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Reflection of water waves

1. Concrete protection
Concrete or barrier walls
are built to reflect sea
waves and protect the
shore from erosion

2. Optical fibres
Reflect light waves to
transmit information

3. Endoscope
Can display a full colour of
Use to examine internal
Reflection of sound waves organs
1. Echoes Enable operations without
Produce by the reflection cutting big holes
of sound waves on the
hard reflecting surfaces
Used to measure the
speed of the sound in air

4. Radar system () in air

Works on the reflection of
Reflection of light waves Transmit waves at high
1. Rear reflectors on cars frequency
Used to determine the range,
and cycles
angle or velocity of objects
Contain many tiny prisms
Use total internal
reflection to send light
back to the opposite
bend away from it
(energy of wave spreads
to a wider area).
The amplitude of the
water wave is low.
The wave energy focused
at the headlands.
The sea near the
Refraction of light waves headlands is more
1. Convex lenses choppy and more
Used to correct dangerous.
hypermetropia The sea near the bay is
(long-sightedness) suitable for swimming as
2. Concave lenses the wave energy diverge
Used to correct myopia away from the bay.

Refraction of water waves

1. The wave fronts in the
sea follow the shape of
The depth of sea
gradually decreases
towards the shore/ coast.
When the water waves Hotel and resort are built
approach the shore, the near the bay.
water is shallower.
Refraction occurs and the
wave fronts are refracted.
The speed and the
wavelength of water
wave decreases.
The direction of the wave
fronts bend towards the
headland and away from
the bay.
The sea near the bay is
calmer as the sea waves
The waves are calmer
3. Height
Built at high position
The waves will not
4. Shape
Built in bow shape
To reflect the waves from
the shore
5. Gap
Diffraction of radio waves
Waves passing through
Shorter wavelength TV
the gap carry only a
and FM radio do not
small portion energy with
diffract much.
Long wavelength of radio
waves diffract easily over
Houses will get reception
of long wave radio
instead of TV and FM

Diffraction of sound waves

Diffraction of water waves

Sea walls in a Harbour jetty
1. Structure of walls
Tough concrete wall
Built closer to the
harbour to protect the The cleaner standing at
ship from ruined caused the point where he
by strong waves cannot see the radio
2. Location (beyond his vision) still
Built in front of/ near the can hear the sound from
bay it due to diffraction of
sound waves by the wall prevent production of
corner. counterfeit cards.

3. Destructive interference
in Aviation
Microphones are used to
detect sound in the cabin
and the information is fed
into a small computer.
Computer will generate
sound that will interfere
Applications of interference of destructively with the
waves in daily life sound in the cabin and
1. Hologram the cabin becomes
Development on quieter.
photographic film to
produce photographs
that are three-

4. Compact disc
Used to store music nd
data in coded form
2. Hologram in credit cards theough the thousands of
Credit cards have tiny pits on the surface.
reflection holograms When light shine on the
printed on them for surface, diffraction and
improved security and to interference occur to
produce multi-colour Signals are processed
patterns. electronically to produce
an image on the screen.
5. Headphone
2. Navigate, locate prey and
Dolphins use ultrasound
(150 Hz) for
communication and
Elephants and
rhinoceroses use
Noise-cancelling headphone infrasound to
reduce unwanted sounds communicate.
(noise) by generating
antinoise sound wave with
3. Cleaning of jewellery
thw opposite polarity to the
sound wave arriving at the
Opticians and goldsmiths
microphone. This results in use ultrasound to clean
destructive interference spectacles, jewellery and
which cancels out the noise ornaments. The water
and the user enjoys the used for the cleaning
music without raising the purpose is vibrated by
volume unnecessarily.
The vibrations shake off
Applications of sound waves
dirt attached to these
1. Ultrasound scanning
Used to check the
development of foetuses 4. Navigation of bat
or detect tumor in patient A bat can navigate in
body complete darkness by
Transmitters send emitting very high-
ultrasonic waves into the pitched sound waves in
body. the ultrasonic range.
Bone, fat and muscle all When these waves hit an
reflect ultrasonic waves object, they are reflected
differently. back and received by the
The time between the sends the information to
emission of the sound a C.R.O.
waves and the reception The C.R.O. displays the
of the reflected waves information on its screen.
enables the bat to
estimate the position of 6. Killing of bacteria
object accurately. Bacteria, particularly
those in sewage, can be
5. Detect flaws in a piece of disintegrated (killed) by
metal using ultrasonic waves.
An ultrasonic transmitter
sends out pulses of 7. Detect cracks in metal
ultrasound in the metal. Ultrasonic waves are sent

A receiver picks up the through the metal blocks

echoes from different and if there are cracks,
parts of the metal and the waves are reflected
back and the cracks can
be detected.