliance with safety regula- vidual is immeasurable, includ-
tions, for which employers can incur ing medical expenses, diminished
The cost of noncompliance hefty penalties. Since safety eyewear quality of life, and the reduced abil-
Foggy lenses directly impact compli- is a highly visible form of personal ity to earn a living
ance. It is not uncommon for work- protection equipment (PPE), viola- Workplace eye injuries cost U.S.
employers an estimated $467 mil-
lion yearly in direct costs [2]
With indirect costs included, such
as legal fees, judgments and
training new workers, the esti-
mated total exceeds $934 million
annually [1]
Despite national and corporate
safety programs, approximately
2,000 occupational eye injuries
occur in the U.S. every day more
than 700,000 annually taking a
massive toll on workforce health and
overall productivity [3]. Yet, most
We sweat the [small] stuff. safety professionals agree: nearly all
occupational eye injuries could be
prevented through the proper use of
the appropriate eyewear [1].
Quality & process control. Compliance. Safety.
Anti-fog solutions differ widely
The stuff that costs time, money and resources. While anti-fog solutions include wipes
and sprays, the best defense against
[Its not such small stuff after all.] fogging is a high-performance anti-
fog lens coating (Figure 2). Different
Running an efficient operation requires manufacturers coating technologies
work in different ways, though, with
real-time data that you can obtain only varying levels of success and longev-
through reliable representative sampling. ity. Furthermore, the methods used
With Sentry automatic samplers, you can for applying coatings vary widely, re-
sulting in a spectrum of consistency
glean the critical insights needed to control and performance.
every phase of your process for improved When the reservoir of anti-fog
output and safety. agents in the lens is shallow, for in-
Sentry ISOLOK SAE, SAH and SAK
automatic point sampler is ideal stance, those agents are easily wiped
for chemical powders or pellets or washed away completely after
[And thats no small thing.] the first few uses. Such eyewear will
be worn once or twice, and then be
thrown away and replaced. Likewise,
Learn more at sentry-equip.com/chemical. a coating whose application isnt
closely monitored is likely to deliver in-
consistent anti-fog performance and
even distort lens optics. Many anti-fog
products look good out of the box,
but when coating formulations or ap-
plication methods lack effectiveness
or durability, safety eyewear becomes
just another piece of disposable PPE
that requires frequent replacement.
Circle 36 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-36
58 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
ties: hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
2. Be sure the manufacturers batch
creation and application pro-
cesses are rigorously monitored
and tested to ensure the highest
standard of anti-fog consistency
and longevity.
3. Be sure the lens coating appli-
cation process delivers smooth,
consistent results on every pair of
eyewear to support exceptional,
distortion-free optics.
4. Look for manufacturers using an
intense curing process to perma-
nently adhere the coating to the lens.
Only permanent coatings will deliver
consistent fog-free performance,
even after frequent wear, wiping and
washings.
FIGURE 2. Lens coatings that provide both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties (right side) are much 5. Look for anti-fog coatings on a
more effective against fogging compared to traditional anti-fog coatings (left side)
wide range of safety eyewear
types, from goggles and sealed
Its important to note there is no hydrophilic properties that absorb eyewear to spectacles, as well as
national standard for measuring, moisture into the lens, and hydro- lens tints, to provide anti-fog pro-
or requirement for delivering effec- phobic properties that spread ex- tection to workers across a wide
tive anti-fog performance on safety cess condensation in a clear film over variety of applications.
eyewear in North America. Europes the lens surface and ultimately shed 6. Only eyewear that meets or exceeds
stringent EN166 and EN 168 safety moisture off the lens. Europes stringent EN166 and EN
eyewear standards, however, do Applying dual-action anti-fog coat- 168 safety standards have been
incorporate the only global test ing so it goes on and stays on per- tested and proven in their effective
method and certification for resis- manently even after repeated resistance to fogging of oculars. n
tance to fogging of oculars. The Eu- washings and wiping is key to the Edited by Gerald Ondrey
ropean test requires the submersion coatings durability. Look for manufac-
of lenses into water for up to two turers that bond anti-fog agents per- References
1. Prevent Blindness, Eye Safety at Work, Chicago, Ill., www.
preventblindness.org/eye-safety-work
Todays advanced lens coating technologies actively 2. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Nonfatal Occupational
Injuries and Illness Requiring Days Away from Work,
manipulate moisture through surface-acting agents, 2013, www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/osh2.pdf
chemicals designed to move to the lens surface as needed 3 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
Washington, D.C.,
to prevent fogging.
Author
hours, followed by direct, ongoing manently to the lens, and those that Phil Johnson is a Fellow at Honey-
exposure to fog from test appara- rely on controlled application meth- well Safety and Productivity Solu-
tions (10 Thurber Blvd., Smithfield,
tus. Performance is measured in ods and vigorous product monitoring R.I. 02917; Phone: 401-757-
the number of seconds before the that ensure anti-fog coatings absorb, 2309; Email: phil.johnson2@
lenses fog and disrupt vision. You then spread and shed, the greatest honeywell.com). He has more than
40 years of experience in the safety
will find lenses meeting or exceed- amount of moisture consistently over eyewear and consumer eyewear
ing these European standards to be the longest possible time. A long-last- sectors. During his 28 years with
Honeywells Uvex safety eyewear
superior to those that do not. ing, consistently fog-free safety lens is business, he has led research and development and qual-
one your workers can wear shift after ity assurance operations. Prior to becoming Fellow in
Anti-fog technology shift with the clear, fog-free view vital 2011, he was director of technology. Johnsons expertise
in materials technology spans plastics and coatings, op-
Todays advanced lens coating tech- to performing their tasks. tics, and dye technologies for radiation protection. He
nologies actively manipulate mois- contributes to product development for eye, face and
ture through surface-acting agents, Selecting anti-fog eyewear head protectors used in industrial and military applica-
tions, and is active in global regulatory compliance activi-
chemicals designed to move to the The following are six tips for select- ties. He is an active member of national eyewear stan-
lens surface as needed to prevent ing effective anti-fog eyewear: dards development committees, is widely published, and
fogging. The most reliable coat- 1. Look for anti-fog coatings that em- holds several design patents. Johnson holds a B.S. and
an M.S. in management science from Worcester Poly-
ings employ dual-action properties: ploy dynamic, dual-action proper- technic Institute.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 59


Show Preview

I
nterphex 2017, which is taking are also available for crystallization,
place March 2123 at the Jacob polymerization and fermentation pro-
Javits Center in New York City, cesses. Booth 2464 Ekato Group,
will feature over 625 exhibitors, Schopfheim, Germany
along with numerous conference www.ekato.com
sessions, technology demonstra-
tions and networking events, all tar- These pressure regulators
geted at global professionals from feature a dome-loaded design
the from the pharmaceutical and The FD Series of compact back-
biotechnology industries. The follow- pressure regulators (photo) feature
ing is a selection of the many prod- an innovative technology based on
ucts and services that will be high- a dome-loaded, multiple-orifice de-
lighted in the exhibit hall at this years sign that is capable of holding pres-
Interphex event. sure stable across very wide flowrate
ranges. Unlike traditional spring-
CapsCanada A new capsule filler with loaded regulators and valves, these
smart formulation software devices operate with only one moving
This companys RoboLQ technology part, the wetted diaphragm, which
combines precise filling mechanisms seals directly across the polished
and smart formulation software into array of orifices. For sanitary appli-
an all-in-one system for formulating cations, the FD Series is easily au-
and filling liquid-based capsule prod- tomated with manual or electronic
ucts. From separation to filling, the liq- control, and the devices respond in
uid capsule filler streamlines workow milliseconds to accurately maintain
by storing ratio-specic formulas and pressure. The crevice-free drainable
Equilibar tracking machine history, all with an design features USP Class VI wetted
output speed of over 2,500 capsules materials. Booth 3473 Equilibar,
per hour. The RoboLQ is available in LLC, Fletcher, N.C.
four models Lab, Blend, Thermal www.equilibar.com
and Custom. All models provide pre-
cise dosage, ranging from 1 to 1,000 Inspect over 35 gloves with this
L. The built-in algorithmic validation wireless testing system
mechanism, exclusive to the RoboLQ The wireless GTS-WL glove-integrity
series, helps to eliminate overfilling by tester (photo) can simultaneously test
performing a validation check prior more than 35 gloves in just 15 min-
to executing a run. This feature re- utes while also documenting results.
duces spillage and keeps the system Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
clean. Booth 1221 CapsCanada, technology allows the glove ports
Tecumseh, Ont. to be clearly identified, and provides
www.capscanda.com glove identification for tracking glove
lifeycle. Test protocols are saved in
Hydrogenation reactors with protected storage and can be trans-
an efficient cooling system mitted via LAN interface to the users
This companys agitated hydroge- server. The lightweight systems de-
nation reactors overcome mass- sign ensures a correct port fit of the
Metall+Plastic transfer limitations by combining test cover. This enables not only the
gassing technology with an efficient examination of the glove, but also the
reactor-cooling system. These de- tight fit of the glove unit. Booth 3103
sign features permit shorter batch Metall+Plastic GmbH, a member
times, improved conversion rates and of Optima Packaging Group, Radolf-
more desirable space-time yields. zell-Stahringen, Germany
The company also offers engineering www.metall-plastic.com
and scaleup services for hydrogena-
tion processes, including not only the A vial-washing machine
reactor itself, but for the complete for low-speed production
hydrogenation plant, ranging from The VEGA 2 (photo) is a compact ro-
laboratory-scale to full-scale indus- tary washing machine designed for
trial plants. In addition to hydrogena- low-speed production lines. It is able
IMA Life North America tion, reactor improvement services to handle and clean round, brand-
60 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
new containers, such as molded and natures, power recovery options and SKAN US
tubular vials, covering the range from more. Stability walk-in rooms may be
16 to 56 mm. Vials can be directly configured to any size, and tempera-
fed inline onto the in-feed belt of the tures range from 20 to 70C, with
machine, either from an upstream in- optional humidity range from 20 to
tegrated rotary table, or from trays at 95% relative humidity. Booth 1943
90 deg. The machine can process up Cincinnati Sub-Zero Product, LLC
to 9,000 vials/h using a continuous- (CSZ), Cincinnati, Ohio
motion positive-transport system. www.cszindustrial.com
The machine is equipped with up to
six customizable washing stations, A syringe filler with
and the pressure and temperature statistical batch control
of the various fluids are monitored to The Extrafill syringe filler (photo) is a
ensure consistent performance. Vials compact machine designed to accom-
are processed unidirectionally, avoid- modate two to five filling and stopper-
ing any potential contamination. Booth ing stations to produce up to 12,000
2545 IMA Life North America Inc., pieces per hour. Batching precision is
Tonawanda, N.Y. guaranteed by systems that center the
www.ima-pharma.com syringes and completely protect them
during the filling phase to avoid con- CSZ
This modular isolator enables tamination and to ensure a sterile pro-
fast equipment changeover cess. Extrafill is equipped with rotating
The Pharmaceutical Safety Isolator piston pumps and a statistical batch-
(PSI-L; photo) is a modular, extendable control weighing system. The Extrafills
small-scale aseptic processing isolator robotic arm peels off the Tyvek protec-
with a unique L-shaped flange, which tive film and pushes the tub of syringes
enables quick equipment changes to onto a loading belt to continue toward
host different filling machines or other the filling and stoppering stations. All
pharmaceutical processes. The short the production phases are integrated
decontamination cycle and the return into a single unit designed to combine
air filter make it a universal, aseptic the two-tub opening and syringe filling/
workspace for the production of asep- stoppering operations under just one
tic or highly active pharmaceutical isolator. Booth 3125 Marchesini
products. The isolator and the product Group S.p.A., Pianoro, Italy Marchesini Group
machine modules fit together using a www.marchesini.com
lock and key principle. The basic unit
(L-flange) of the isolator is equipped Monitor remote and mobile tanks
with an inflatable seal to ensure that with this ultrasonic sensor
the machine module is connected her- The Sure Cross U-Gage K50U ul-
metically. Booth 3140 SKAN US trasonic sensor (photo) is designed
Inc., Raleigh, N.C. for wireless tank-monitoring applica-
www.skan.ch/en tions, with either mobile or remotely
located tanks and totes. The K50U
These stability chambers are detects distance from target to sen-
now 21 CFR Part 11 compliant sors ranging from 300 mm to 3 m,
This companys stability chambers and and features built-in temperature
stability rooms (photo) incorporate the compensation for accurate measure-
EZT-570S controller, which is now vali- ments. The sensor has a standard
dated to comply with the FDA 21 CFR 1/4-in. NPT connection, and can op-
Part 11 guidance document for elec- tionally be combined with this com-
tronic records and digital signatures. panys BWA-BK-006 brackets and
The EZT-570S touchscreen control- Q45U wireless nodes. Beyond tank
ler offers many features designed to and tote monitoring, the device is also
simplify chamber operation, including suitable for pallet-presence sensing or
data logging, ethernet control and monitoring dry material in a hopper.
monitoring from any smartphone or Booth 2471 Banner Engineering,
tablet, alarm notification via email or Minneapolis, Minn.
text message, data file backup, full www.bannerengineering.com
system security, audit trail, digital sig- Mary Page Bailey Banner Engineering

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 61


Whats missing in this picture?

YOU!

JOIN THE FACES OF THE INDUSTRY.


AFPM Reliability & Maintenance afpm.org/Conferences
Conference and Exhibition #AFPMRMC17
May 23 26, 2017

Ernest N. Morial Convention Center


New Orleans, Louisiana

Circle 05 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-05
Instrumentation
& Control special advertising section
IMAGE: ROBERT COUSE-BAKER / FLICKR

CHEMICAL
1 ENGINEERING
ESSENTIALS FOR CPI PROFESSIONALS
Instrumentation & Control 2017 Special Advertising Section

Exciting times for instrumentation and control


Artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, big data and cybersecurity are all challenges for
the instrumentation and control systems of tomorrow
increasing throughput, reliability, product veal previously unsuspected relationships
quality, and safety. between variables. Cybersecurity, mean-
Fortunately, these new challenges are while, will need more attention as devices
supported by exciting new technical pos- become more connected.
sibilities. The Industrial Internet of Things Our 2017 I&C special advertising section
(IIoT) Industry 4.0, as they say in brings news from a range of companies in
Germany promises to connect manufac- this sector. We are sure you will find some-
IMAGE: KYLE GORDON / FLICKR

turing and logistics operations to an extent thing useful in the following pages.
previously unimaginable. Artificial intelli-
gence (AI), after several decades in which
the technology mostly fell short of the
dream, finally seems able to match the best
Inside:
human brains. Instruments and actuators AUMA 68
The longevity of industrial control are more capable than ever before, while Badger Meter 66
systems makes wise choices essential wireless networks have slashed the cost of Endress+Hauser 65
getting data to and from remote locations. Magnetrol 67
I nstrumentation and control (I&C) has
always formed an essential part of the
chemical process industries (CPI). Today,
More instruments and more-powerful
control systems mean more data to manage
an issue shared with modern plant de-
Pfeiffer Vacuum
Phoenix Contact
68
67
precise and reliable control is more impor- sign and asset-management systems, and Sentry Equipment Corp. 66
tant than ever as operators strive to cut indeed with industry as a whole. Combined VEGA 65
costs and environmental emissions while with AI, the techniques of big data may re-

A Guide to Advanced and Next-Generation


Battery Technology and Materials
This comprehensive guidebook provides descriptions of the major battery technologies and
materials in the advanced and next-generation battery markets, as well as information on
many of the companies operating in the advanced and next-generation battery industries.

Included in this guidebook is a table that represents a list of selected technology-


development companies in the advanced batteryspace, along with their areas of focus,
contact information and technology status. Itlists both established companies and startup
companies that have made technologicalstrides in recent years toward commercially viable
battery technologies.
Major application areas for advanced and next-generation batteries
Key parameters for advanced and next-generation batteries
A sampling of academic and national laboratory research groups and lead investigators that arefocused
on technology for advanced batteries

Details Include: Developments by application area Battery materials and


Driving forces Grid-energy storage components
Battery materials Lithium-ion technology Production capacity
Supply-chain logistics Advanced lead-acid batteries Research stage
Advanced batteries Wearable batteries Advanced battery companies
Li-ion variants Lithium-sulfur battery technology and specic technologies
Next-generation batteries Redox ow batteries References

Learn more at store.chemengonline.com 28014

64 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017


Instrumentation & Control 2017 Special Advertising Section

Embedded resource provides customer satisfaction


Professional project services reduce risk and improve project timelines by providing
immediate onsite support, explains Endress+Hauser

L arge global engineering, procurement


and construction (EPC) firms working
on substantial petrochemical projects are
needed, and also reduces risk of increased
direct costs to the project. Close collabora-
tion with the firms engineering disciplines
often challenged by clients to minimize helps to optimize all interfaces to process,
risk, maintain the project timeline and stay control, electrical and piping.
on budget, points out instrumentation and Having an Endress+Hauser representa-
control specialist Endress+Hauser. Most tive in house is an added value and creates
large EPC companies acquire complex proj- a seamless experience, said Shannon M.,
ects that are colossal in scope not just in Senior Control System Engineer for a large
terms of their size, but also due to the many EPC firm. If a client has an issue or I have
stakeholders who are invested in the proj- a question on dimensions, they are right
ect. These projects are becoming increas- Close collaboration with the firms there to assist.
ingly complex and demanding. Schedules engineering disciplines helps to We have an embedded Endress+Hauser
and budgets are tight, and safety is crucial. optimize all interfaces to process, engineer that works along with our project
For contractors facing such pressure, control, electrical and piping team. This has helped save time by getting
embedded resources who join the engi- quotes, dimensional data and questions
neering team can provide expert know- knowledge and expertise on process auto- answered in a shorter amount of time. With
how and help meet the projects goals, mation field devices. By resolving issues the right person, this could be beneficial in
Endress+Hauser notes. immediately, the embedded resource helps other projects, said Warren W., the firms
An embedded resource is a subject mat- to keep the project on time and on budget. Project Engineer.
ter expert who is embedded into the engi- Having this resource also reduces repeti- Having an embedded resource on the
neering team and works to help reduce risk tious external communications and the in- project helps EPC firms provide fast, de-
by providing immediate onsite support. In herent delay caused by emails and phone pendable and reliable services and solu-
the case of Endress+Hauser, the products, calls, keeping other resources productive. tions to their clients.
solutions and services engineer provides The manpower is supplied to the project as us.endress.com/embeddedresources

High-frequency radar targets small vessels


With its 80 GHz frequency and small-diameter antenna, VEGAs VEGAPULS64 works in
small vessels where radar level measurement was previously impractical

T he current trend in the chemical industry


is towards smaller, specialized batches.
This results in equipment and containers
80 mm, the transmission signal has an ini-
tial angle of just 3 using the instrument
in tanks with heating coils and agitators
with reduced volume. But engineers every- has become much easier. Another advan-
where, including those in technical centres tage of VEGAPULS 64 is its larger dynamic
and pilot installations, have frequently run range, which results in higher measurement
up against limits when they tried to use certainty, especially when there is buildup,
radar level measurement technology in very condensate, foam or a turbulent liquid sur-
small production setups. In particular, fac- face in the vessel.
tors like the dead band of the sensors, the In pilot plants or applications where
size and design of the antennas, and mea- very high chemical resistance is required,
surement uncertainty near the tank bottom glass facilities are often used. Because of
often forced them to use weighing systems its small sensor dimensions and small pro- Compact size
or pressure transmitters instead. cess fittings, the VEGAPULS 64 can be very and narrow beam
VEGAs VEGAPULS 64, the worlds first easily adapted to these applications. Radar angle make the
radar level sensor for liquids operating at a sensors are able to measure the level of the VEGAPULS 64 ideal
frequency of 80 GHz, now has an antenna product through the surface of a glass con- for small tanks
system integrated directly into the process tainer. The tight focus of the VEGAPULS 64
fitting. Since no antenna protrudes into the beam makes this much easier than in the
vessel, it is possible to measure right up to past, when big antenna systems have been its immunity to process conditions such as
the process fitting itself. This gives greater necessary. temperature, pressure and density. With the
flexibility because practically all of the con- In recent years, non-contact radar level VEGAPULS 64, levels can now be measured
tainer volume can be utilized. measurement technology has taken over in applications where the process and struc-
Thanks to the tightly focused measur- many applications in the chemical industry. tural conditions were previously not suit-
ing beam with an antenna diameter of The big advantage of radar technology is able for radar. www.vega.com/radar

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 65


Instrumentation & Control 2017 Special Advertising Section

Automatic repeatable sampling solution


The Sentry ISOLOK automatic sampling system provides a repeatable sample at user
programmable times and intervals, without requiring regular human interaction

T he ISOLOK automatic
sampling system from
Sentry Equipment Corp.
overdosing of chemicals and may allow re-
action times to be optimized.
Designed for harsh environments,
is available for sampling ISOLOK samplers feature rugged
liquids, slurries and bulk stainless steel construction.
solids, and is especially Specialized alloys and
suited to specialty batch sealing materials are avail-
chemical processes. The sampler able. Options include port
can be controlled remotely by a Sentry con- closures, various container
troller or a distributed control system (DCS). types, sampler enclosures
Controllers and remote operating modules This ISOLOK SAL-B (with or without heaters),
are available in a variety of configurations. sampler integrates an sample heating, and refrigeration.
Users can change the programming, sample ISOVALVE ball valve into the body ISOLOK samplers are designed with
time and other parameters if the sampler is to ease inspection and maintenance practicality in mind. For example, the
used for multiple products within the same ISOVALVE ball valve built into the sampler
reactor, for example. same manner every time is a huge aid to body on the model SAL-B provides added
The ISOLOK system minimizes waste, as achieving consistent process performance. safety and convenience during inspection
the volume of the sample can be controlled Automated sampling removes any doubt or maintenance. When off-line inspection or
precisely. It can be customized to provide a about how or when a sample was taken. maintenance is needed, the ISOVALVE can
sample directly to an analyzer, and to allow The ISOLOK captures fixed sample volumes be closed and the entire sampler removed
real-time dosing of dilution agents to mini- at fixed time intervals, for uniformity and while the process line remains in pressur-
mize safety risks from the need to handle consistency. This virtually eliminates opera- ized service. For safety, telltale ports on the
hazardous samples. tor error. Sampling events can be triggered isolation valve allow verification that pres-
The ability to get a sample whenev- by control parameters such as reactor tem- sure has been relieved before the sampler
er desired, in the volume desired, in the perature or concentration. This eliminates is detached. www.sentry-equip.com

Keys to correctly specifying control valve technology


Brian Kettner of Badger Meter explains how careful thought during the process of sizing
control valves can maximize performance while controlling costs

C ontrol valves play a vital role in modern


chemical plants. They are the most im-
portant single element in any fluid handling
safety factor. This
leads to specify-
ing, buying, and
suited for modulating control of liquids and
vapors in environments where compact size
and the ability to withstand high tempera-
system, because they regulate the flow of maintaining a ture and pressure are essential. Valves are
fluid to the process. larger device than also available with a pre-formed diaphragm
The style of control valve is usually de- is needed for the and multi-springs to ensure extremely lin-
termined by the users requirements, past flowrate, and re- ear travel versus input signal performance.
experiences, or plant preference. Valve se- sults in imprecise Models utilizing a single O ring and
lection can be a tricky process, but sizing control and poor Nylatron guide bushing provide minimum
the valve can be even more difficult. production out- hysteresis. Another significant improve-
When choosing a valve, the most impor- comes. The gen- ment in control valve technology is the use
tant variables to consider are: eral rule is to size of 316 stainless steel for trim material such
What medium will the valve control? a valve so that it as the valve body, bonnet and inner valve.
What effects will specific gravity and vis- Careful selection operates some- This ensures longer trim life, and as such,
cosity have on the valve size? maximizes control where between less downtime and lower device repair and
What will the inlet pressure and tempera- valve performance 2080% open replacement costs.
ture be at maximum demand? at maximum re- Key to any control valve project is the
What pressure drop will exist across the quired flowrate and whenever possible, and assistance of qualified engineers, who ana-
valve at maximum demand? not much less than 20% open at the mini- lyze the application to ensure the right in-
What maximum capacity should the valve mum required flowrate. struments are selected and sized correctly.
handle? Chemical companies frequently choose Valve manufacturers who understand con-
What is the maximum pressure differen- globe-style valves due to their proven per- trol performance can share those capabili-
tial for closing the valve? formance and lifecycle advantages. Some ties and show they can conform to a users
Frequently, control valves are sized based globe valve designs feature a bolted bonnet performance specifications.
on a future maximum process design plus a and post-guided inner-valve. They are well www.badgermeter.com

66 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017


Instrumentation & Control 2017 Special Advertising Section

Guided wave radar simplifies oil well cementing


Fast response time and full-probe-length measurement from Magnetrol guided wave radar
technology help drive performance for oil well cementing trucks

P umping cement into a borehole is one


of the most critical steps in oil and gas
well production. The injected slurry hardens
capable probe installed in an external cage
with a 31 in. (800 mm) center-to-center mea-
surement range. The closed coaxial design
to form a protective sheath that isolates the tends to reject false targets caused by foam,
well from surrounding geologic features. while the probes high accuracy ensures
Cementing is typically among the first oper- safe and efficient operation. A convenient
ations to prepare a well for production, and user interface makes configuration and field
one of the last before it is abandoned. adjustments quick and easy.
Cement is often mixed and injected Magnetrol won the business after the
using mobile cementing trucks. These fea- ECLIPSE guided wave radar unit was tested
ture bulk transport or batch mixing units, against competitive GWR instruments. Two
control systems, and high-pressure pumps advantages gave ECLIPSE transmitters the
to force the slurry down the casing. Magnetrols ECLIPSE system (upper right) edge. First, their response time of less than
The mixing system blends Portland ce- is key to accurate mixing and pumping one second showed operators the level in
ment, water, and additives to control the real time. Competitors units required a full
density, setting time, and other properties responsive, user-friendly and reliable, the 10 seconds to respond.
of the slurry. Control systems typically in- mobile level controls must also be extreme- Second, the overfill-safe probe delivered
clude automatic density control and data ly robust to tolerate the day-in, day-out con- outstanding performance, giving accurate
recording systems. Level control within the cussions of oilfield travel. level readings to the top of the probe and
slurry storage tank is a key part of this. A leading manufacturer of cement- close to the very top of the tank. By demon-
Level measurements must be precise ing equipment in China needed level strating best-in-class transmitter response
and responsive, since delays can damage controls that could match this specifica- time and full probe measurement range,
cementing systems and shut down opera- tion. The company selected Magnetrol Magnetrol won the order for more than 100
tions when tanks exceed their high or low Internationals ECLIPSE guided wave radar ECLIPSE GWR transmitters.
level limits. In addition to being accurate, (GWR) level transmitter with an overfill- www.magnetrol.com

Towards modular automation in the process industries


Phoenix Contact is active in the evolution of Industry 4.0, which uses modularization and
connectivity to make plants more agile and quicker to configure

T o be successful in international compe-


tition, companies need a great deal of
flexibility in responding to changing con-
cess industry on the basis of current control
systems.
Modular automation will create sub-
Central control system

ditions and adapting quickly to new re- stantial advantages, especially for pharma-
Centralized
quirements, points out communications ceuticals and fine chemicals. For example, plant
and interface specialist Phoenix Contact. the time needed for engineering, imple- Decentralized automation
Versatile plants are the way forward: modu- mentation and maintenance is cut by up to plant automation
lar production provides the flexibility need- 50% (source: ZVEI white paper) because
ed to introduce new products to market modular automation summarizes proce-
faster and at competitive prices. dural functions and thus greatly reduces
This challenge in the process industry complexity. Production is set up and tested
can be mastered with the help of intelligent as a chain of modules, each of which is sup-
technology. NAMUR, the User Association plied fully functional and includes a digital Decentralized
plant automation
of Automation Technology in the Process description. Once the pipework is connect-
Industries, and ZVEI, the German Electrical ed, the higher-level process control only Even in large plants, modularization of
and Electronic Manufacturers Association, needs to handle the parameterization that process control will bring advantages
are active in specifying the requirements for orchestrates the interaction of the modules.
automation technology and developing the Increasing demand is handled by setting dustry, working on the committees that are
necessary solutions. NAMUR recommenda- up additional production units in parallel. drawing up the necessary technical stan-
tion NE 148, for instance, specifies what is Even world-scale plants with central control dards. Synergies between machine and
expected of a modern automation system systems will benefit from the simple inte- plant automation and the modular process
and thus defines what Industry 4.0 means gration of prefabricated modules, such as industry are used to advantage. In time,
for the process industry. ZVEI, meanwhile, compressors. modular automation in the process indus-
is aiming to develop a common standard for Phoenix Contact is very active on the try will get new products to market much
enabling modular automation in the pro- subject of Industry 4.0 in the process in- quicker. www.phoenixcontact.com

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 67


Instrumentation & Control 2017 Special Advertising Section

High-precision electric actuators This turbopump is


AUMA offers high-precision compact actuators for heating, small but mighty
cooling, and metering applications The HiPace 30 from Pfeiffer
A UMAs compact electric actua-
tor ranges offer precise, robust
and stops for gentle
treatment of mechani-
Vacuum performs strongly
and reliable flow control solutions
even under difficult process condi-
tions. Their compact design makes
cal components, and
allow variable-speed
operating profiles to
T he HiPace 30 turbopump is the only
turbopump on the market in its size
class offering pumping speeds of 32 l/s,
them ideally suitable for space con- minimize pressure says manufacturer Pfeiffer Vacuum. Its
straints and small valves. Typical ap- surges and cavitation. small installation footprint and low level of
plications include demanding Operating parameters vibration make this pump particularly suit-
temperature control systems can be set via soft- able for integration into compact analytical
in the food and chemical in- ware, and Modbus RTU systems such as benchtop mass spectrom-
dustries, and fluid meter- and Profibus DP inter- eters, small electron microscopes, and leak
ing duties. AUMA faces are available. detectors. Furthermore, weighing as little as
AUMA offers two fami- SDL linear The SDL/SDG ac- 2 kg overall makes the HiPace 30 ideal for
lies of compact actuators: Basic actuators provide tuators feature low mobile applications.
Range and Smart Range. Basic high positioning accuracy for energy consumption, The sophisticated rotor design of the
Range SBA linear actuators and modulating applications making them particu- HiPace 30 achieves high gas throughputs
ED/EQ part-turn actuators offer larly suited to remote and very good compression of light gases.
all the essential functions, including feed- sites and solar PV power systems. They are
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actuators provide high positioning accuracy AUMAs compact linear actuators cover
and are suited to modulating applications. thrusts of 0.625 kN and strokes of 35
AUMAs Smart Range includes SDL/SDG 300 mm. Part-turn actuators are available
linear actuators, SVC globe valve actuators for torques of 251,000 Nm. Globe valve
and SGC part-turn actuators. All have vari- actuators offer torques of 10100 Nm, with
able-speed motors that provide soft starts strokes from 6070 mm. www.auma.com

AI helps automate thermal power plants


F ull automation of thermal power plants
with the help of artificial intelligence
(AI) took a step forward earlier this year
when Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems,
Ltd. (MHPS; Yokohama, Japan; www.mhps.
com) announced that it had successfully
tested an AI-based solution for combus-
tion tuning in boilers. The trial at Taiwan
Power Co.s Linkou Thermal Power Plant
(New Taipei, Taiwan) showed results com-
parable to those a highly experienced en- Linkou Power Plant, Taiwan, where
gineer could achieve, MHPS said. MHPS has been testing the new
By analyzing large volumes of complex combustion control technology At just 2 kg, the HiPace 30 by
digital data acquired during boiler opera- Pfeiffer Vacuum is ideal for
tion, AI-based boiler control systems can based combustion tuning system at the small and mobile systems
help to minimize operating costs and de- Linkou power plant. Combustion tuning
tect problems in good time, MHPS said. is a core element of a comprehensive sys- This ensures the low residual gas back-
Combustion processes in thermal tem, currently under development, that ground that is desirable for mass spectrom-
power plants are optimized by adjust- will eventually enable AI-controlled opera- etry applications.
ing parameters including flue-gas emis- tion of thermal power plants. The HiPace 30 is designed with a so-
sion characteristics, combustion balance, MHPS previously delivered three sets called hybrid bearing. This combination of
steam temperature, and boiler efficiency. of boilers and steam turbines, each rated ceramic ball bearings on the backing vacu-
During the tests in Taiwan, the AI system at 800 MW, to the supercritical coal-fired um side and permanently magnetic radial
proposed parameters that were essential- plant at Linkou. The first set has already bearings on the high vacuum side makes
ly no different from those set by an experi- started commercial operation, and the for a particularly sturdy bearing design. The
enced engineer, MHPS said. second is scheduled to go into service in pumps therefore have a long life, with a
MHPS will continue to enhance the AI- the next month or so. maintenance interval of approximately four
years. www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com

68 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017


Solids Processing

Particle Impact Problems in


Pneumatic Conveying
Pneumatically conveyed solid materials inevitably impact pipe walls and other
particles, which can create processing and equipment problems. Provided here is an
outline of potential problems related to particle impacts and the physics behind them
David Mills
Consultant 20
Material feed point

A
Air
mong the defining features
of pneumatic conveying 16 Slip velocity
is the flexibility that can
be achieved with pipe-
Velocity, m/s

12 les
line routing for the transport of bulk Partic
particulate materials in a totally en-
closed environment. Powdered and 8
granular materials can be conveyed
vertically up and vertically down, as
well as horizontally, in a single con- 4 Acceleration length
tinuous routing, just by using bends
in the pipeline. By this means, any
0
obstructions in the routing can be
0 Conveying distance, m
avoided simply by routing the pipe-
line around them. FIGURE 1. Pneumatically conveyed particles accelerate from the feeding point in the pipeline
In traversing a pipeline, however,
there will inevitably be impacts be- als and the problems that can arise may be possible. In this case, the
tween the particles being conveyed due to impact of the solids on pipe minimum conveying air velocity may
and the retaining pipeline. This will walls and other particles. These in- be as low as 5 m/s (~1,000 ft/min). A
be particularly so at each bend in clude pipe wear, particle degrada- safety margin of about 20% on con-
the pipeline, where the particles will tion, dust formation and others. veying air velocity is generally recom-
be subject to a change in direction, mended. The margin, however, must
regardless of pipeline orientation. Conveying air velocity not be too great because pressure
The impacts also lead to reductions Conveying air velocity is a critical drop, and hence energy required,
in particle velocity. In horizontal sec- parameter in pneumatic conveying. varies approximately with the square
tions of pipeline, there will be a natu- From basic fluid mechanics, pres- of the velocity.
ral tendency for the particles to fall sure drop is directly proportional to In pneumatic conveying, engi-
to the bottom of the pipeline due to the square of the velocity. Therefore, neers generally refer only the veloc-
gravity. In this case, the particle im- the air velocity must be kept to as ity of the air (rather than the velocity
pact is likely to be a glancing blow low a value as possible to avoid ex- of particles being conveyed), since
and hence at a low angle of impact. cessive pressure drop. In pneumatic this quantity can readily be calcu-
The situation with regard to bends, conveying, however, the objective lated or measured. The particles in
however, is very different because all is to have the conveying air velocity the air stream will be conveyed at a
the material will have to take the turn, maintained at a minimum value that slightly lower velocity. The difference
and, as a consequence, there will be is still sufficient to reliably convey the in velocity between the air and the
a considerable number of particles material. For materials conveyed in particles in it is generally referred to
impacting with the bend wall, as well dilute phase (suspension flow) this as the slip velocity. The value of
as particle-to-particle interactions in velocity is likely to be in the range of the slip velocity will increase with
the turbulence generated. The ge- 15 m/s (~3,000 ft/min), and for many larger particle sizes, higher particle
ometry of the bend is an additional materials, dilute-phase conveying is densities and more complex particle
variable here because the radius of the only option with a conventional shapes (higher surface area).
the bend will have a major influence pneumatic conveying system. For The routing of the pipeline may
on the impact angle. This article pro- materials with good air-retention include sections where particles are
vides information about the behavior characteristics or good permeability, moved vertically up and vertically
of pneumatically driven solid materi- however, dense-phase conveying down in order to cross roads or rail-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 69


ways, or to avoid obstructions. Flow BASIC EQUATIONS
vertically up and down presents no
undue problems, and is potentially
easier, since the minimum convey- pacc = mbar (1)
ing air velocity for flow vertically up
is generally lower than that for hori-
zontal flow. In reality, there are few where  = = solids loading ratio
cases where this advantage can be
exploited, since most pipelines in- Where m = product mass flowrate, ton/h
p
corporate combinations of both hori- Where m = air mass flowrate, kg/s
a
zontal and vertical pipeline. Most of The 3.6 term is required to render the value dimensionless
the time, horizontal pipeline predom- 2 = air density at end of pipeline, kg/m3
inates, so conveying air velocities are and C2 = conveying line exit-air velocity, m/s
generally specified in terms of those
required for horizontal conveying.
its terminal velocity in a straight sec- dust and fine powders, this is likely to
Energy loss tion of pipeline, either horizontally or be on the order of 12 m (36 ft), but
When a material is fed into a pipe- vertically. The length of pipeline re- for small granular particles and pellet-
line, the particle velocity at the feed- quired for this is termed the accel- ized materials, the length may be on
ing point is essentially zero. It is im- eration length, and will depend upon the order of 56 m (1620 ft). Within
portant, therefore, that the material the particle size, shape and density the acceleration region, however, the
should be able to be accelerated to of the material to be conveyed. For pipeline should be as straight as pos-
Out
sible to allow the particles to reach
their terminal velocity as quickly as
Conveying air pressure
P possible. If bends are placed too
Conveying air velocity close together, before a steady flow
P
Particle velocity is established, the flow could stall
In
and the pipeline may block.
Conveying air The situation is illustrated in Figure
1 [1], which plots the acceleration of
icles the conveyed particles following their
ng part
Conveyi
Velocity and pressure

feed into a pipeline, at essentially


zero velocity, to the point at which
they reach their terminal velocity. A
Slip velocity
significant element of the conveying-
line pressure drop, at the start of the
Acceleration length pipeline, can be attributed to this ac-
celeration process. In a single-bore
Distance pipeline, the values of both the air
and particle velocities will continue
Approach Bend Following straight
to increase along the length of the
FIGURE 2. The figure shows changes in pressure and velocity as particles flow through a pipe bend pipeline as the material is conveyed
to the discharge point.
It must be recognized that the
pipeline will be prone to block-
age over much of this acceleration
length. It is essential, therefore, that
Horizontal there should be no bends or other
possible obstructions to flow in this
region. The actual value of the ac-
celeration length will depend very
much on the particle size, shape and
density of the conveyed material.
For fine powders, it may be as little
as a couple of meters (~6 ft) but for
coarse granular materials it might be
6 m (~20 ft) or more.
Flow direction
Since the material that is fed into a
vertically up pipeline is essentially at zero veloc-
ity, a significant element of pressure
drop for the conveying system is that
FIGURE 3. Wear patterns in pipe bends can be influenced by deflected particles of accelerating the particles from zero
70 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
velocity to their final terminal velocity in velocity. This will be the case for degradation could result in an explo-
at the discharge point from the end both positive-pressure and vacuum- sion. As a result of particle impact,
of the pipeline. The acceleration pres- conveying systems. If high pressure particularly against bends, there is
sure drop, pacc, is based on exit val- or vacuum is used for conveying, it potential for heat generation, which
ues for both air density and convey- is essential that the bore of the pipe- can result in particle melting and in
ing air velocity, and can be evaluated line be stepped up part of the way the formation of streamers, often
from Equation (1); (see box above). along its length to minimize these called angel hairs.
This equation will take into account problems. The location of the step As a consequence of particle im-
the acceleration for both the convey- in the pipeline, however, is critical. pact, particularly against bends,
ing air and the conveyed material. If it is positioned too early, the con- there will be a significant reduction
For greater accuracy, should it be veying air velocity may be below the in particle velocity. These particles
needed, account can be taken of the minimum value for the material being will then have to be re-accelerated
fact that the air will have a significant conveyed, and the pipeline will block. back to their terminal velocity, which
value of velocity at the pipeline inlet, will add significantly to the pressure
since it must be high enough to con- IMPACT PROBLEMS drop and hence, energy loss
vey the material, and the particles will If the material to be conveyed is po- for the conveying system, as seen
be at a slightly lower velocity than tentially abrasive, significant wear by Equation (1). It is not only after the
that of the air at the pipeline outlet by of the pipeline, and particularly the feed point into the pipeline that an
virtue of the necessary slip velocity. bends in the pipeline, is likely to acceleration length needs to be es-
Because air is compressible, the occur. If the material being conveyed tablished. There will be a significant
velocity of the conveying air will grad- is potentially friable, significant dam- reduction in particle velocity for parti-
ually increase along the length of a age to the material being conveyed cles after exiting a bend, and particu-
single-bore pipeline as the material may occur, and it is possible that larly so after short-radius bends. This
is conveyed to its destination point. these changes to the material could situation is illustrated in Figure 2 [1].
Problems of pipeline wear and par- affect the conveying performance of Considering the conveying air
ticle degradation, as well as power the material itself. If dust generated pressure, there will be a gradual fall
requirements for system operation, from the material is potentially explo- in pressure along the entire length of
will all increase with an increase sive, there is the possibility that such the pipeline. Within the bend itself,

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 71


Circle 20 on p. 90 or go to adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-20
acrylate) and were constructed with
substantial backing pieces so that
004 the change in flow pattern and wear
006
over a period of time could be visu-
Erosion, aluminum, cm3/kg

Erosion, glass, cm3/kg


ally observed. The results from one
003
Particle
of their tests are given in Figure 3.
004
With a new bend, the particles tend
002 to travel straight on from the preced-
Impact angle ing straight pipeline until they impact
002 against the bend wall. After impact,
001
Surface material they tend to be swept around the
outside surface of the bend. They
are then gradually entrained in the
0
0 30 60 90 0 air in the following straight length of
Impact angle, deg
pipeline. In Figure 3, the flow pattern
FIGURE 4. Impact angle is an important variable for erosive wear of various surface materials is shown after substantial wear has
occurred. This shows quite clearly
30 For: the gradual wearing process of a
mild steel bends
53-mm bore bend and the effect of impact angle
140-mm radius in horizontal plane
on the material in the process. Ero-
Specific erosion, g/metric ton

Conveying sion first occurred at a bend angle


20 70 m sand at a solids loading ratio of 2
of about 20 deg, which became the
primary wear point, as one would
expect. After a certain depth of wear
10
pocket had been established, how-
ever, the particles were deflected
sufficiently to promote wear on the
inside surface of the bend, and then
0 to promote a secondary wear point
10 20 30 at a bend angle of about 75 deg.
Conveying air velocity, m/s
A small tertiary wear point was
FIGURE 5. Erosive wear is also influence heavily by particle velocity in pipeline bends subsequently created at a bend
angle of about 85 deg. If such a
100
highly reinforced bend were to be
used in industry, in preference to
80 replacing worn bends, the deflec-
Percentage mass over size

Material before
conveying tion from the latter wear points
60 would probably cause erosion of the
straight section of pipeline down-
40
Material after stream from the bend. Because this
conveying
pattern of particle deflection in worn
bends is now well recognized, some
20
companies manufacture steel bends
with thicker walls. They are also
0
40 80 120 160 200 240
slightly thicker on the inside surface
Particle size, m to allow for the fact that particles can
FIGURE 6. Pneumatic conveying can shift the cumulative particle size distribution of a material, espe- be deflected to the inside surface, as
cially for friable solids illustrated in Figure 3.
Impact angle and surface mate-
there will be a small pressure drop, after the bend, in terms of the need rial. A curve presented by Tilly [3],
but the major part of the loss in pres- to re-accelerate the particles back to and shown in Figure 4, illustrates the
sure, as a result of the flow though their terminal velocity. variation of erosive wear with impact
the bend, will be in the acceleration angle for two different surface mate-
of the particles back to their terminal Erosive wear rials, and is typical of the early work
velocity following the bend. The two The erosive wear of bends in pneu- carried out to investigate the influence
pressure gages included in Figure 2, matic-conveying-system pipelines is of these variables. Both materials
at the bend inlet and outlet, will give well illustrated by the work of Mason showed very significant differences
a false reading for the actual pres- and Smith [2]. They carried out tests in both erosion rate and the effect of
sure drop, which results from the on 25- and 50-mm (1- and 2-in.) impact angle. These materials do, in
flow of material through the bend. square-section 90-deg bends with a fact, exhibit characteristic types of
In pneumatic conveying situations, flow of alumina particles from verti- behavior that are now well recog-
most of the pressure drop that can cal to horizontal. The bends were nized. The aluminum alloy is typical of
be attributed to the bend occurs made of Perspex (polymethylmeth- ductile materials: it suffers maximum
72 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
erosion at an impact angle of about
40
20 deg, and offers good erosion re- Particle Material after
size limits
sistance to normal impact. Glass is conveying

Percentage mass within particle size ranges


typical of brittle materials: it suffers
severe erosion under normal impact, 30
but offers good erosion resistance to Material after
low-angle, glancing impacts. conveying
These tests were carried out with 20
sand particles sieved to particle sizes
of between 60 and 125 m. The par-
ticles were impacted at a velocity of
10
about 100 m/s, since they were un-
dertaken specifically for the investi-
gation of the potential wear of aircraft
engines. That brittle and ductile ma- 0
40 80 120 160 200 240
terials respond to erosion in very dif- Particle size, m
ferent ways can be clearly seen from
FIGURE 7. Pneumatic conveying can affect the fractional size distribution of a friable material
Figure 4, and it is obvious that differ-
ent mechanisms of material removal 100
Particle size: 5 mm
must be involved. Note that the two Impact angle: 90 deg
Percentage of unbroken particles

vertical axes relate to the two differ- 80 Target material: steel


ent materials that were eroded, and
that they have very different scales. 60
Theories proposed. From early
thoughts on the matter, it was sug- 40
gested that for ductile materials
(annealed low-carbon steel, cop- 20
per, aluminum and so on), removal
of material occurs predominantly by 0
plastic deformation. No cracks prop- 8 12 16 20 24 28
Particle velocity, m/s
agate ahead of the cutting particle
and the volume removed is due en- FIGURE 8. These data show how particle velocity can influence the degradation of 5-mm aluminium
oxide particles
tirely to the cutting action of the par-
ticle, rather like the cutting edge of the ranges tested, the velocity expo- pressure. With a vacuum conveying
a machine tool. For brittle materials nent was found to be consistent at system, a doubling in velocity will be
(glass, basalt, ceramics, cast iron, 2.65. A graph showing the influence achieved with a system exhausting
concrete and so on), it was thought of conveying air velocity on the spe- at 0.5 bar absolute (7.5 lb/in.2). In
that material removal occurs in large cific erosion of the bends is given in such a system, a bend at the end of
part due to the propagation of frac- Figure 5 [1]. the pipeline will wear approximately
ture surfaces into the material. The solids-loading ratio is the di- six times as fast as a bend at the
These erosion processes, how- mensionless ratio of the mass flow- start of the pipeline.
ever, have subsequently proved to rate of the bulk particulate mate- If an abrasive material is to be
be less straightforward. Photographs rial conveyed, to the mass flowrate conveyed, therefore, it would always
taken of impact craters, produced of air used to convey the material. be recommended that the pipeline
as a result of single-particle impact For dilute-phase, suspension-flow be stepped to a larger bore partially
studies, have shown clear evidence conveying, solids-loading ratios are along its length in order to limit the
that melting of the pipe material can typically up to about 15. For low- maximum value of velocity achieved,
take place. The melting only occurs velocity, dense-phase conveying, in order to minimize the erosive wear
over a small part of the impact crater, solids-loading ratios generally need of bends toward the end of the pipe-
but it must be considered to contrib- to be greater than about 40. line. It is essential, of course, that
ute to the erosive wear process. The erosion is in terms of the mass the step to the larger-bore pipeline is
Influence of velocity. The author of metal eroded from a bend per ton correctly positioned along the pipe-
has undertaken research into the of sand conveyed through the bend. line, for if the velocity falls below the
erosion of pipe bends in pneumatic With a velocity exponent of 2.65, this minimum value of conveying air ve-
conveying systems at velocities ap- means that the wear rate will increase locity at the step, the pipeline is likely
propriate for dilute-phase suspen- by a factor of six with a doubling of to block at this point.
sion flow. Tests were carried out over the air velocity. This explains why the
a range of conveying air velocities curve rises so steeply in Figure 5. If Particle degradation
from 15 to 35 m/s (3,000 to 7,000 a positive-pressure conveying sys- In some bulk-solids-handling pro-
ft/min). Steel bends of 53 mm (2 in.) tem operates at a pressure of 1 barg cesses, intentional breakdown of the
bore having a ratio of bend diame- (15 lb/in.2), a doubling of the veloc- material is required (crushing, grind-
ter, D, to pipe bore, d, of about 5:1 ity will be achieved in a single-bore ing and comminution). In many han-
were eroded by 70-m sand. Over pipeline discharging to atmospheric dling and storage situations, how-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 73


100 Of all conveying systems, dilute-
Plexiglass phase conveying probably results in
Number of unbroken particles

80
Aluminum
more material degradation and attri-
tion than any other. This is because
Particle size: 5 mm
60 Impact angle: 90 deg particle velocity is a major factor in
the problem and, in dilute-phase
Glass conveying, high velocities have to be
40
Target material maintained. The potential influence of
20 Steel
a pneumatic conveying system on a
material is demonstrated in Figures 6
0
and 7. This is a consequence of con-
8 12 16 20 24 28 veying a friable material at a high ve-
Particle velocity, m/s
locity in dilute-phase suspension flow
FIGURE 9. Different target materials, including glass, steel and aluminum, affect the degradation of alu- in a conveying system with a large
minium oxide particles
number of small-radius bends [1].
100 10 deg Figure 6 shows the influence on
15 deg the cumulative particle-size distri-
and 20 deg
bution for the material before and
Number of unbroken particles

80
after conveying. The mean particle
60 Particle size: 5 mm
size, based on the 50% value, has
Target material: steel changed from about 177 to 152 m.
40 The really significant effect, however,
30 deg is shown in the fractional size-distri-
20 bution plot in Figure 7. In this alterna-
Particle impact angle 40 deg 35 deg
90 deg 50 deg tive (and essentially magnified) plot,
0 the potential effect of degradation
8 12 16 20 24 28 on the material can be clearly seen.
Particle velocity, m/s
A considerable number of fines are
FIGURE 10. These data show how different impact angles affect the degradation of aluminum oxide
particles
produced, and even on a percent-
age mass basis, these cause a sig-
100
nificant secondary peak in the parti-
Particle size: 5 mm cle-size distribution.
Number of unbroken particles

80 Particle velocity: 23 m/s Operating problems. Particle


Target material: steel
degradation can cause problems
60 in a number of areas because of
changes in particle shape and parti-
40 cle-size distribution that can result. It
is a particular problem with chemical
materials that are coated, for it is the
20
coating that is generally the friable
element of the resulting material.
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 80
Plant operating difficulties are often
Particle impact angle, deg experienced because of the fines
FIGURE 11. This graph takes a slice of particle-impact data from Figure 10 at a particular particle veloc- produced, and problems in handling
ity and shows the affect on particle degradation operations can also result after the
material has been conveyed.
ever, unintentional breakage occurs. said to be friable. Tendency for parti- Apart from the obvious problems
This is usually termed degradation or cle breakdown occurs by three main of quality control with friable materi-
attrition, depending on the mecha- mechanisms. The first is a tendency als, changes in particle shape can
nism of particle breakage. Bulk mate- to shatter or degrade when the bulk also lead to subsequent process dif-
rials, when pneumatically conveyed, solid is subject to impact or com- ficulties with certain materials. The
will impact against bends in the pipe- pressive loading. The second is the appearance of the material may also
line, and there may be a significant tendency for fines and small pieces change, making it not as readily sold.
amount of particle-to-particle interac- to be worn away by attrition when Changes in particle-size distribu-
tion. There may also be frequent im- bulk solids either rub against each tion can affect flow characteristics,
pacts against the pipeline walls, and other or against some surface, such which in the extreme, can change
particles sliding along the pipeline as a pipeline wall or bend. The third a free-flowing material into one that
walls in low-velocity, dense-phase is the tendency for materials, such as can only be handled with great dif-
flows. These collisions and interac- nylons and polymers, to form angel ficulty, and with materials intended
tions will produce forces on the par- hairs when conveyed, as a result of for subsequent sale, this can lead to
ticles that may lead to their breakage. micro-melting, which occurs to due customer problems.
Particle breakage. If particle break- to the frictional heat of particles slid- Filtration problems. In pneumatic
down occurs easily, the bulk solid is ing against pipeline walls. conveying systems, plant-operating
74 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
difficulties can result if degradation 150
causes a large percentage of fines Material: Low-density
polyethylene (LDPE)
to be produced, particularly if the fil- Pipeline:
tration equipment is not capable of

Streamer generation, g/m.t.


Bore: 100 mm
Material: aluminum
handling the fines satisfactorily. Filter 100 Surface: sandblasted
cloths and screens will rapidly block
if they have to cope with unexpect-
edly high flowrates of fine powder.
The net result is that there is usually 50
Conveying conditions
an increase in pressure drop across Solids loading ratio: 8.0
Material temperature: 50oC
the filter, and this could be a signifi-
cant proportion of the total pressure
available in a low-pressure system. 0
20 30 40 50 60
Flow problems. In many systems Conveying line exit air velocity, m/s
there is a need to store the conveyed
FIGURE 12. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets can degrade by forming streamers
material in a hopper or silo. Flow func-
tions can be determined for bulk par-
ticulate materials, from which hopper show how the relationship was de- velocity at which no degradation oc-
wall angles and opening sizes can be rived and to show the limits of scat- curs, varying from 12 m/s for steel
evaluated, to ensure that the material ter in the results. to about 17 m/s for Plexiglas (poly
flows reliably at the rate required. A Figure 8 shows that there is a very methyl methacrylate) and aluminum,
change in particle-size distribution of rapid transition in particle velocity very significant differences exist in
a material, as a result of conveying from zero breakage to total degra- the transition region between no
operations, however, can result in a dation. Below a particle velocity of degradation and total degradation.
significant change in flow properties. about 9 m/s, only elastic deforma- In the case of the steel and glass tar-
Thus, a hopper designed for a ma- tion occurs and there is essentially gets, the transition is very rapid. For
terial in the as-received condition zero particle degradation. Above the aluminum and Plexiglas, how-
may be totally unsuitable for the ma- a particle velocity of about 25 m/s, ever, the transition is very slow, and
terial after it has been conveyed. As however, the stress induced by the so a high-velocity impact against
a result, it may be necessary to fit an impact is always sufficient to dam- these materials would only result in
expensive flow aid to the hopper to age every particle. It is interesting to limited damage occurring.
solve the problem. note that within the transition region, The influence of particle impact
Potential explosion problems. the number of unbroken particles at angle. Particle impact angle is the
Many solid materials, when they any given velocity is very consistent, same as that used in the above
occur in a dust cloud, can ignite and and that a smooth transition is ob- erosive-wear work (Figure 4). Im-
cause an explosion. Dust clouds tained from one extreme to the other pact angle has been shown to be a
are clearly quite impossible to avoid over this range of velocity. major variable with regard to the ero-
within a pneumatic conveying sys- The influence of surface mate- sive wear of surface materials, and
tem, and so this poses a hazard with rial. With erosive wear of surface hence is an important consideration
regard to the safe operation of such materials, it has been found that in terms of material selection and the
systems. Of those materials that are the resilience of the surface mate- specification of components such as
potentially explosive, research has rial can have a significant influence pipeline bends. In relation to particle
shown that it is only the fraction of on erosive wear, and that rubber degradation, it is equally important,
the material with particle sizes less and polymers can offer better wear for as the impact angle reduces,
than about 200 m that poses the resistance than metals having a very so the normal component of veloc-
risk of explosion. Degradation and high hardness value in certain cases. ity decreases. This will have a direct
attrition caused by pneumatic con- Since the mechanisms of erosion bearing on the deceleration force on
veying, however, can result in the and degradation have many similari- the particles. The results of a com-
generation of a considerable num- ties, it is quite possible that resilient prehensive program of tests carried
ber of fines, particularly if the mate- materials could offer very good resis- with the 5-mm aluminium-oxide par-
rial is friable. Even if the material did tance to particle degradation. ticles aimed at investigating the in-
not present a problem with respect The results of tests carried out on fluence of particle-impact angle are
to explosions in the as-received four different target materials with presented in Figure 10 [1].
condition, the situation could be very the 5-mm spherical aluminum-oxide Figure 10 shows that there is little
different after the material has been particles are presented in Figure 9. change in the response to degrada-
conveyed [4]. In each case, the targets were 5-mm tion until the impact angle is below
The influence of velocity. The re- thick and they were impacted by the about 50 deg. There is then a very
sults of a program of tests [1] carried aluminum oxide particles at 90 deg. marked difference in performance,
out with 5-mm spherical aluminum- This shows very clearly that target with only small incremental changes
oxide particles impacted at 90 deg material can have a very marked ef- in impact angle. With a decrease in
against a steel target are presented fect on degradation. particle-impact angle, it would ap-
in Figure 8. In this plot, the experi- Although there is little difference pear that there is little change in the
mental data have been included to in the maximum value of particle particle velocity at which the onset of

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 75


150
Material: LDPE ing. If the surface is too rough, how-
ever, small pieces will be torn away
Pipeline:
Bore: 100 mm from the pellets instead, and a large
Streamer generation, g/m.t

Material: aluminum percentage of fines will result. It will


100 Surface: sandblasted
also have an adverse effect on the
pressure drop, and hence on mate-
rial conveying capacity.
Although the results presented in
50 Conveying conditions Figures 12 and 13 were obtained
Exit air velocity: 40 m/s
Material temperature: 50oC from tests carried out with pipe sur-
faces roughened by sandblasting,
this treatment is not recommended,
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
as it will result in the generation of
Solids loading ratio a large percentage of fines. Also,
FIGURE 13. Solids-loading ratio can have an effect on the degradation of LDPE this roughness is relatively shallow
in depth and an aluminium surface
degradation occurs. The transition pose. Such equipment is necessary will wear so that the pipe must be re-
from zero degradation to total deg- because streamers also cause mate- treated in six to twelve months.
radation, however, becomes an in- rial rejection by customers (because A more recent innovation is to at-
creasingly more gradual process as the presence of these contaminants tach a small-diameter wire to the
the particle-impact angle decreases. in the product is undesirable). inner surface of the pipeline, arranged
At impact angles of 15 and 20 deg, Mechanics of the process. The in a spiral. This essentially acts as a
it would appear that this transitional streamers are caused by the pellets tripwire for any particles that are
process is spread over a very wide impacting against pipe bends and sliding. On impact with the wire, any
range of velocity values. At an im- sliding along the inside surface of particles impacting it will be thrown
pact angle of 10 deg, however, there the pipeline. A considerable amount back into the conveying air flow. n
is a significant change once again, in of energy is converted into heat by Edited by Scott Jenkins
that no particle degradation was re- the friction of the two surfaces when
corded at all up to 30 m/s. they touch. If the surface of the pipe References
In Figure 11, an alternative plot of is smooth, the pellet will slide. This 1. Mills, D., Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide, 3rd Ed.,
the data in this program of tests is contact, though momentary, decel- Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier Ltd.), 2016.
presented. This is effectively a slice erates the particle by friction, which 2. Mason, J.S. and Smith, B.V., The erosion of bends by
pneumatically conveyed suspensions of abrasive par-
taken from Figure 10 at a particle ve- is transformed into heat. This friction ticles., Powder Technology, vol. 6, pp. 323335, 1973.
locity of 23 m/s. This graph shows is generally sufficient to raise the tem- 3. Tilly, G.P., Erosion caused by impact of solid particles.
that tests were carried out at regular perature at the surface of the pellet Treatise on materials science and technology, Academic
increments of impact angle (about to its melting point. To a certain ex- Press Inc., vol. 13, pp 287319, 1979.
10 deg) between 10 and 90 deg. tent, this is analogous to the thermal 4. Mills, D., Safety Aspects of Pneumatic Conveying. Chem.
This plot shows quite clearly that at model proposed for erosive wear. Eng., April 1999, pp. 8491. April 1999.
impact angles below about 12 deg, Influence of variables. The onset of 5. Paulson, J., Effective means for reducing formation of
fines and streamers. presented at Process Conf. on Poly-
no degradation occurs, and that at the formation of these angel hairs or olefins, Society of Plastics Engineers, Houston, 1978.
impact angles above about 55 deg, streamers is the result of a combina-
the degradation remains essentially tion of conditions. Particle velocity is
constant at the maximum value for the most important, but it also de- Author
this particular impact velocity. pends upon the temperature of the David Mills is an academic
pipeline, the temperature of the pel- engineer and pneumatic convey-
ing consultant in the U.K. (9
Particle melting lets, and the solids-loading ratio of Cherry Orchard, Old Wives Lees,
Particle melting is a form of mate- the conveyed material. The influence CT4 BQ8, Kent, Canterbury, U.K.;
rial degradation that often occurs in of conveying-line exit-air velocity for Phone: 041-332-7090; Email:
pneumatic conveying plants handling low-density polyethylene is shown in profdavid.mills@outlook.com). He
was, for many years, Professor of
plastic-type materials, particularly Figure 12 [5]. Bulk Solids Handling at Glasgow
in pelletized form. If a conventional The influence of solids-loading ratio Caledonian University in Scotland.
pipeline is used, materials such as for this same material is given in Fig- He is currently Conjoint Professor at the University of
Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia, and Adjunct
polyethylene, nylon and polyesters ure 13. In each case, the degradation Professor at the University of the Witwatersrand in Jo-
can form cobweb-like agglomerates. of the material is expressed in terms hannesburg, South Africa. His Pneumatic Conveying
They are variously given names like of the mass of streamers and fines Design Guide started in 1979 with U.K. govern-
ment funding as it was recognised as a subject signifi-
angel hairs, raffia, snake skins produced, in grams, per metric ton of cantly lacking in design capability and understanding
and streamers. low-density polyethylene conveyed. is now in its third edition. He has contributed sev-
Such agglomerates frequently Pipeline treatment. The forma- eral articles to Chemical Engineering since 1990. Mills
cause blockages at line diverters and tion of streamers and fines can be has expertise in system design and troubleshooting,
and also investigates product degradation and high-
filters, which require plant interruption reduced quite considerably by suit- pressure blow-tank systems. He holds a Ph.D. in engi-
to remove them. Equipment is gener- ably treating the pipe wall surface. A neering and is the author of over 80 papers on pneu-
ally installed at the terminating end of roughened surface is necessary in matic conveying, covering topics such as system
design and performance.
the conveying system for this pur- order to prevent the pellets from slid-
76 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
Engineering Practice

Designing Atmospheric Storage Tanks


Insights into the basics of process design of atmospheric storage tanks and an
example of how to prepare a process datasheet are presented here

Prasanna Kenkre
Jacobs Engineering India

S
torage tanks are widely
used in the petroleum re-
fining and petrochemical
sectors to store a variety of
liquids, from crude petroleum to fin-
ished product (Figure 1). This article
presents the basic process of de-
signing atmospheric storage tanks
(ASTs), as well as a discussion about
preparing a process datasheet. An
example is used to illustrate the
points made.
FIGURE 1. Storage tanks are a common sight at petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants
When to opt for ASTs
In simple terms, storage tanks that entering the vessel. the vapor space, which reduces the
are freely vented to the atmosphere Typically, ASTs are considered to accumulation of product vapors and
are known as (aboveground) atmo- have an operating pressure ranging possible formation of a combustible
spheric storage tanks (ASTs). They from 0 to 0.5 psig. Tanks designed mixture. In some cases, the natural
have a vertical cylindrical configura- to operate at pressures between 0.5 ventilation is avoided and the vent
tion and can be easily identified by and 15 psig are termed as low-pres- is either sent for treatment (for ex-
the open vent nozzle or goose- sure storage tanks. Designs above 15 ample, to a scrubbing tower) or to a
neck vent pipe on the tank roof. psig are treated as pressure vessels. vapor-recovery system (for example,
ASTs may be shop-welded or field- a benzene-vapor-recovery system).
welded and are customarily fabri- Tank roof types As a rule of thumb, fixed-roof
cated from structural quality carbon There are two basic types of ver- tanks are used to store liquids with
steel, such as A-36 or A-283 Gr.C. tical-tank roof designs fixed or true vapor pressures (TVP) of less
The vertical cylindrical shape and floating roof. than 10 kPa(a) (TVP is the absolute
relatively flat bottom helps to keep Fixed roof. In this design, the tank pressure when the vapor is in equi-
costs low. roof is welded with the shell and the librium with liquid at a constant tem-
ASTs store low-vapor-pressure roof remains static. perature). Floating roofs are limited to
fluids that do not pose any environ- Floating roof (internal or external). storing liquids with a maximum TVP
mental, hazard or product-contami- In this design, the tank roof floats of 75 kPa(a). For liquids with flash
nation issues, so they can be freely on the liquid surface and rises and point (the lowest temperature, cor-
vented to the atmosphere. However, falls with changes in liquid level. The rected to a barometric pressure of
when storing certain fluids, such internal floating-roof tank (IFRT) has 101.3kPa(a), at which application of
as when vapors of the stored liquid a permanent fixed roof with a float- a flame test causes the vapor of the
are flammable or when oxidation ing roof inside while the external test portion to ignite under the speci-
of liquid may form hazardous com- floating-roof tank (EFRT) consists fied conditions of the test) below
pounds, it is undesirable to have of an open-topped cylindrical shell 37.8C, excessive loss of volatile
the tank vapor space freely vented. with a roof that floats on the liquid. liquids occurs from the use of open-
In such cases, inert gas blanketing An IFRT is used where heavy ac- vented fixed-roof tanks. Hence,
of the vapor space may be used. cumulation of snow or rainwater, or floating roofs are mostly used for liq-
Tanks with inert-gas blanketing are lightning is expected and may af- uids with flash points below 37.8C.
also often included in this category. fect the roof buoyancy of an EFRT.
A blanketing system is normally de- In an IFRT, tank vapor space located Codes for tank design
signed so that it operates at slightly above the floating roof and below The American Petroleum Institute
higher than atmospheric pressure, the fixed roof includes circulation (API; Washington, D.C.; www.api.
therefore preventing outside air from vents to allow natural ventilation of org) has developed a series of atmo-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 77


spheric tank standards and speci- TABLE 1. API 650 AND API 620 DESIGN LIMITATIONS
fications. Some of these are: API Standard Internal design External design Internal design Other limitations
Specification 12B, API Specifica- pressure limit pressure limit temperature
(psig) (psig) limit (C)
tion 12D, API Specification 12F, API
API 650 2.5 0.03625 93 1. When using API 650 for pressures
Standard 2000, API Standard 650, exceeding 2.5 psig (internal), 0.036
API Standard 620. The ASME Boiler psig (external) but not exceeding
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 1 psig and temperatures greater
VIII, although not required below 15 than 93C but not exceeding 260C,
psig, may also be useful. requirements given in the associated
annexures needs to be met.
BS EN 14015 is used in Europe, 2. Different specifications
along with other codes, such as (ASTM,CSA, ISO, EN for plates) sug-
BS EN 13445, PED, SEP, KIWA gested for carbon steel, low-alloy
and others. carbon steel, structural steel, killed
carbon steel and so on. The material
The two main API codes used for of construction used shall conform to
tank design are API 650 and API 620 the specifications given in API 650.
(Table 1). To design tanks with stainless steel
For different fluid groups, the type and aluminium, Annex S & AL needs
of storage and the appropriate de- to be followed respectively1
API 620 2.515 Not applicable 2 121.1 and For other low temperature limitations
sign code to be followed can be
45.5 refer to Appendices Q, R & S1
found in Ref. 1.
Notes:
Calculation design basis 1. Plate materials [4] are given in both API 620 & 650.
Before starting the sizing calcula- 2. API 620 does not contain provision for vacuum design. However, vertical tanks designed in accordance with
API 620 may withstand a partial vacuum of 0.0625 psig in the vapor space with the liquid level at any point from
tions, a calculation design basis is full to empty.
prepared that provides a back-up of
all the information used in the pro-
cess design of the storage tank. In Dimensions of a storage tank re- storage capacity and vapor pres-
most engineering companies, this ally depend on the process require- sure of the stored product, certain
document is a must, and is prepared ment and needs of the client. For a regulatory requirements may govern
to understand the source of data given inflow rate, the tank dimen- the type of tank to be used, for ex-
and to keep traceability of data used sions will vary based on the amount ample, Standard 1910.110-Storage
in the design. Typically, it contains of time the tank is designed to hold and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum
details like the following: the contents. Also, based on the Gases by OSHA regulations of U.S.
1. The equipment tag number
2. Objective of design (for example,
to calculate the dimensions of the M3
tank T-1001; to set level alarms P1
and so on) H2
H1
3. Basis of design (notes like: HHLL
(high high liquid level) is set at an
elevation above HL to permit an
operator time response of 20 min)
4. Assumptions (for instance, a maxi- LA (HH)
mum capacity utilization of 90% is
assumed)
5. Actual calculations
6. Sketches LA(H)
7. Results or conclusions
8. Reference documents
9. Attachments.

Sizing ASTs LA (L)


Typically, tank capacity is given in the
process part of a basic design and LA (LL)
engineering package (BDEP) directly
as the process volume required or
indirectly as the residence time (for Slope
example, hours or days of storage
of product or raw material feed). At
times, the number of tanks and their
preliminary dimensions (diameter FIGURE 2. This preliminary sketch of an AST also shows the relative positions of the alarm levels (LAs)
height) may also be mentioned. defined in the text

78 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017


A tank is a compound geometric TABLE 2. ESTIMATING TANK DIMENSIONS
form, such as a combination of cy- Steel plate Tank Capacity per m Required tank Number of courses in L/D ratio
lindrical shell and conical roof. How- course diameter of tank height height completed tank
ever, it should be noted that the net (mm) (m) (m3) (m)
volume and the maximum volume 1,800 9 63.6 9 5 1
mentioned in the process data- 2,400 9 63.6 9.6 4 1.07
sheets are calculated only for the cy-
lindrical shell. The tank head volume Therefore, the volume that will be inal capacities (for example, as given
is never considered in the storage stored in the tank is calculated to be in Appendix A of API 650 [2]). These
tank process-volume calculation. 147,857 gal (approximately 560 m3). appendix tables readily provide the
The purpose of storage is based tank height and number of courses
on varied process functional require- Selecting tank dimensions (number of rows of steel plates
ments, including the following: As a starting point to estimate the stacked) for a given tank diameter.
Product storage tank To store correct preliminary dimensions (di- However, all the requirements men-
chemical inventory produced in a ameter and height) by trial and error, a tioned in Appendix A need to be met.
plant process engineer can refer to as-built Using the tables given in Appendix
Spare tank For temporary plant data, such as a storage tank A of API 650 [2], we obtain the results
storage of fluid until inspection or process datasheet; an equipment tabulated in Table 2. For calculated
maintenance of working tank is list; or a general assembly drawing. tank volume and a diameter of 9 m,
completed This will at least give a fair idea of ini- we can obtain two different configu-
Off-specification tank To store tial values of the diameter and height rations with (diameter height
product deviated from normal speci- to be used for trial and error. number of steel plate courses) as (9
fications until it is re-processed Alternatively, typical volume versus 9 5) or (9 9.6 4). The height-
Check tank To verify or sample dimensions table provided by a tank to-diameter ratio (L/D) for these two
raw material, intermediate or prod- fabricator can be used, or tables for configurations will be 1 and 1.07, re-
uct quality before its use or transfer typical sizes and corresponding nom- spectively. Both the L/D ratios calcu-
Day tank For fuel-oil supply to
diesel generators and dual-fuel TABLE 3. SETTING TANK ALARMS
boilers Tank height (L) 9,000 mm
Tank diameter (D) 9,000 mm
Calculating the tank volume L/D 1.00 -
As an example, a storage tank will Geometric volume 572.27 m3
be designed using the following Tank filling rate 57.5 gpm
known data: Center line of 2-in. pump out nozzle from tank bot- 175 mm
To store, for 30 h, light off-specifica- tom (regular nozzle) [3]
tion olefin (C6, C8, C10) production Tangent to the top of pump out nozzle = = 175 + (60.3/2) 205.15 mm
Working volume to gross volume height of center line of pump out nozzle +
ratio = 0.7 (for IFRT, this needs to (O.D. of pump out nozzle)/2 in.
be 0.9) Center line of 6-in. jet mixer nozzle from tank bot- 306 mm
The highest inflow rate to the tank tom (regular nozzle) [3]
is 57.5 gal/min Tangent to the top of of jet mixer nozzle inside the = 306 + (168.3/2) 390.15 mm
tank bottom = height of center line of jet mixer
Vapor pressure at operating tem- nozzle + (O.D. of pump out nozzle)/2
perature = 41.3 kPa(a)
Clearance between floating roof and top of jet mixer ~ 4 in. 100 mm
Tank has a 2-in. pump-out nozzle
Elevation at the tip of mixer nozzle inside the tank ~ 4 ft 1,219 mm
and 6-in. jet-mixer nozzle (assumed)
In this case, because the TVP is Low low liquid level (LLLL) 1,319 mm
greater than 10 kPa(a), we opt for an
Height between LLLL and LLL ~ 3 in. 76 mm
internal floating-roof tank.
Low liquid level (LLL) 1,395 mm
We have gathered storage time
Process volume 392 m3
and tank volume ratio (0.7) from the
process part of the BDEP and the Height corresponding to process volume = process volume / [0.785 6,161.67 mm
(dia.)]2
tank inflow rate and vapor pressure
High liquid level (HLL) 7,556.67 mm
from a heat and material balance
(H&MB) table. Time gap to fill the height between HLL and HHLL
Process volume = (Maximum inflow (Considering time for operator intervention) - 20 min
time) Height between HLL and HHLL (calculated) = (Time to fill the height be- 68.43 mm
tween HLL & HHLL tank fill-
= 57.5 gal/min 30 h 60 min/h ing rate) / [0.785 (dia.)2]
= 103,500 gal (~392 m3)
Height between HHLL and HLL ~ 3 in. 76 mm
Tank volume required = (Process
High high liquid level (HHLL) 7632.67 mm
Volume) 0.7
Free space above HHLL (minimum 500 mm) = Tank height HHLL 1,367.33 mm
= 103,500 0.7
= 147,857 gal (~560 m3) Percentage of filling achieved = HHLL/tank height 0.85 %

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 79


TABLE 4. EXAMPLE PROCESS DESIGN SHEET
Row Storage tank process datasheet Rev Issued Date Made Checked Approved
No. for by
1 Client: A1 Chemical Company Tag No.: T-1001 A Prelim- 1-Jan-16 KEPR SISA KOQU
inary
2 Project: Perfect project Job No.: 820918
3 Location: Houston
4 Service: To hold off-specification batch of olefin material
5 No. required: one (1) I.D.: 9 m Height: 9 m Orientation: Vertical
6 Design conditions Sketch
7 Internal pressure: (Opt.): 0.0361 psig Design: 0.2167 psig
8 External pressure: (Opt.): ATM Design: 0.0625 psig
9 Operating temperature: 110F Design: 150 F
10 Liquid stored: Light olefin (C6, C8, C10)
11 Specific gravity (Max.): 0.72 at 110F
12 Capacity (Working/Max.): 103,500 gal 147,857 gal
13 Roof type: (fixed/floating): Internal floating roof
14 Blanket gas: Nitrogen Vapor pressure @Tmax: 6 psi(a)
15 Code: API 650 Stamp: yes
16 Radiography: (1) Efficiency: (1)
17 Hydrotest:(shop/field): (1)
18 Stress relieve: (1)
19 Mag. particle: (1) Dye penetrant: (1)
20 Windload: (1) Earthquake: (1)
21 Weight (empty/full): (1)
22 Materials of construction
23 Component Basic material Corrosion allowance (in.)
24 Shell Killed carbon steel (2) 1/16
25 Roof Killed carbon steel (2) 1/16
26 Nozzle-MH / flanges Killed carbon steel (2) 1/16
27 Floor Killed carbon steel (2) 1/16
28 Boot Killed carbon steel (2) 1/16
29 Lining: N.A.
30 Gaskets: (1)
31 Bolting: (1)
32 Internals: Internal floating roof (3), jet mixer (4)
33 Roof support: (1)
34 Paint: (1)
35 Insulation: N.A.
36 Accessories
37 Insulation rings N.A.
38 Davit (1)
39 Pipe support rings (1)
40 Ladder and platform clips (1)
41 Internal piping (1)
42 Fire proofing clips (1)
43 Agitator N.A.
continued on next page
lated in Table 2, are acceptable. ized based on shell-plate lengths, standard sizes so as to reduce the
In general, tank heights do not ex- but tank heights are never standard- length of welded seam, loss of plate
ceed 1.5 times the tank diameter. As ized. To obtain an economical unit, material, amount of edge preparation
the tank height increases, the wall it is the tank manufacturer who will and the degree of handling during
thickness increases and a bigger choose the number of courses and erection. Shell heights are typically
load is imposed on the soil, thus re- plate widths to obtain the height re- rounded off to the nearest meter and
quiring heavier foundations. Often, for quired for a given diameter. Hence, a as far as possible, standard diame-
very large diameter tanks, L/D is kept process or mechanical design engi- ters are used. For this discussion, we
less than 1, leading to squatter tanks. neer does not necessarily specify the will consider an L/D of 1 and proceed
From a fire-fighting point of view, the number of shell-plate courses. The with our design.
maximum tank height considered is shell-plate sizes are generally kept as The initial dimensions quickly ob-
20 m. Tank diameters are standard- large as possible and within available tained from the table may be used
80 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
TABLE 4. (CONTINUED)
44 Nozzle Schedule
45 Mark Size Flange rating/face Service Mark No. Size Flange rating/face Service
46 A1 4 RF/150# Feed R1 1 Hold 1 RF/150# RVVB
47 B1 2 RF/150# Outlet P1 1 2 RF/150# Pressure tap
48 B2 2 RF/150# Sump outlet T1 1 1.5 RF/150# Temperature element
49 H1 20 (Hold 1) RF/150# Emergency vent T2 1 1.5 RF/150# Temperature indicator
50 H2 4 RF/150# Gage hatch
51 J1 6 RF/150# Jet mixer
52 L1 6 RF/150# Level transmitter
53 L2 6 RF/150# Level transmitter
54 M1 24 RF/150# Shell manway
55 M2 20 RF/150# Roof manway
56 M3 24 RF/150# IFR manway
57 N1 4 RF/150# Nitrogen
58 Notes:
59 1. Data by the mechanical-vessels group.
60 2. Material grade by the vessels group.
61 3. Internal floating-roof details by storage-tank vendor.
62 4. For details, see let mixer datasheet (Ref. Doc.: J-1001-PDS, Rev. A).
63 5. Nozzle A1 and B1 to be located on opposite sides of shell.
64 6. Nozzle N1 and H1 to be located on opposite sides of roof.
65 7. Suitable vacuum breaker (breather valve on rim vent) to be provided on roof when it rests at minimum.
66 8. The roof supports should be adjustable for minimum operating level from bottom and minimum level for manual cleaning.
67 9. Nozzles H2, L1 and L2 to be provided with stilling wells.
68
69 Holds
70 1. To be confirmed during detailed engineering. ATM = Atmosphere
71 2. Instrumentation group to confirm all instrument nozzle sizes. N.A. = Not applicable

for cost-estimation at a very early and safety may be affected; for ex- the jet mixer nozzle as 390.15 mm.
stage of the project. However, the ample, to provide sufficient NPSHA As a good engineering practice, LLLL
dimensions of the tank need to be (net positive suction head available) is set such that: 1) there is a minimum
firmed out as the project progresses for the pump, or to avoid surface clearance of at least 4 in. between
in design phases. Firming up a tank dry-out of the tanks internal heat- the internal floating roof and any in-
dimension or tank sizing involves ing coils. In most cases, the tangent ternal parts, such as jet mixer nozzle;
checking the following three steps: to the top of the tank-outlet nozzle and 2) the roof remains floating with
1. Accommodate process volume or is considered as the LLLL alarm. its supports at least 4 in. above the
the working volume in the tank. Above the LLLL, some buffer volume tank bottom. Also, based on experi-
2. Set tank overfill protection level is provided until LLL, to avoid dis- ence, it is assumed that the elevation
requirement (to permit operator turbing the process volume due to at the tip of the mixer nozzle inside
response). draw-out by the pump. Above LLL, the tank is 4 ft. Thus, the LLLL is set
3. Set minimum operating volume in the height equivalent to process vol- at an elevation at the tip of the mixer
the tank. ume is then accommodated to reach nozzle plus the minimum clearance
HLL. To prevent overfill of the tank, between the internal floating roof and
Setting alarms an operator-intervention time of 20 the jet mixer nozzle at 1,319 mm. LLL
The overfill-protection volume and minutes is considered and a height is then set 3 in. above LLLL.
the minimum-volume allocation can corresponding to this volume, or a
be best understood in terms of level minimum of 3 in., is added above Preparing the tank datasheet
alarm (LA) values stated in the data- HLL to attain HHLL. As a minimum, Once the sizing is done, we move to
sheet. Typically, four types of alarms HHLL should be set at least 500 mm preparation of the tank datasheet.
are set at the following levels (see below top of the tank. The datasheet may be considered as
Figure 2 and Table 3): For a fixed-roof tank, as explained, the owners permanent record for de-
LLLL low low liquid level we consider LLLL = 205.15 mm (at scribing a tank, and it is used to make
LLL low liquid level the tangent of 2 in. pump out nozzle) proposals and place subsequent
HLL high liquid level and then set the remaining alarms contracts for fabrication and erection
HHLL high high liquid level starting from this point. of the tank. This section explains the
Usually, levels are set above some However, for an IFRT that also has information to be placed in the data-
point of reference in the tank. First, an internal jet-mixer nozzle, we have sheet by the process engineer.
LLLL is set. It is the lowest liquid an additional approach to fix the lev- General instructions. This set of in-
level below which the operation els. We evaluate tangent to the top of structions are of a basic nature, but

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 81


nevertheless are equally important maintain a single process datasheet rate, angle and so on, can be given
as the detailed technical instructions. template that is created to contain in the datasheet itself or a reference
Also, they are commonly followed in only the data under process scope. of a separate datasheet may be
most engineering companies. This may be filled by the process en- given. Write notes 3 and 4.
Use the correct, applicable and gineer and passed on to the mechani- Row 3334. Data in these rows will
latest datasheet template cal engineer who may then use it to be filled by the mechanical-vessels
In no case should a line in a data- complete an API 650 datasheet or fill a group. Write note 1.
sheet be left blank. If you dont mechanical datasheet template to be Row 35. Insulation is not required in
have data for a particular param- used along with process datasheet. this case, so write N.A.
eter or it is not applicable, please For the sake of discussion, we con- Row 37. Not required in this case, so
put a dash or write N.A. (not ap- sider a simplified tank datasheet tem- write N.A.
plicable), respectively plate to be filled by a process engineer, Rows 38 and 42. Data in these rows
Marking N.A., TBC (to be con- shown in Table 4. This example data- will be filled by the mechanical-ves-
firmed), later or other such ter- sheet can be broken down as follows: sels group. Write note 1.
minology can be used. It should, Rows 13. Enter all identification Row 43. Not required in this case, so
however, be stated clearly in the data and fill the revision table. write N.A.
datasheet what this terminology Rows 45. Refer to process descrip- Rows 4657. Fill the nozzle
means tion and PFD to enter the service, schedule by referring to the P&ID,
Every numerical entry should be number of tanks required and orien- PFD, process description and calcu-
correct and have appropriate units tation. Tank dimension values to be lations, as well as the process part
stated. If a value is repeated (for given from the calculation. of the BDEP. The process nozzles
example, dia. in the datasheet and Rows 711. Operating conditions, A1, B1, B2, N1 and R1 require ac-
sketch), it should be updated at liquid stored and specific gravity can tual sizing. A1 is to be sized based
both places in case of any revision be filled referring to PFD and H&MB on the maximum inlet-liquid flow, B1
Document revision status should be stream data. Design conditions are and 2 are sized using rated pump
correctly entered, for example: typi- to be filled using process part of flow and pump-suction line-sizing
cal revision status entries include for BDEP or using DP/DT (design pres- criteria. Using inbreathing calcula-
quotation, bid, for design review, for sure/temperature) diagrams. If the tions N1 can be sized. R1 and H1
design revision and as-built tank stores multiple liquids (as ap- sizes to be confirmed later during
Document revision number should plicable in this case), then state the detail engineering. Instrument, vent
be correctly entered, for example: 1, highest specific gravity of the liquid and manway sizes will be filled using
2, 3 or A, B, C or A1, A2 and so on at operating temperature. project design basis.
Engineering notes and holds Rows 1213. Enter the capacities Finally, make a simple tank sketch
should be given at the end of the from calculation (Working capacity showing the dimensions, correct noz-
datasheet and their reference in (from LLL to HLL) and maximum ca- zle tags and positions required, alarm
the datasheet should be given at pacity (from bottom to HHLL)). Roof levels and all internals dotted. n
the correct place type can be entered by referring to the Edited by Gerald Ondrey
Sheet numbering should be cor- PFD and/or process part of the BDEP.
rectly done (for instance, sheet 1/5) Row 14. Refer to the process descrip- References
Once the datasheet is prepared, tion and PFD and enter the data for 1. GPSA Engineering Databook, 12th ed, Section 6
it should pass checking and ap- blanketing gas and vapor pressure. Storage, Figure.62: Storage, 2004.
proval cycles. Only then can it be Rows 1521. Data in these rows will 2. API 650, 12th ed., March 2013, Annex A, Tables A.1a
and A.3a.
issued for release be filled by the mechanical-vessels
Technical part. The process data group. Write note 1. 3. API 650, 12th ed., March 2013, Section 5 Design,
Table 5.6a.
entered in the API 650 datasheet is Rows 2428. State the basic mini-
4. API 650, 12th ed., March 2013, Section 4 Materials,
filled in by the process engineer, and mum material of construction. The Table 4.4a-
the mechanical data portion is com- correct grade will be specified by the
pleted by the mechanical engineer. mechanical engineer. Write note 2. Author
For instance, data like operating and If an alloy material is used, state the Prasanna Digamber Kenkre is a
design conditions, liquid density and type specifically (for example, do not principal process engineer with
Jacobs Engineering India Pvt. Ltd.
vapor pressure, tank diameter and write SS only, but write SS 316, and (Millenium Business Park, Build-
height, tank sketch, basic material so on). The corrosion allowance is to ing No.7, Sector-2, Mahape, Navi
of construction, nozzle schedule and be given by referring to the process Mumbai - 400710, India; Email:
so on are provided by a process en- part of the BDEP. prasanna.kenkre@jacobs.com).
He has 12 years of experience
gineer. Conversely, a mechanical en- Row 29. Lining is not required in this (national and international) in the
gineer supplies data like shell design case, so write N.A. field of process engineering and
method, plate width and thickness, Rows 3031. Data in these rows will design. Kenkre has worked in different phases of proj-
ects, including front-end engineering design (FEED)
plate stacking criteria, joint efficiency, be filled by the mechanical-vessels and detailed engineering, for global clients in several
nondestructive examination (NDE), group. Write note 1. sectors of the chemical process industries, such as
positive material identification (PMI) Row 32. State applicable tank inter- petroleum refining, petrochemicals, polymers and
chemicals. He also works with the health, safety and
design requirements and so on. nals. For the jet mixer, the details like environmental (HSE) (Safety in Design) department.
Some engineering companies material, number, dimensions, flow- Kenkre has published a number of technical articles.

82 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017


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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 83


Engineering Practice

Key Considerations in Specifying Control Valves


Follow this guidance to specify a control valve accurately during the design phase
Satyendra Kumar Singh at maximum flow may be greater P = y
Simon India Limited than 90% of the rated travel both
scenarios mean poor controllability

C
ontrol valves are one of of the valve. In that case, pressure
the most common and im- drop across the control valve should P1
A B
P2
portant instruments used be increased so that the target ratio
in the chemical process can be lowered, as shown in Equa-
industries (CPI). They help to en- tion (1). For incompressible fluids, P = x
sure smooth and efficient operation the ratio of maximum Cv to minimum
of process plants, by achieving the Cv is given by Equation (1): FIGURE 1. Shown here is a typical control valve
desired operating parameters by circuit, which is used illustratively in the descrip-
tions provided in the main text
means of regulating the fluid flow in
connected pipes. The need to prop-
erly specify control valves during the (1)
design phase of a plant cannot be (2)
overemphasized. Figure 1 shows a typical control
The size of a control valve is de- valve circuit. The following notes add From Equation (1) and Equation (2),
rived from a parameter called the further explanation: (Cv)max/(Cv)min is approximately:
flow coefficient (Cv), which is defined i. The segments represented by
as volumetric flowrate (in gal/min) P1A and BP2 represent items con-
of water through the valve at 60F nected to the valve (such as pipes,
when pressure drop across the valve fittings, heat exchangers, flow el-
is 1 psi (Cv is calculated using the ements, and more), whereas the (3)
formula given in the standard ISA- segment represented by AB rep-
75.01.01-2007). Process engineers resents the control valve in the
should take the following aspects complete circuit P1ABP2. The ar- The following conclusions can be
into consideration when specifying rows in this circuit represent flow drawn from Equation (3):
control valves, to ensure that the direction. iv. As r>1 and zx, any increase in
valves that are manufactured by the ii. P denotes pressure drop. y leads to decrease in the ratio
vendors function according to the iii. Indicated pressure drops are for (Cv)max/(Cv)min. That is, better
requirements. maximum flow. controllability can be achieved by
1. Controllability. While specifying Referring to Figure 1, if x is the increasing pressure drop across
a control valve during the design pressure drop across the control the control valve at maximum flow.
phase, the process engineer should valve circuit P1ABP2, and y is the (Note: z = x if P1 and P2 are fixed
ensure that the valves controllability pressure drop across the control pressure points, and in general z>x
must be good over the entire range valve AB for maximum flow, then the if the control valve is located at the
between minimum and maximum pressure drop in the remaining part discharge of a centrifugal pump
flowrates. This can be done by es- of the circuit (consisting of the pipes, v. If r increases, y also increases
timating the maximum Cv and mini- fittings, heat exchangers, flow ele- for the same ratio of (Cv)max to
mum Cv that correspond to maxi- ments and more; as represented by (Cv)min. This means that pressure
mum flowrate and minimum flowrate, the segments P1A and BP2) is xy drop across the control valve at
respectively. In general, the control- for maximum flow. maximum flow should increase
lability of a control valve is deemed If r is the ratio of maximum to with an increase in the ratio of
acceptable if its travel at maximum minimum flow, and z is the pressure maximum to minimum flow, if
flowrate does not exceed 90% of the drop across the circuit P1ABP2 at the same controllability has to
rated travel, and if travel at minimum minimum flow, then ignoring the be achieved.
flowrate is in the range of 1020% elevation difference between P1 and vi. In most common cases,
of the rated travel. This means the P2 pressure drop in the part of the maximum flow is 110%, and mini-
ratio of estimated maximum Cv to circuit other than the control valve mum flow is 50%, of normal flow.
estimated minimum Cv should pref- (that is, P1A and BP2) at minimum In such cases, if pressure drop
erably not be more than 15. If the flow is approximately = (xy)/r2. across the circuit P1ABP2 remains
ratio far exceeds this value, travel Pressure drop across the con- same for maximum and minimum
at minimum flow may be less than trol valve AB at minimum flow is flows, then Equation (3) becomes
10% of the rated travel, or the travel approximately: the following:
84 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 85
(Cv)max/(Cv)min is approximately = TABLE 1: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS TYPES OF CONTROL VALVES [1 ]
[1 + (3.84x/y)]0.5, which implies that Parameter Type of the control valve
(Cv)max/(Cv)min is approximately Butterfly valve Ball valve Globe valve
3.5, for an x/y value of 3.0. A (Cv) Cost Low Low High
max/(Cv)min value close to 3.5 cor- Pressure drop Low Low High
responds to reasonably good con- Flow capacity High High Low
trollability. Hence, it can be said
Flow characteristic Fixed (approximately Fixed. For V-notch ball Any of the three (linear,
that for good controllability, pres- equal percentage) valve, flow characteristic equal percentage, quick
sure drop across the control valve is equal percentage opening), depending on
should be approximately one third plug or cage design
of total dynamic pressure drop Liquid pressure recovery Low Low High
across the circuit at maximum flow, factor (FL)
if maximum and minimum flow are Cavitation potential High (due to low FL) High (due to low FL) Low (due to high FL)
110% and 50%, respectively, of Noise potential High High Low. Can be reduced
normal flow. further by using cage
guided plug
Although Equation (3) is true for
incompressible fluid, the above re- Control range Low In-between for V-notch High
ball valve
sults in general are reasonably true
Control type Throttling and on-off On-off. However, V-notch Throttling
for compressible fluid, as well. ball valves have good
2. Cavitation. When fluid is flowing throttling capability, too
through a control valve, the mini- Rangeability Low V-notch ball valves have High
mum pressure occurs at the vena very high rangeability
contracta, and then pressure in-
creases along the path of flow until P2 = Absolute pressure at the outlet in an exchanger in the control
the fluid reaches the outlet of the of the control valve valve circuit, the control valve
control valve. The vena contracta is FL = Liquid pressure-recovery factor, should be located upstream of
the point in the flow path where the as defined by: the exchanger not down-
flow area is minimum, the veloc- 0.5 stream so that vapor pressure
ity is maximum and, hence, pres- FL = [(P P2 ) /(P1 PVC )] of the liquid is sufficiently less
sure is minimum [1]. For liquids, if than the operating pressure at
the pressure at the vena contracta Pvc = Absolute pressure at the vena the vena contracta of the control
is less than the vapor pressure of contracta valve. This will eliminate flashing
the liquid, vapor bubbles will form. FF = Liquid critical pressure ratio fac- through the control valve.
Downstream of the vena contracta, tor iii. Locate the control valve in the
pressure recovery takes place, re- FF = 0.960.28 (Pv / Pc)0.5 circuit where the elevation is mini-
sulting in higher pressure at the Pc = Absolute thermodynamic criti- mum so that static head is maxi-
valve outlet than at the vena con- cal pressure of the liquid mum. This will maximize P1 as well
tracta. If pressure at the outlet of Pv = Absolute vapor pressure of the as P2 without impacting (P1P2).
the control valve exceeds the vapor liquid at inlet temperature That can make the left-hand term
pressure, the vapor condenses The exact value of FL for a particu- in Equation (4) less than the right-
and bubbles collapse. As bubbles lar valve can only be available in the hand term and, hence, prevent
collapse, it causes impact on the valve vendors specifiction sheet, but cavitation.
valve body and creates noise. This an indicative value can be obtained iv.Select a control valve body type
phenomenon is called cavitation. from the vendor catalog, from ISA- with higher pressure-recovery
Full cavitation occurs when pres- 75.01.01-2007, or from other con- factor (FL), which makes critical
sure drop across the control valve trol valve literature during the design pressure drop for cavitation
is more than or equal to certain phase. that is, FL2(P1FF PV) higher.
minimum pressure drop (or critical Process engineers should try to For example, a globe valve has
pressure drop), and the pressure minimize the possibility of cavitation a higher FL than that of butterfly
at the outlet of the control valve is when specifying control valves. This and ball valves. Thus, the use of
more than the vapor pressure of can be done in the following ways: a globe valve (instead of a butter-
the liquid. Thus, full cavitation oc- i. Alter the hydraulics of the control fly or ball valve) might prevent the
curs if the following conditions are valve circuit and reduce the pres- cavitation.
met [2]: sure drop across the control valve It is absolutely necessary to specify
to less than FL2(P1FFPV), where the thermodynamic critical pressure
P FL 2 ( P1 FF PV ) (4) possible (as explained above), and vapor pressure of the liquid in
without compromising the control- the process datasheet of a control
lability of the valve. valve handling a liquid, so that the
P = P1 P2 ii. Try to change the location of the occurrence of the cavitation can
control valve such that the possi- be assessed. Full cavitation re-
Where: bility of flashing through the con- sults in choked flow and hap-
P1 = Absolute pressure at the inlet of trol valve can be avoided. For ex- pens if P FL2 (P1FFPv). How-
the control valve ample, if a liquid is being heated ever, partial cavitation can occur
86 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
without causing choked flow, if excessive noise. Noise can be mini- The type of flow characteristic
pressure drop is less than criti- mized with a globe valve with the should be specified in the process
cal pressure drop but greater than use of cage-guided trim. However, datasheet, considering the param-
Pincipient cavitation [2],where: if the available pressure drop across eter to be controlled, or the pres-
the valve is low, then a butterfly sure drop scenario in the system.
Pincipient cavitation = valve may be the preferred choice. For flow or level control, linear char-
Meanwhile, V-notch ball valves acteristic should generally be speci-
= KC ( P1 FF PV ) can be preferred where high range- fied. In general, linear characteristic
ability is required. Standard, round- should also be specified if most of
Where: ported ball valves are generally used the pressure drop (as a proportion of
Kc = The coefficient of incipient cavi- for on-off applications. Table 1 pro- total pressure drop in the system) is
tation, which is less than FL [2]. vides valve-selection guidelines. across the valve itself so that pres-
3. Multiple operating cases. 5. Leakage class. The allowable sure drop across the valve remains
Whereas a control valve is gen- control valve seat leakage is spec- nearly constant for varying flow-
erally specified for three cases ified in terms of ANSI/FCI 70-02- rates. Equal-percentage character-
minimum, normal and maxi- 2006 leakage class. This standard istic should be specified for pressure
mum flowrates, with correspond- recognizes six classes of allow- control, or where a high proportion
ing pressure drop there may be able seat leakage (Class I, II, III, IV, of the total pressure drop occurs
more than three operating cases. V and VI). Class I means highest in the system other than the valve
In such situations, normal flowrate allowable leakage; Class VI means (that is, in pipes, fittings, equipment
and corresponding pressure drop least allowable leakage [3]. Gener- and so on). It should also be speci-
should be specified in accordance ally, control valves for CPI applica- fied where pressure drop across
with the normal operating case, tions are specified with leakage the valve varies with varying flow-
whereas other operating cases (if Class IV. However, in situations rate. A quick-opening characteristic
there are more than two) should where tight shutoff is required, at should be specified for on-off appli-
be narrowed down to two cases. least Class V should be specified. cations. As in most of the common
When narrowing down the operat- If a control valve is discharging to systems, pressure drop across the
ing cases, Cv should be estimated a flare, or is controlling (on-off) fuel control valve varies significantly with
for each case. Then, minimum and flow to the burner of a fired heater flowrate, so equal-percentage flow
maximum flowrates (and corre- or furnace, it should be specified characteristics are most commonly
sponding pressure drops) should with Class VI leakage. specified [1]. n
be specified in such a way that 6. Flow characteristics. The most Edited by Suzanne Shelley
they correspond to the minimum common types of inherent flow char-
and maximum Cv of the control acteristics are the following [1]: References
valve, and the Cv corresponding to Linear A valve with an ideal 1. Emerson Process Management, Control Valve Hand-
all other cases should lie between linear inherent flow characteris- book, 4th Ed., p. 18, pp. 3336, p. 46, pp. 5960, pp.
109110, p. 136.
minimum Cv and maximum Cv. As tic produces a flowrate that is di-
2. Masoneilan Handbook for Control Valve Sizing, 7th Ed.,
actual Cv is not available when a rectly proportional to the amount pp. 78, p. 10, 1987.
control valve is specified, the esti- of valve plug travel, throughout the 3. American National Standard, Control Valve Seat Leakage,
mated Cv should be used. travel range. ANSI/FCI 70-2-2006, Cleveland, Fluid Controls Institute,
4. Selection of type of valve. But- Equal percentage Ideally, for Inc., p. 2, 2006.
terfly valves, which are compact and equal increments of valve plug
generally have a relatively low cost, travel, the change in flowrate re- Author
are often the first choice. However, garding travel may be expressed Satyendra Kumar Singh is the
constraints may dictate otherwise. as a constant percent of the flow- general manager (Head of Depart-
For instance, if high pressure drop rate at the time of the change. ment) Process for Simon India
across the valve is required, a globe Quick opening A valve with Limited (Mehtab House, A-36,
Ground Floor, Mohan Co-operative
valve may be the better choice. quick-opening flow characteris- Industrial Estate, New Delhi-
Because the resistance of a globe tic provides a maximum change 110044, India; Email: sty_singh@
valve is higher than that of a butterfly in flowrate at low travel rates. A yahoo.com; satyendra.singh@
adventz.simonindia.com). He has
valve, higher pressure drop can be quick-opening characteristic is more than 24 years of experience
obtained across a globe valve with basically linear through the first in engineering consultancy and engineering procure-
reasonable size. 40% of valve plug travel (corre- ment construction in the fields of petroleum refining,
petrochemicals, chemicals, oil-and-gas, and ammonia.
In liquid applications, high pres- sponding to 70% of maximum Singh holds a Bachelor of Technology (Honors) degree
sure drop could lead to cavitation. flowrate), and there is little in- in chemical technology from Harcourt Butler Techno-
As the pressure-recovery factor of crease in flowrate with further in- logical Institute (Kanpur, India), and an Masters of Busi-
globe valves tends to be higher than crease in plug travel. ness Administration from Indira Gandhi National Open
University (New Delhi, India). He is a Chartered Engineer
that of other valve styles, cavitation The flow characteristic of a valve de- (India), and a Fellow of The Institution of Engineers
can often be avoided with the use of pends on its trim design. While ball (India); and has published numerous papers on man-
globe valves. valves and butterfly valves have fixed agement and engineering subjects.
In the case of gases, high pres- characteristics, globe valves can
sure drop could lead to choking have any of the three characteristics,
flow conditions, which can generate depending on plug or cage design.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 87


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Advertisers Index
Advertiser............. Page number Advertiser............. Page number Advertiser............. Page number
Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service #

Abbe, Paul O .........................37 John Zink Hamworthy Ross, Charles


1-855-789-9827 Combustion ............................17 & Son Company .......................9
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-28 1-918-234-1800 1-800-243-ROSS
American Fuel and Petrochemical adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-24 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-12
Manufacturers (AFPM) ............62 Load Controls ........................54 Saint Gobain Ceramics ..........47
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-05 1-888-600-3247 1-716-278-6233
AUMA Riester GmbH adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-25 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-34
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adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-06 1-630-969-4000 +49 711 5105-0
*AUMA Riester GmbH adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-26 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-35
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adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-14
Classiied Index March 2017
Drger Safety ........................ C4 Advertiser Page number Consulting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-15 Phone number Reader Service #
Dynamic Air ........................... C2 Equipment,
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adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-16 1-888-853-5444
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-242 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Ekato Process
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1-201-825-4684 x222 1-301-919-9670
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-243
Advertiser Page number
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-17 Phone number Reader Service #
Emcor Group ...........................3 Genck International ................88
1-281-951-2500 1-708-748-7200 Vesconite Bearings ................89
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-18 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-244 1-866-635-7596
Endress+Hauser, Inc. ...............4 Indeck Power Equipment adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-247
1-888-ENDRESS Company ...............................89 Visimix ....................................88
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-19 1-800-446-3325 +972 52 383 4174
Federal Equipment Co ............71 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-245 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-248
1-877-536-1538 Neuhaus Neotec ....................88 Wabash Power
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-20
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-201 Equipment Co ........................88
Frewitt ....................................83 Ross, Charles 1-800-704-2002
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-01 & Son Company .....................89 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-249
GEA Group .............................. 11 1-800-243-ROSS Xchanger, Inc. ........................88
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GEM Valves, Inc. ...............45d Tri-Mer Corporation ...............89 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-250
1-678-553-3400 1-989-321-2991
adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-22 adlinks.chemengonline.com/66426-246

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017 91


Economic Indicators
2015 2016 2017

Download the CEPCI two weeks sooner at www.chemengonline.com/pci

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI)


625

(1957-59 = 100) Dec. '16 Nov. '16 Dec. '15 Annual Index:
Prelim. Final Final
2008 = 575.4 600
CE Index ______________________________________________ 550.8 546.6 537.0
Equipment ____________________________________________ 660.9 654.1 641.1 2009 = 521.9
Heat exchangers & tanks _________________________________ 573.7 567.6 556.0
2010 = 550.8 575
Process machinery _____________________________________ 667.1 663.5 649.2
Pipe, valves & fittings ____________________________________ 833.9 818.9 791.3 2011 = 585.7
Process instruments ____________________________________ 397.0 394.0 381.2 2012 = 584.6 550
Pumps & compressors ___________________________________ 973.5 966.0 965.0
Electrical equipment ____________________________________ 512.1 510.7 507.7 2013 = 567.3
Structural supports & misc ________________________________ 713.9 707.9 703.0 2014 = 576.1 525
Construction labor _______________________________________ 324.2 326.1 321.6
Buildings _____________________________________________ 547.0 546.0 536.6 2015 = 556.8
Engineering & supervision _________________________________ 314.1 313.5 316.2 500
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Starting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have been converted to
accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO


CPI output index (2012 = 100) ____________________________________________________ Jan. '17 = 101.9 Dec. '16 = 101.2 Nov. '16 = 101.3 Jan. '16 = 101.9
CPI value of output, $ billions _____________________________________________________ Dec. '16 = 1,860.7 Nov. '16 = 1,785.0 Oct. '16 = 1,780.7 Dec. '15 = 1,734.2
CPI operating rate, % __________________________________________________________ Jan. '17 = 74.8 Dec. '16 = 74.3 Nov. '16 = 74.4 Jan. '16 = 74.9
Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) ____________________________________ Jan. '17 = 241.9 Dec. '16 = 239.2 Nov. '16 = 239.8 Jan. '16 = 223.6
Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2012=100)* ____________________________________ Jan. '17 = 103.8 Dec. '16 = 103.5 Nov. '16 = 103.3 Jan. '16 = 103.4
Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) ____________________________ Jan. '17 = 168.1 Dec. '16 = 170.5 Nov. '16 = 169.5 Jan. '16 = 160.5
Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) ______________________________ Jan. '17 = 103.0 Dec. '16 = 102.6 Nov. '16 = 102.0 Jan. '16 = 103.0

CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ BILLIONS) CPI OPERATING RATE (%)
110 2300 80

105
2200 78
100
2100
95 76
2000
90
74
1900
85
72
80 1800

75 1700 70
J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D

*Due to discontinuance, the Index of Industrial Activity has been replaced by the Industrial Production in Manufacturing index from the U.S. Federal Reserve Board.
For the current months CPI output index values, the base year was changed from 2000 to 2012
Current business indicators provided by Global Insight, Inc., Lexington, Mass.

CURRENT TRENDS

T he preliminary value for the December


CE Plant Cost Index (CEPCI; top; the
most recent available) was higher than
EXCLUSIVE AD SPACE AVAILABLE! the previous months value by a signfi-
Feature your marketing message alongside this two-page editorial department cant margin for the second consecutive
month. The jump was due to a rise in
Each issue includes editorial departments that feature the latest business news, the Equipment subindex, along with in-
current industry trends and the Plant Cost Index. As one of the most valued sections creases in the Buildings and Engineering
in the magazine, your ad is guaranteed to reach decision makers each month. Ad & Supervision subindices. The Construc-
runs opposite Cover 3 within the Economic Indicators department. tion Labor subindex saw a small decline.
The preliminary December 2016 CEPCI
Contact your sales representative for more information: value stands at 2.6% higher than the cor-
responding value from December 2015.
This continues a months-long trend of
JASON BULLOCK TERRY DAVIS PETRA TRAUTES higher year-over-year values. Meanwhile,
jbullock@chemengonline.com tdavis@chemengonline.com ptrautes@accessintel.com
713-974-0911 404-634-5123 +49 69 58604760
the latest Current Business Indicators
27206 (CBI; middle) for January 2017 saw small
increases in the CPI Output Index and the
Productivity Index.
92 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHEMENGONLINE.COM MARCH 2017
S I NCE 1915

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