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# HYDRAULIC TURBINE LABORATORY

## PELTON WHEEL TURBINE

Objective
The performance characteristics of a Pelton wheel hydraulic turbine are to be determined.
Specifically, torque and power are to be presented as a function of turbine speed.
Theoretically a Pelton Wheel turbine is most efficient when the speed of its buckets is half the
speed of its water jet. The purpose of this laboratory experiment is to verify this prediction

Apparatus
A Pelton wheel with the following parts is employed to do this experiment. Figure 1 shows the
wheel and its main components.
Figure 1 Pelton turbine components

## Figure 2 Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up

Figure 2 shows us a schematic diagram of the experimental set-up. A water pump drives water
through a nozzle which creates a jet within the turbine body. The water jet hits the turbine
buckets and the exchange of momentum causes the rotation. The brake power of the turbine is
measured by a torque meter. Flow rate of water and pressure at the nozzle are measured using a
V notch flow meter and a pressure gauge and a handheld tachometer

Theory
The Pelton Wheel is a turbine used to convert fluid energy to mechanical energy. The pressure
due to head of water in a reservoir above the turbine is converted into kinetic energy in the form
of a jet, which then impinges on a series of targets mounted on a wheel transferring energy from
the water into rotation of the wheel. For historical reasons, the type of turbine which operates
with a jet of water at atmospheric pressure is known as impulse turbine. The targets on the
rotating wheel are known as buckets, and the assembly of the wheel and buckets is called the
runner. Theoretically a Pelton Wheel turbine is most efficient when the speed of its buckets is
half the speed of its water jet. The purpose of this laboratory work is to check this prediction. For
the laboratory experiment you will use just one flow rate of water and one jet speed. You will
adjust the load on the turbine with a brake. You will adjust the load on the turbine with a brake.
You will measure shaft rotational speed N using an optical tachometer and brake load L using a
mercury bellow.
For a Pelton Wheel the jet speed is:
V= C v (2gh) = C v (2P/) = 0.97(2P/)
And the bucket speed is u= r. Its theoretical power is:
C = Q( V-u)(1-kcos) u
The derivative of power with respect to turbine speed yields:
dC/du=0 u=V/2
JET SPEED V=0.97(2P/)
BUCKET SPEED u=r
BRAKE TORQUE T = RL
ROTOR SPEED =2N/60
BRAKE POWER A =T
AVAILABLE POWER B=PQ
POWER C = Q( V-u)(1-kcos) u
ANGLE =165 FACTOR k=0.8
Where :
r = distance from the axis of rotation down to the center of the bucket and jet
u = bucket speed
V = jet speed
Q = volumetric flow rate of water
N = shaft speed
L = brake load
A = brake power
C = theoretical power
D = pump motor brake power
B = available power
=165 and k=0.8: k accounts for friction losses.
Experimental Procedure

STEP1: Use a ruler to estimate r, the distance from the axis of rotation down to the
centre of the bucket and jet. This is needed to calculate the bucket speed u. Use a ruler to also
estimate R the distance from the axis of rotation out to the center of load bellow.
This is needed to calculate brake torque.

STEP2: Turn on turbine and set the jet speed. Wait till transients settle. Then record P, the
pressure in the pipe from which the jet flows. This allows you to calculate the jet speed (V).Also
record Q the volumetric flow rate of water using V notch weir. P and Q give you flow power.

STEP3: Adjust the brake and record (1) the shaft speed N and (2) the brake load L.
Repeat this step for many different closely spaced brake settings.
Calculate the brake power A and the theoretical power C. Also calculate the available power B.
Construct plots A/B and C/B versus u/V. Comment on plots. Measure the pump motor brake
power D compare with available power B. Note that the available power in the flow is B=PQ.
The brake power is A=T. The brake torque is T=RL. The rotor speed is = N/60 2 if N is in
RPM.

## Record the following

R = 0.160(m) r =0.06(m) Q= P=
Pump Speed = Pump Bellows Load =
Reduce Shaft Speed by approximately 150-200 rpm for each step. Start brake at full open.