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Test

1

X 1

X a

Geometric arn arn = if |r| < 1; diverges if |r| 1.

Series 1 r

n=0 n=0

Necessary

All series If lim an 6= 0, then the series diverges.

Condition n!1

Test

an = f (n) 1

X Z 1

fZ is continuous, positive and decreasing. an and f (x) dx

Integral 1 1

n=1

Test f (x) dx is easy to compute. both converge or both diverge.

1

1

X 1

p-series Converges for p > 1; diverges for p 1.

np

n=1

1

X 1

X

If bn converges, then an converges.

n=1 n=1

Comparison 0 a n bn 1 1

X X

Test If an diverges, then bn diverges

n=1 n=1

1

X 1

X

Limit Com- an an and bn

an , bn > 0 and lim = L (0 < L < 1)

parison n!1 bn n=1 n=1

Test both converge or both diverge.

If bn > 0, 8n

1

{bn } is decreasing

X

Alternating ( 1)n bn , bn > 0 lim bn = 0

n!1

Series Test n=1 1

X

Then ( 1)n bn is convergent.

n=1

1

X 1

X

Series with some positive terms and some

Absolute If |an | converges, then an converges

negative terms (including alternating

Conver- n=1 n=1

series) (absolutely).

gence

an+1

For lim = L (including L = 1),

n!1 an

X1

Ratio Test exponentials and/or factorials) n=1

X1

If L > 1, then an diverges

n=1

If L = 1, then we can draw no conclusion.

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