Design Folder Main Pumping Station

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Design Folder Main Pumping Station

© All Rights Reserved

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OF

MPS

AT

AT FARUKHNAGAR

CLIENT:

EXECUTIVE ENGINEER, PHED

FARUKHNAGAR (GURGAON)

SUBMITTED BY:

953, SECTOR 23, HUDA BHIWANI

EMAIL: - msmahalaxmibwn@gmail.com

DESIGN BASIS

Density of Concrete = 25

Beams : 45 mm

Columns : 45 mm

Foundations : 50 mm

Page 2

DESIGN OF WALLS

Page 3

DESIGN OF WALL W1 Location: PIPE GALLERY OUTER LONG WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Earth 214.280 0.30 0.52 15.67 Cantilever Wall

Fill 2 Earth 214.500 0.52 0.52 15.67 Cantilever Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 1.52 Design Height of Wall (m) = 0.52

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 1.52

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 7.16 on Fill 2 face: 7.16

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Earth 0.111 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

Provided thickness 150 150 - - Taper = One side

Page 5

Cantilever Wall -

Moment coefficients assumed to be same at edge, quarter point and mid-point

Multiplier = k' * r * (HOF - Ht of ref point from bottom)^3

3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 1 = 0.111

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

1.52

0.52 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.39 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.26 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.0 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01

0.13 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.1 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02

0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.3 -0.05 -0.05 -0.05

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

1.52 150 180

0.52 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending Page 6 180

0.39 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180

0.26 -0.01 0.00 150 -0.01 Bending 180

0.13 -0.02 0.00 150 0.00 37 -0.02 Bending 180

0.00 -0.05 0.00 150 0.00 37 -0.05 Bending 180

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

1.52 180

0.52 112 0.00 - - 180

0.39 112 0.00 31 - 180

0.26 112 0.01 0 - 180

0.13 112 0.03 0.00 1 - 180

0.00 112 0.07 0.00 2 - 180

Section in Bending

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

1.52 180

0.52 112 0.00 - - 180

0.39 112 0.00 - - 180

0.26 112 0.00 - - 180

0.13 112 0.00 - - 180 Page 7

0.00 112 0.00 - - 180

Cantilever Wall -

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

1.52

0.52 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

0.39 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

0.26 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.1 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02 -

0.13 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.4 -0.06 -0.06 -0.06 -

0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.8 -0.14 -0.14 -0.14 -

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

1.52 150 180

0.52 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180

0.39 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180

0.26 0.00 -0.02 150 -0.02 Bending 180

0.13 0.00 -0.06 150 0.00 37 -0.06 Bending 180

0.00 0.00 -0.14 150 0.00 37 -0.14 Bending 180

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Page 8

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

1.52 180

0.52 112 0.00 - - 180

0.39 112 0.00 31 - 180

0.26 112 0.03 31 - 180

0.13 112 0.09 0.00 31 - 180

0.00 112 0.21 0.00 31 - 180

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

1.52 180

0.52 112 0.00 31 - 180

0.39 112 0.00 31 - 180

0.26 112 0.00 31 - 180

0.13 112 0.00 31 - 180

0.00 112 0.00 31 - 180

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

1.52 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.52 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.39 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.26 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.13 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.00 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

1.52 180 180 180 180

0.52 180 180 180 180

0.39 180 180 180 180Page 9

0.26 180 180 180 180

0.13 180 180 180 180

0.00 180 180 180 180

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

1.52 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.52 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.39 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.26 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.13 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

0.00 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Cantilever Wall -

1 m length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge

Shear = 1 * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = 1)

Pressure of the fill = k' * r * (HOF - h) ; h = height from bottom, k' and r are for the respective fills

Shear at corner & mid-pt of bottom edge

Shear = 0.5 * k' * r * HOF^2 = 0.5 * HOF * Pressure of fill (Coefficient = 0.5 * HOF)

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

1.52

0.52 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 112

0.39 Side edge 0.15 1.000 0.15 150 112

0.26 Side edge 0.30 1.000 0.30 150 112

0.13 Side edge 0.45 1.000 0.45 150 112

0.00 Corner - bottom edge 0.61 -0.260 -0.16 150 112

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 0.61 0.260 0.16 150 112

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max Page 10

Ht from Nominal Shear

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

1.52

0.52 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.39 0.15 0.23 0.002 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.26 0.30 0.45 0.004 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.13 0.45 0.68 0.006 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.00 0.16 0.24 0.002 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.00 0.16 0.24 0.002 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

1.52

0.52 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 112

0.39 Side edge 0.78 1.000 0.78 150 112

0.26 Side edge 1.56 1.000 1.56 150 112

0.13 Side edge 2.34 1.000 2.34 150 112

0.00 Corner - bottom edge 3.12 -0.260 -0.81 150 112

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 3.12 0.260 0.81 150 112

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

1.52

0.52 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.39 0.78 1.17 0.010 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.26 1.56 2.34 0.021 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.13 2.34 3.51 0.031 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.00 0.81 1.22 0.011 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

0.00 0.81 1.22 0.011 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)

Page 11

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

1.52

0.52 150 Bending 0.00 279 279

0.39 150 Bending 0.00 279 279

0.26 150 Bending 0.01 279 279

0.13 150 Bending 0.02 0.00 279 279

0.00 150 Bending 0.05 0.00 279 279

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 38

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 12

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1615 0.0

0.2 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1613 Page 13 0.0

0.7 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1608 0.0

1.6 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1598 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 14

DESIGN OF WALL W2 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER LONG WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Earth 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.55 Design Height of Wall (m) = 7.55

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.55

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 2.00 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

Height from bottom 0.00 1.29 8.55 - Height above BOF = 8.55

Provided thickness 450 450 200.00 - Taper = One side

Page 16

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

8.55

7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 4518.9 0.00 0.00 0.00

5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 4518.9 0.54 0.00 -5.06

3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 4518.9 10.65 5.06 -9.58

1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 4518.9 19.69 5.60 -5.60

0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 4518.9 -72.63 -39.92 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281

5.66 -5.06 0.54 299 -5.06 Bending Page 17 359

3.78 -9.58 10.65 364 -9.58 Bending 437

1.89 -5.60 19.69 429 0.00 162 -5.60 Bending 515

0.00 -72.63 0.00 450 0.00 172 -72.63 Bending 540

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 181 0.00 - - 281

5.66 246 7.59 71 - 359

3.78 311 14.36 107 - 437

1.89 376 8.39 0.00 51 - 515

0.00 397 108.95 0.00 649 - 649

Section in Bending

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 196 0.00 - - 281

5.66 261 0.81 7 - 359

3.78 326 15.98 113 - 437

1.89 391 29.54 175 - 515

0.00 412 0.00 - - 540 Page 18

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

8.55

7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 4518.9 6.13 0.54 -11.73

5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 4518.9 24.21 5.06 -21.85

3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 4518.9 29.27 5.60 -44.98

1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 4518.9 27.65 5.60 -34.86

0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 4518.9 -14.63 -9.58 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 -11.73 6.13 234 - 64 -11.73 Bending 281

5.66 -21.85 24.21 299 - 97 -21.85 Bending 359

3.78 -44.98 29.27 364 - 129 -44.98 Bending 437

1.89 -34.86 27.65 429 - 162 -34.86 Bending 515

0.00 0.00 -14.63 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 19

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 181 17.60 0.00 228 - 281

5.66 246 32.77 0.00 313 - 359

3.78 311 67.47 0.00 512 - 512

1.89 376 52.30 0.00 324 - 515

0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 196 0.00 - - 281

5.66 261 0.00 - - 359

3.78 326 0.00 - - 437

1.89 391 0.00 - - 515

0.00 412 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55 281 281

7.55 181 0.00 0 281 196 9.20 109 281

5.66 246 0.00 0 359 261 36.32 326 359

3.78 311 0.00 0 437 326 43.90 314 437

1.89 376 0.00 0 515 391 41.48 246 515

0.00 397 21.95 128 540 412 0.00 0 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

8.55

7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2579.6 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 2579.6 0.31 0.00 -2.89 -

3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 2579.6 6.08 2.89 -5.47 -

1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 2579.6 11.24 3.19 -3.19 -

0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 2579.6 -41.46 -22.79 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281

5.66 0.31 -2.89 299 -2.89 Bending 359

3.78 6.08 -5.47 364 -5.47 Bending 437

1.89 11.24 -3.19 429 0.00 177 -3.19 Bending 515

0.00 0.00 -41.46 450 0.00 187 -41.46 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 196 0.00 - - 281

5.66 261 4.33 40 - 359

3.78 326 8.20 53 - 437

1.89 391 4.79 0.00 26 - 515

0.00 412 62.19 0.00 348 - 540

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 21

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 181 0.00 19 - 281

5.66 246 0.46 14 - 359

3.78 311 9.12 67 - 437

1.89 376 16.86 101 - 515

0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

8.55

7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 2579.6 3.50 0.31 -6.70

5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 2579.6 13.82 2.89 -12.47

3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 2579.6 16.71 3.19 -25.68

1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 2579.6 15.79 3.19 -19.90

0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 2579.6 -8.35 -5.47 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 -6.70 3.50 234 0.00 79 -6.70 Bending 281

5.66 -12.47 13.82 299 0.00 112 -12.47 Bending 359

3.78 -25.68 16.71 364 0.00 144 -25.68 Bending 437

1.89 -19.90 15.79 429 0.00 177 -19.90 Bending 515

0.00 0.00 -8.35 450 0.00 187 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 22

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 196 10.05 0.00 124 - 281

5.66 261 18.71 0.00 160 - 359

3.78 326 38.52 0.00 279 - 437

1.89 391 29.85 0.00 178 - 515

0.00 412 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 281

7.55 181 0.00 - - 281

5.66 246 0.00 - - 359

3.78 311 0.00 - - 437

1.89 376 0.00 - - 515

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55 281 281

7.55 181 5.25 77 281 196 0.00 0 281

5.66 246 20.73 199 359 261 0.00 0 359

3.78 311 25.06 190 437 326 0.00 0 437

1.89 376 23.68 148 515 391 0.00 0 515

0.00 397 0.00 0 540 412 12.53 67 540

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

8.55 281 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

7.55 359 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

5.66 437 359 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

3.78 515 437 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

1.89 540 515 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180

Page 23

0.00 649 540 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.50

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

8.55 281 281 281 281

7.55 281 281 281 281

5.66 359 359 359 359

3.78 512 437 437 437

1.89 515 515 515 515

0.00 540 540 540 540

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

8.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180

7.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180

5.66 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

3.78 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

1.89 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 6.50 6.50

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.53

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.36 234 181

5.66 Side edge - 0.068 40.80 299 246

3.78 Side edge - 0.136 81.25 364 311

1.89 Side edge - 0.199 119.30 429 376

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -160.91 450 397

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 88.00 450 397

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 24

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

8.55

7.55 0.36 0.54 0.003 628 0.35 0.97 3.50 OK

5.66 40.80 61.20 0.248 1065 0.43 0.94 3.50 OK

3.78 81.25 121.87 0.391 1065 0.34 0.84 3.50 OK

1.89 119.30 178.96 0.475 1065 0.28 0.78 3.50 OK

0.00 160.91 241.37 0.608 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

0.00 88.00 131.99 0.332 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.20 234 196

5.66 Side edge - 0.068 23.29 299 261

3.78 Side edge - 0.136 46.38 364 326

1.89 Side edge - 0.199 68.11 429 391

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -91.86 450 412

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 50.23 450 412

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

8.55

7.55 0.20 0.31 0.002 436 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK

5.66 23.29 34.94 0.134 628 0.24 0.94 3.50 OK

3.78 46.38 69.57 0.213 628 0.19 0.86 3.50 OK

1.89 68.11 102.16 0.261 628 0.16 0.78 3.50 OK

0.00 91.86 137.79 0.334 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK

0.00 50.23 75.35 0.183 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK

Page 25

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 234 Bending 0.00 707 628

5.66 299 Bending 5.06 707 628

3.78 364 Bending 9.58 707 628

1.89 429 Bending 11.24 0.00 1414 628

0.00 450 Bending 72.63 0.00 1414 628

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 26

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 27

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

31.1 49.6 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1296 0.8

46.3 56.2 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1526 1.1

22.8 84.6 0.0001 0.0005 -0.0004 -0.0910 0.7

139.6 87.2 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0745 4.2

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 234 Bending 0.00 628 707

5.66 299 Bending 2.89 628 707

3.78 364 Bending 10.65 628 707

1.89 429 Bending 19.69 0.00 628 1414

0.00 450 Bending 41.46 0.00 628 1414

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

18.8 50.2 0.0001 0.0008 -0.0007 -0.1399 0.5

55.1 56.0 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1388 1.2

84.4 60.6 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1471 1.7

168.6 62.1 0.0010 0.0011 -0.0002 -0.0422 3.2

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 28

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 234 Bending 11.73 0.00 628 436

5.66 299 Bending 21.85 0.00 1065 628

3.78 364 Bending 44.98 0.00 1065 628

1.89 429 Bending 34.86 0.00 1065 628

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

90.5 59.0 0.0005 0.0005 0.0001 0.0139 3.1

146.2 67.2 0.0008 0.0006 0.0003 0.0685 4.3

93.2 74.6 0.0005 0.0007 -0.0001 -0.0336 2.5

0.0 60.7 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3215 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 234 Bending 6.70 0.00 436 628

5.66 299 Bending 12.47 0.00 628 1065

3.78 364 Bending 25.68 0.00 628 1065

1.89 429 Bending 19.90 0.00 628 1065

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

81.1 50.3 0.0005 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0574 2.1

132.8 55.8 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0001 -0.0321 2.9

85.4 61.0 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1455 1.7

0.0 63.0 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2832 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 29

Height Overall Provided reinf

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 234 6.13 436 628

5.66 299 24.21 628 628

3.78 364 29.27 628 628

1.89 429 27.65 628 628

0.00 450 0.00 628 628

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

157.5 50.1 0.0010 0.0008 0.0002 0.0432 4.0

151.4 56.0 0.0009 0.0009 0.0000 -0.0064 3.4

118.6 61.4 0.0007 0.0011 -0.0004 -0.0979 2.4

0.0 63.0 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2832 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 234 3.50 628 436

5.66 299 13.82 628 628

3.78 364 16.71 628 628

1.89 429 15.79 628 628

0.00 450 0.00 628 628

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

95.4 47.2 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0646 2.4

90.6 53.4 0.0005 0.0010 -0.0005 -0.1189 2.0

70.4 59.0 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.1993 1.4

0.0 60.7 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3215 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 30

DESIGN OF WALL W3 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER SCREEN CHANNEL SI

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 214.500 6.26 6.26 0.64 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Water 214.500 6.26 6.26 0.64 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 7.26 Design Height of Wall (m) = 6.26

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.55

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 2.00 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Provided thickness 450 200 - - Taper = One side

Page 32

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.64

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

7.26

6.26 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2575.8 0.00 0.00 0.00

4.70 0.0006 0.0000 -0.0016 2575.8 1.43 0.00 -4.01

3.13 0.0037 0.0016 -0.0026 2575.8 9.45 4.01 -6.58

1.57 0.0057 0.0021 -0.0021 2575.8 14.60 5.44 -5.44

0.00 -0.0200 -0.0119 0.0000 2575.8 -51.52 -30.63 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

7.26 200 240

6.26 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281

4.70 -4.01 1.43 288 -4.01 Bending Page 33 346

3.13 -6.58 9.45 342 -6.58 Bending 411

1.57 -5.44 14.60 396 0.00 145 -5.44 Bending 475

0.00 -51.52 0.00 450 0.00 172 -51.52 Bending 540

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 0.00 - - 281

4.70 235 6.01 59 - 346

3.13 289 9.88 79 - 411

1.57 343 8.16 0.00 55 - 475

0.00 397 77.29 0.00 456 - 540

Section in Bending

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 0.00 - - 281

4.70 235 2.15 21 - 346

3.13 289 14.17 113 - 411

1.57 343 21.90 148 - 475

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540 Page 34

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.64

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

7.26

6.26 0.0027 0.0006 -0.0048 2575.8 6.87 1.43 -12.31

4.70 0.0067 0.0016 -0.0079 2575.8 17.17 4.01 -20.33

3.13 0.0082 0.0021 -0.0134 2575.8 21.18 5.44 -34.64

1.57 0.0066 0.0021 -0.0103 2575.8 16.89 5.44 -26.62

0.00 -0.0041 -0.0026 0.0000 2575.8 -10.59 -6.58 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

7.26 200 240

6.26 -12.31 6.87 234 - 64 -12.31 Bending 281

4.70 -20.33 17.17 288 - 91 -20.33 Bending 346

3.13 -34.64 21.18 342 - 118 -34.64 Bending 411

1.57 -26.62 16.89 396 - 145 -26.62 Bending 475

0.00 0.00 -10.59 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 35

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 18.47 0.00 239 - 281

4.70 235 30.49 0.00 305 - 346

3.13 289 51.96 0.00 424 - 424

1.57 343 39.93 0.00 271 - 475

0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 0.00 - - 281

4.70 235 0.00 - - 346

3.13 289 0.00 - - 411

1.57 343 0.00 - - 475

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

7.26 281 281

6.26 181 0.00 0 281 181 10.31 132 281

4.70 235 0.00 0 346 235 25.76 256 346

3.13 289 0.00 0 411 289 31.77 256 411

1.57 343 0.00 0 475 343 25.33 171 475

0.00 397 15.89 92 540 397 0.00 0 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

7.26

6.26 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2575.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

4.70 0.0006 0.0000 -0.0016 2575.8 1.43 0.00 -4.01 -

3.13 0.0037 0.0016 -0.0026 2575.8 9.45 4.01 -6.58 -

1.57 0.0057 0.0021 -0.0021 2575.8 14.60 5.44 -5.44 -

0.00 -0.0200 -0.0119 0.0000 2575.8 -51.52 -30.63 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

7.26 200 240

6.26 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281

4.70 1.43 -4.01 288 -4.01 Bending 346

3.13 9.45 -6.58 342 -6.58 Bending 411

1.57 14.60 -5.44 396 0.00 145 -5.44 Bending 475

0.00 0.00 -51.52 450 0.00 172 -51.52 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 0.00 - - 281

4.70 235 6.01 59 - 346

3.13 289 9.88 84 - 411

1.57 343 8.16 0.00 50 - 475

0.00 397 77.29 0.00 461 - 540

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 37

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 0.00 19 - 281

4.70 235 2.15 15 - 346

3.13 289 14.17 108 - 411

1.57 343 21.90 152 - 475

0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

7.26

6.26 0.0027 0.0006 -0.0048 2575.8 6.87 1.43 -12.31

4.70 0.0067 0.0016 -0.0079 2575.8 17.17 4.01 -20.33

3.13 0.0082 0.0021 -0.0134 2575.8 21.18 5.44 -34.64

1.57 0.0066 0.0021 -0.0103 2575.8 16.89 5.44 -26.62

0.00 -0.0041 -0.0026 0.0000 2575.8 -10.59 -6.58 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

7.26 200 240

6.26 -12.31 6.87 234 0.00 64 -12.31 Bending 281

4.70 -20.33 17.17 288 0.00 91 -20.33 Bending 346

3.13 -34.64 21.18 342 0.00 118 -34.64 Bending 411

1.57 -26.62 16.89 396 0.00 145 -26.62 Bending 475

0.00 0.00 -10.59 450 0.00 172 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 38

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 18.47 0.00 233 - 281

4.70 235 30.49 0.00 300 - 346

3.13 289 51.96 0.00 428 - 428

1.57 343 39.93 0.00 275 - 475

0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

7.26 281

6.26 181 0.00 - - 281

4.70 235 0.00 - - 346

3.13 289 0.00 - - 411

1.57 343 0.00 - - 475

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

7.26 281 281

6.26 181 10.31 135 281 181 0.00 0 281

4.70 235 25.76 254 346 235 0.00 0 346

3.13 289 31.77 254 411 289 0.00 0 411

1.57 343 25.33 172 475 343 0.00 0 475

0.00 397 0.00 0 540 397 15.89 96 540

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

7.26 281 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

6.26 346 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

4.70 411 346 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

3.13 475 411 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

1.57 540 475 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

Page 39

0.00 540 540 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 1.60

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

8.55 281 281 281 281

7.55 281 281 281 281

5.99 346 346 346 346

4.42 424 428 411 411

2.86 475 475 475 475

1.29 540 540 540 540

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

8.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

7.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

5.99 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

4.42 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

2.86 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

1.29 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 6.50 1.60 6.50

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.64

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 Side edge - 0.003 1.14 234 181

4.70 Side edge - 0.083 34.34 288 235

3.13 Side edge - 0.164 67.54 342 289

1.57 Side edge - 0.226 93.07 396 343

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.309 -126.97 450 397

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.169 69.57 450 397

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 40

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

7.26

6.26 1.14 1.72 0.009 628 0.35 0.97 3.50 OK

4.70 34.34 51.51 0.219 1065 0.45 0.98 3.50 OK

3.13 67.54 101.30 0.350 1065 0.37 0.88 3.50 OK

1.57 93.07 139.60 0.407 1065 0.31 0.82 3.50 OK

0.00 126.97 190.46 0.480 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

0.00 69.57 104.35 0.263 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 Side edge - 0.003 1.96 234 181

4.70 Side edge - 0.083 58.87 288 235

3.13 Side edge - 0.164 115.78 342 289

1.57 Side edge - 0.226 159.55 396 343

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.309 -217.67 450 397

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.169 119.26 450 397

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

7.26

6.26 1.96 2.94 0.016 628 0.35 1.12 3.50 OK

4.70 58.87 88.30 0.375 1065 0.45 1.25 3.50 OK

3.13 115.78 173.66 0.600 1065 0.37 1.14 3.50 OK

1.57 159.55 239.32 0.698 1065 0.31 1.07 3.50 OK

0.00 217.67 326.51 0.822 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

0.00 119.26 178.89 0.451 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

Page 41

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 234 Bending 0.00 707 707

4.70 288 Bending 4.01 707 707

3.13 342 Bending 9.45 707 707

1.57 396 Bending 14.60 0.00 707 707

0.00 450 Bending 51.52 0.00 1414 1414

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 42

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 43

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

25.9 49.9 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1258 0.7

49.4 55.3 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1281 1.2

63.9 60.3 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1439 1.5

98.9 85.7 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0201 2.9

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 234 Bending 0.00 707 707

4.70 288 Bending 4.01 707 707

3.13 342 Bending 9.45 707 707

1.57 396 Bending 14.60 0.00 707 707

0.00 450 Bending 51.52 0.00 1414 1414

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

25.9 49.9 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1258 0.7

49.4 55.3 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1281 1.2

63.9 60.3 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1439 1.5

98.9 85.7 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0201 2.9

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 44

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 234 Bending 12.31 0.00 628 628

4.70 288 Bending 20.33 0.00 1065 1065

3.13 342 Bending 34.64 0.00 1065 1065

1.57 396 Bending 26.62 0.00 1065 1065

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

88.4 58.4 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0238 3.1

121.6 65.0 0.0008 0.0005 0.0002 0.0516 3.8

78.3 71.0 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0356 2.2

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 234 Bending 12.31 0.00 628 628

4.70 288 Bending 20.33 0.00 1065 1065

3.13 342 Bending 34.64 0.00 1065 1065

1.57 396 Bending 26.62 0.00 1065 1065

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

88.4 58.4 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0238 3.1

121.6 65.0 0.0008 0.0005 0.0002 0.0516 3.8

78.3 71.0 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0356 2.2

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 45

Height Overall Provided reinf

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 234 6.87 628 628

4.70 288 17.17 628 628

3.13 342 21.18 628 628

1.57 396 16.89 628 628

0.00 450 0.00 628 628

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

124.6 47.6 0.0008 0.0008 0.0000 -0.0046 3.4

124.1 52.7 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0002 -0.0440 3.0

83.0 57.4 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1476 1.8

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

7.26

6.26 234 6.87 628 628

4.70 288 17.17 628 628

3.13 342 21.18 628 628

1.57 396 16.89 628 628

0.00 450 0.00 628 628

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

124.6 47.6 0.0008 0.0008 0.0000 -0.0046 3.4

124.1 52.7 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0002 -0.0440 3.0

83.0 57.4 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1476 1.8

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 46

DESIGN OF WALL W4 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP INTERNAL WALL

DESIGN DATA

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Water 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.55 Design Height of Wall (m) = 7.55

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.55

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 1.79 on Fill 2 face: 1.79

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

and acr

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Provided thickness 450 200 - - Taper = Both sides

Page 48

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

8.55

7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 4518.9 0.00 0.00 0.00

5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 4518.9 0.54 0.00 -5.06

3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 4518.9 10.65 5.06 -9.58

1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 4518.9 19.69 5.60 -5.60

0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 4518.9 -72.63 -39.92 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 0.00 0.00 229 0.00 Bending 275

5.66 -5.06 0.54 284 -5.06 Bending Page 49 341

3.78 -9.58 10.65 340 -9.58 Bending 408

1.89 -5.60 19.69 395 0.00 144 -5.60 Bending 474

0.00 -72.63 0.00 450 0.00 172 -72.63 Bending 540

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 0.00 - - 275

5.66 231 7.59 76 - 341

3.78 287 14.36 116 - 408

1.89 342 8.39 0.00 57 - 474

0.00 397 108.95 0.00 649 - 649

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 0.00 - - 275

5.66 231 0.81 8 - 341

3.78 287 15.98 129 - 408

1.89 342 29.54 201 - 474

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540 Page 50

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

8.55

7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 4518.9 6.13 0.54 -11.73

5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 4518.9 24.21 5.06 -21.85

3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 4518.9 29.27 5.60 -44.98

1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 4518.9 27.65 5.60 -34.86

0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 4518.9 -14.63 -9.58 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 -11.73 6.13 229 - 62 -11.73 Bending 275

5.66 -21.85 24.21 284 - 89 -21.85 Bending 341

3.78 -44.98 29.27 340 - 117 -44.98 Bending 408

1.89 -34.86 27.65 395 - 144 -34.86 Bending 474

0.00 0.00 -14.63 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 51

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 17.60 0.00 235 - 275

5.66 231 32.77 0.00 334 - 341

3.78 287 67.47 0.00 560 - 560

1.89 342 52.30 0.00 358 - 474

0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 0.00 - - 275

5.66 231 0.00 - - 341

3.78 287 0.00 - - 408

1.89 342 0.00 - - 474

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55 275 275

7.55 176 0.00 0 275 176 9.20 121 275

5.66 231 0.00 0 341 231 36.32 371 371

3.78 287 0.00 0 408 287 43.90 360 408

1.89 342 0.00 0 474 342 41.48 283 474

0.00 397 21.95 128 540 397 0.00 0 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

8.55

7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 4518.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 4518.9 0.54 0.00 -5.06 -

3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 4518.9 10.65 5.06 -9.58 -

1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 4518.9 19.69 5.60 -5.60 -

0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 4518.9 -72.63 -39.92 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 0.00 0.00 229 0.00 Bending 275

5.66 0.54 -5.06 284 -5.06 Bending 341

3.78 10.65 -9.58 340 -9.58 Bending 408

1.89 19.69 -5.60 395 0.00 144 -5.60 Bending 474

0.00 0.00 -72.63 450 0.00 172 -72.63 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 0.00 - - 275

5.66 231 7.59 75 - 341

3.78 287 14.36 121 - 408

1.89 342 8.39 0.00 61 - 474

0.00 397 108.95 0.00 652 - 652

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 53

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 0.00 20 - 275

5.66 231 0.81 15 - 341

3.78 287 15.98 133 - 408

1.89 342 29.54 204 - 474

0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

8.55

7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 4518.9 6.13 0.54 -11.73

5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 4518.9 24.21 5.06 -21.85

3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 4518.9 29.27 5.60 -44.98

1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 4518.9 27.65 5.60 -34.86

0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 4518.9 -14.63 -9.58 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

8.55 200 240

7.55 -11.73 6.13 229 0.00 62 -11.73 Bending 275

5.66 -21.85 24.21 284 0.00 89 -21.85 Bending 341

3.78 -44.98 29.27 340 0.00 117 -44.98 Bending 408

1.89 -34.86 27.65 395 0.00 144 -34.86 Bending 474

0.00 0.00 -14.63 450 0.00 172 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 54

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 17.60 0.00 240 - 275

5.66 231 32.77 0.00 336 - 341

3.78 287 67.47 0.00 560 - 560

1.89 342 52.30 0.00 360 - 474

0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

8.55 275

7.55 176 0.00 - - 275

5.66 231 0.00 - - 341

3.78 287 0.00 - - 408

1.89 342 0.00 - - 474

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55 275 275

7.55 176 9.20 119 275 176 0.00 0 275

5.66 231 36.32 368 368 231 0.00 0 341

3.78 287 43.90 356 408 287 0.00 0 408

1.89 342 41.48 287 474 342 0.00 0 474

0.00 397 0.00 0 540 397 21.95 131 540

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

8.55 275 275 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

7.55 341 275 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

5.66 408 341 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

3.78 474 408 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

1.89 540 474 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

Page 55

0.00 649 652 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.50 2.50

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

8.55 275 275 275 275

7.55 275 275 275 275

5.66 341 341 368 371

3.78 560 560 408 408

1.89 474 474 474 474

0.00 540 540 540 540

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

8.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

7.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

5.66 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

3.78 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

1.89 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 6.50 1.60 6.50

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.53

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.36 229 176

5.66 Side edge - 0.068 40.80 284 231

3.78 Side edge - 0.136 81.25 340 287

1.89 Side edge - 0.199 119.30 395 342

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -160.91 450 397

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 88.00 450 397

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 56

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

8.55

7.55 0.36 0.54 0.003 628 0.36 0.98 3.50 OK

5.66 40.80 61.20 0.264 1065 0.46 0.99 3.50 OK

3.78 81.25 121.87 0.425 1065 0.37 0.88 3.50 OK

1.89 119.30 178.96 0.524 1065 0.31 0.82 3.50 OK

0.00 160.91 241.37 0.608 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

0.00 88.00 131.99 0.332 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.61 229 176

5.66 Side edge - 0.068 69.95 284 231

3.78 Side edge - 0.136 139.28 340 287

1.89 Side edge - 0.199 204.52 395 342

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -275.85 450 397

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 150.85 450 397

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

8.55

7.55 0.61 0.92 0.005 628 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

5.66 69.95 104.92 0.453 1065 0.46 1.25 3.50 OK

3.78 139.28 208.93 0.729 1065 0.37 1.14 3.50 OK

1.89 204.52 306.78 0.898 1065 0.31 1.07 3.50 OK

0.00 275.85 413.77 1.042 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

0.00 150.85 226.27 0.570 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

Page 57

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 229 Bending 0.00 707 707

5.66 284 Bending 5.06 707 707

3.78 340 Bending 10.65 707 707

1.89 395 Bending 19.69 0.00 1414 1414

0.00 450 Bending 72.63 0.00 1414 1414

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 58

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 59

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

33.3 49.5 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0005 -0.1125 1.0

56.2 55.0 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1162 1.4

44.2 79.0 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0458 1.4

139.4 85.7 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0826 4.1

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 229 Bending 0.00 707 707

5.66 284 Bending 5.06 707 707

3.78 340 Bending 10.65 707 707

1.89 395 Bending 19.69 0.00 1414 1414

0.00 450 Bending 72.63 0.00 1414 1414

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

33.3 49.5 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0005 -0.1125 1.0

56.2 55.0 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1162 1.4

44.2 79.0 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0458 1.4

139.4 85.7 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0826 4.1

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 60

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 229 Bending 11.73 0.00 628 628

5.66 284 Bending 21.85 0.00 1065 1065

3.78 340 Bending 44.98 0.00 1065 1065

1.89 395 Bending 34.86 0.00 1065 1065

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

96.7 57.9 0.0006 0.0005 0.0002 0.0373 3.5

159.4 64.7 0.0010 0.0005 0.0005 0.1086 5.0

102.9 70.9 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000 0.0023 2.9

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 229 Bending 11.73 0.00 628 628

5.66 284 Bending 21.85 0.00 1065 1065

3.78 340 Bending 44.98 0.00 1065 1065

1.89 395 Bending 34.86 0.00 1065 1065

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

96.7 57.9 0.0006 0.0005 0.0002 0.0373 3.5

159.4 64.7 0.0010 0.0005 0.0005 0.1086 5.0

102.9 70.9 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000 0.0023 2.9

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 61

Height Overall Provided reinf

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 229 6.13 628 628

5.66 284 24.21 628 628

3.78 340 29.27 628 628

1.89 395 27.65 628 628

0.00 450 0.00 628 628

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

178.7 47.2 0.0012 0.0008 0.0003 0.0768 4.9

173.1 52.5 0.0011 0.0009 0.0001 0.0309 4.2

136.4 57.3 0.0008 0.0011 -0.0003 -0.0651 2.9

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

8.55

7.55 229 6.13 628 628

5.66 284 24.21 628 628

3.78 340 29.27 628 628

1.89 395 27.65 628 628

0.00 450 0.00 628 628

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

178.7 47.2 0.0012 0.0008 0.0003 0.0768 4.9

173.1 52.5 0.0011 0.0009 0.0001 0.0309 4.2

136.4 57.3 0.0008 0.0011 -0.0003 -0.0651 2.9

0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 62

DESIGN OF WALL W5 Location: B/W STAIRCASE & SCREEN CHAMBER WALL

DESIGN DATA

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 2.46

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

and acr

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Provided thickness 200 200 - - Taper = Both sides

Page 64

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89

1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57

0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78

0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240

1.85 -1.89 2.02 200 -1.89 Bending Page 65 240

1.23 -1.57 2.30 200 -1.57 Bending 240

0.62 -1.38 0.00 200 0.00 47 -1.38 Bending 240

0.00 -13.67 0.00 200 0.00 47 -13.67 Bending 240

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 2.83 45 - 240

1.23 147 2.36 37 - 240

0.62 147 2.07 0.00 33 - 240

0.00 147 20.50 0.00 333 - 333

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 3.03 48 - 240

1.23 147 3.46 54 - 240

0.62 147 0.00 - - 240

0.00 147 0.00 - - 240 Page 66

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52

1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29

1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70

0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22

0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 -9.52 4.22 200 - 47 -9.52 Bending 240

1.85 -9.29 3.59 200 - 47 -9.29 Bending 240

1.23 -7.70 2.48 200 - 47 -7.70 Bending 240

0.62 -4.22 0.43 200 - 47 -4.22 Bending 240

0.00 0.00 -2.71 200 - 47 0.00 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 67

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 14.28 0.00 229 - 240

1.85 147 13.94 0.00 224 - 240

1.23 147 11.55 0.00 185 - 240

0.62 147 6.33 0.00 100 - 240

0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 0.00 - - 240

1.23 147 0.00 - - 240

0.62 147 0.00 - - 240

0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 240 240

2.46 147 0.00 0 240 147 6.33 100 240

1.85 147 0.00 0 240 147 5.38 85 240

1.23 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.72 59 240

0.62 147 0.00 0 240 147 0.64 10 240

0.00 147 4.06 64 240 147 0.00 0 240

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89 -

1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57 -

0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78 -

0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240

1.85 2.02 -1.89 200 -1.89 Bending 240

1.23 2.30 -1.57 200 -1.57 Bending 240

0.62 0.00 -1.38 200 0.00 47 -1.38 Bending 240

0.00 0.00 -13.67 200 0.00 47 -13.67 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 2.83 47 - 240

1.23 147 2.36 47 - 240

0.62 147 2.07 0.00 24 - 240

0.00 147 20.50 0.00 342 - 342

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 69

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 24 - 240

1.85 147 3.03 47 - 240

1.23 147 3.46 47 - 240

0.62 147 0.00 24 - 240

0.00 147 0.00 24 - 240

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

2.46

2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52

1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29

1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70

0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22

0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 -9.52 4.22 200 0.00 47 -9.52 Bending 240

1.85 -9.29 3.59 200 0.00 47 -9.29 Bending 240

1.23 -7.70 2.48 200 0.00 47 -7.70 Bending 240

0.62 -4.22 0.43 200 0.00 47 -4.22 Bending 240

0.00 0.00 -2.71 200 0.00 47 0.00 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 70

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 241

2.46 147 14.28 0.00 241 - 241

1.85 147 13.94 0.00 217 - 240

1.23 147 11.55 0.00 192 - 240

0.62 147 6.33 0.00 95 - 240

0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 0.00 - - 240

1.23 147 0.00 - - 240

0.62 147 0.00 - - 240

0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 240 240

2.46 147 6.33 95 240 147 0.00 0 240

1.85 147 5.38 95 240 147 0.00 0 240

1.23 147 3.72 47 240 147 0.00 0 240

0.62 147 0.64 24 240 147 0.00 0 240

0.00 147 0.00 0 240 147 4.06 71 240

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

1.85 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

1.23 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

0.62 240 240 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180

Page 71

0.00 333 342 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.00 1.00

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

2.46 240 241 240 240

2.46 240 241 240 240

1.85 240 240 240 240

1.23 240 240 240 240

0.62 240 240 240 240

0.00 240 240 240 240

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

1.85 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

1.23 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

0.62 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 2.03

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.102 6.49 200 147

1.85 Side edge - 0.239 15.19 200 147

1.23 Side edge - 0.376 23.89 200 147

0.62 Side edge - 0.390 24.80 200 147

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -37.06 200 147

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 24.29 200 147

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 72

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 6.49 9.73 0.066 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

1.85 15.19 22.79 0.155 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

1.23 23.89 35.84 0.244 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

0.62 24.80 37.20 0.253 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

0.00 37.06 55.59 0.378 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK

0.00 24.29 36.44 0.248 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.102 11.12 200 147

1.85 Side edge - 0.239 26.04 200 147

1.23 Side edge - 0.376 40.96 200 147

0.62 Side edge - 0.390 42.51 200 147

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -63.53 200 147

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 41.64 200 147

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 11.12 16.68 0.114 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

1.85 26.04 39.06 0.266 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

1.23 40.96 61.44 0.418 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

0.62 42.51 63.77 0.434 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

0.00 63.53 95.30 0.648 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK

0.00 41.64 62.46 0.425 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK

Page 73

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 200 Bending 0.00 436 436

1.85 200 Bending 2.02 436 436

1.23 200 Bending 2.30 436 436

0.62 200 Bending 1.38 0.00 716 716

0.00 200 Bending 13.67 0.00 716 716

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 74

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 75

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

34.1 33.0 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1318 1.1

38.8 33.0 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1251 1.2

14.5 40.0 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0846 0.6

142.9 40.0 0.0011 0.0006 0.0005 0.0963 5.7

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 200 Bending 0.00 436 436

1.85 200 Bending 2.02 436 436

1.23 200 Bending 2.30 436 436

0.62 200 Bending 1.38 0.00 716 716

0.00 200 Bending 13.67 0.00 716 716

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

34.1 33.0 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1318 1.1

38.8 33.0 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1251 1.2

14.5 40.0 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0846 0.6

142.9 40.0 0.0011 0.0006 0.0005 0.0963 5.7

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 76

DESIGN OF WALL W6 Location: B/W STAIRCASE & INLET CHAMBER WALL

DESIGN DATA

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 1.18 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 1.18 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 2.46

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

and acr

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Provided thickness 200 200 - - Taper = Both sides

Page 78

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.18

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.85 0.0041 0.0014 -0.0064 156.3 0.65 0.22 -1.01

1.23 0.0126 0.0071 -0.0067 156.3 1.97 1.12 -1.05

0.62 0.0066 0.0050 -0.0047 156.3 1.03 0.78 -0.74

0.00 -0.0436 -0.0284 0.0000 156.3 -6.81 -4.45 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240

1.85 -1.01 0.65 200 -1.01 Bending Page 79 240

1.23 -1.05 1.97 200 -1.05 Bending 240

0.62 -0.74 1.03 200 0.00 47 -0.74 Bending 240

0.00 -6.81 0.00 200 0.00 47 -6.81 Bending 240

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 1.51 24 - 240

1.23 147 1.57 25 - 240

0.62 147 1.11 0.00 17 - 240

0.00 147 10.22 0.00 163 - 240

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 0.97 15 - 240

1.23 147 2.95 46 - 240

0.62 147 1.54 24 - 240

0.00 147 0.00 - - 240 Page 80

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.18

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0133 0.0027 -0.0259 156.3 2.08 0.42 -4.04

1.85 0.0139 0.0044 -0.0309 156.3 2.17 0.69 -4.83

1.23 0.0144 0.0064 -0.0347 156.3 2.26 1.01 -5.43

0.62 0.0027 0.0047 -0.0229 156.3 0.43 0.74 -3.57

0.00 -0.0084 -0.0057 0.0000 156.3 -1.32 -0.89 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 -4.04 2.08 200 - 47 -4.04 Bending 240

1.85 -4.83 2.17 200 - 47 -4.83 Bending 240

1.23 -5.43 2.26 200 - 47 -5.43 Bending 240

0.62 -3.57 0.43 200 - 47 -3.57 Bending 240

0.00 0.00 -1.32 200 - 47 0.00 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 81

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 6.07 0.00 96 - 240

1.85 147 7.24 0.00 115 - 240

1.23 147 8.14 0.00 129 - 240

0.62 147 5.36 0.00 85 - 240

0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 0.00 - - 240

1.23 147 0.00 - - 240

0.62 147 0.00 - - 240

0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 240 240

2.46 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.12 49 240

1.85 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.25 51 240

1.23 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.38 53 240

0.62 147 0.00 0 240 147 0.64 10 240

0.00 147 1.98 31 240 147 0.00 0 240

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

1.85 0.0041 0.0014 -0.0064 156.3 0.65 0.22 -1.01 -

1.23 0.0126 0.0071 -0.0067 156.3 1.97 1.12 -1.05 -

0.62 0.0066 0.0050 -0.0047 156.3 1.03 0.78 -0.74 -

0.00 -0.0436 -0.0284 0.0000 156.3 -6.81 -4.45 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240

1.85 0.65 -1.01 200 -1.01 Bending 240

1.23 1.97 -1.05 200 -1.05 Bending 240

0.62 1.03 -0.74 200 0.00 47 -0.74 Bending 240

0.00 0.00 -6.81 200 0.00 47 -6.81 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 1.51 24 - 240

1.23 147 1.57 24 - 240

0.62 147 1.11 0.00 24 - 240

0.00 147 10.22 0.00 167 - 240

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 83

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 24 - 240

1.85 147 0.97 24 - 240

1.23 147 2.95 47 - 240

0.62 147 1.54 24 - 240

0.00 147 0.00 24 - 240

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

2.46

2.46 0.0133 0.0027 -0.0259 156.3 2.08 0.42 -4.04

1.85 0.0139 0.0044 -0.0309 156.3 2.17 0.69 -4.83

1.23 0.0144 0.0064 -0.0347 156.3 2.26 1.01 -5.43

0.62 0.0027 0.0047 -0.0229 156.3 0.43 0.74 -3.57

0.00 -0.0084 -0.0057 0.0000 156.3 -1.32 -0.89 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 200 240

2.46 -4.04 2.08 200 0.00 47 -4.04 Bending 240

1.85 -4.83 2.17 200 0.00 47 -4.83 Bending 240

1.23 -5.43 2.26 200 0.00 47 -5.43 Bending 240

0.62 -3.57 0.43 200 0.00 47 -3.57 Bending 240

0.00 0.00 -1.32 200 0.00 47 0.00 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 84

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 6.07 0.00 95 - 240

1.85 147 7.24 0.00 119 - 240

1.23 147 8.14 0.00 119 - 240

0.62 147 5.36 0.00 95 - 240

0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 240

2.46 147 0.00 - - 240

1.85 147 0.00 - - 240

1.23 147 0.00 - - 240

0.62 147 0.00 - - 240

0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 240 240

2.46 147 3.12 47 240 147 0.00 0 240

1.85 147 3.25 47 240 147 0.00 0 240

1.23 147 3.38 47 240 147 0.00 0 240

0.62 147 0.64 24 240 147 0.00 0 240

0.00 147 0.00 0 240 147 1.98 24 240

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

1.85 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

1.23 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

0.62 240 240 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180

Page 85

0.00 240 240 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.00 1.00

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

2.46 240 240 240 240

2.46 240 240 240 240

1.85 240 240 240 240

1.23 240 240 240 240

0.62 240 240 240 240

0.00 240 240 240 240

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

1.85 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

1.23 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

0.62 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 1.18

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.026 1.66 200 147

1.85 Side edge - 0.153 9.69 200 147

1.23 Side edge - 0.279 17.72 200 147

0.62 Side edge - 0.328 20.87 200 147

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.466 -29.58 200 147

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.267 16.95 200 147

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 86

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 1.66 2.49 0.017 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

1.85 9.69 14.54 0.099 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

1.23 17.72 26.59 0.181 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

0.62 20.87 31.30 0.213 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK

0.00 29.58 44.38 0.302 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK

0.00 16.95 25.42 0.173 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.026 2.84 200 147

1.85 Side edge - 0.153 16.61 200 147

1.23 Side edge - 0.279 30.38 200 147

0.62 Side edge - 0.328 35.77 200 147

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.466 -50.71 200 147

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.267 29.05 200 147

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 2.84 4.26 0.029 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

1.85 16.61 24.92 0.170 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

1.23 30.38 45.57 0.310 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

0.62 35.77 53.66 0.365 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

0.00 50.71 76.07 0.517 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK

0.00 29.05 43.57 0.296 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK

Page 87

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 200 Bending 0.00 436 436

1.85 200 Bending 1.01 436 436

1.23 200 Bending 1.97 436 436

0.62 200 Bending 1.03 0.00 716 716

0.00 200 Bending 6.81 0.00 716 716

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 88

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 89

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

16.9 33.0 0.0001 0.0009 -0.0008 -0.1560 0.5

33.1 33.0 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1331 1.0

10.7 40.0 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0005 -0.0898 0.4

71.2 40.0 0.0005 0.0006 0.0000 -0.0046 2.9

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 90

DESIGN OF WALL W7 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER INTERNAL WALL

DESIGN DATA

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 2.46

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 1.79 on Fill 2 face: 1.79

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

and acr

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Provided thickness 400 400 - - Taper = Both sides

Page 92

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89

1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57

0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78

0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 400 480

2.46 0.00 0.00 400 0.00 Bending 480

1.85 -1.89 2.02 400 -1.89 Bending Page 93 480

1.23 -1.57 2.30 400 -1.57 Bending 480

0.62 -1.38 0.00 400 0.00 147 -1.38 Bending 480

0.00 -13.67 0.00 400 0.00 147 -13.67 Bending 480

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 0.00 - - 480

1.85 347 2.83 19 - 480

1.23 347 2.36 16 - 480

0.62 347 2.07 0.00 14 - 480

0.00 347 20.50 0.00 137 - 480

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 0.00 - - 480

1.85 347 3.03 20 - 480

1.23 347 3.46 23 - 480

0.62 347 0.00 - - 480

0.00 347 0.00 - - 480 Page 94

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52

1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29

1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70

0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22

0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 400 480

2.46 -9.52 4.22 400 - 147 -9.52 Bending 480

1.85 -9.29 3.59 400 - 147 -9.29 Bending 480

1.23 -7.70 2.48 400 - 147 -7.70 Bending 480

0.62 -4.22 0.43 400 - 147 -4.22 Bending 480

0.00 0.00 -2.71 400 - 147 0.00 Bending 480

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 95

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 14.28 0.00 95 - 480

1.85 347 13.94 0.00 93 - 480

1.23 347 11.55 0.00 77 - 480

0.62 347 6.33 0.00 42 - 480

0.00 347 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 0.00 - - 480

1.85 347 0.00 - - 480

1.23 347 0.00 - - 480

0.62 347 0.00 - - 480

0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 480 480

2.46 347 0.00 0 480 347 6.33 42 480

1.85 347 0.00 0 480 347 5.38 36 480

1.23 347 0.00 0 480 347 3.72 25 480

0.62 347 0.00 0 480 347 0.64 4 480

0.00 347 4.06 27 480 347 0.00 0 480

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89 -

1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57 -

0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78 -

0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 400 480

2.46 0.00 0.00 400 0.00 Bending 480

1.85 2.02 -1.89 400 -1.89 Bending 480

1.23 2.30 -1.57 400 -1.57 Bending 480

0.62 0.00 -1.38 400 0.00 147 -1.38 Bending 480

0.00 0.00 -13.67 400 0.00 147 -13.67 Bending 480

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 0.00 - - 480

1.85 347 2.83 20 - 480

1.23 347 2.36 20 - 480

0.62 347 2.07 0.00 10 - 480

0.00 347 20.50 0.00 140 - 480

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 97

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 0.00 10 - 480

1.85 347 3.03 20 - 480

1.23 347 3.46 20 - 480

0.62 347 0.00 10 - 480

0.00 347 0.00 10 - 480

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

2.46

2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52

1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29

1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70

0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22

0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 400 480

2.46 -9.52 4.22 400 0.00 147 -9.52 Bending 480

1.85 -9.29 3.59 400 0.00 147 -9.29 Bending 480

1.23 -7.70 2.48 400 0.00 147 -7.70 Bending 480

0.62 -4.22 0.43 400 0.00 147 -4.22 Bending 480

0.00 0.00 -2.71 400 0.00 147 0.00 Bending 480

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 98

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 14.28 0.00 100 - 480

1.85 347 13.94 0.00 90 - 480

1.23 347 11.55 0.00 80 - 480

0.62 347 6.33 0.00 40 - 480

0.00 347 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 480

2.46 347 0.00 - - 480

1.85 347 0.00 - - 480

1.23 347 0.00 - - 480

0.62 347 0.00 - - 480

0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 480 480

2.46 347 6.33 40 480 347 0.00 0 480

1.85 347 5.38 40 480 347 0.00 0 480

1.23 347 3.72 20 480 347 0.00 0 480

0.62 347 0.64 10 480 347 0.00 0 480

0.00 347 0.00 0 480 347 4.06 30 480

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

2.46 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

2.46 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

1.85 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

1.23 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

0.62 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

Page 99

0.00 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

2.46 480 480 480 480

2.46 480 480 480 480

1.85 480 480 480 480

1.23 480 480 480 480

0.62 480 480 480 480

0.00 480 480 480 480

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

2.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160

2.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160

1.85 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160

1.23 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160

0.62 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160

0.00 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 2.03

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.102 6.49 400 347

1.85 Side edge - 0.239 15.19 400 347

1.23 Side edge - 0.376 23.89 400 347

0.62 Side edge - 0.390 24.80 400 347

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -37.06 400 347

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 24.29 400 347

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 100

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 6.49 9.73 0.028 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK

1.85 15.19 22.79 0.066 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK

1.23 23.89 35.84 0.103 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK

0.62 24.80 37.20 0.107 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK

0.00 37.06 55.59 0.160 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

0.00 24.29 36.44 0.105 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.102 11.12 400 347

1.85 Side edge - 0.239 26.04 400 347

1.23 Side edge - 0.376 40.96 400 347

0.62 Side edge - 0.390 42.51 400 347

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -63.53 400 347

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 41.64 400 347

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 11.12 16.68 0.048 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK

1.85 26.04 39.06 0.113 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK

1.23 40.96 61.44 0.177 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK

0.62 42.51 63.77 0.184 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK

0.00 63.53 95.30 0.275 628 0.18 0.83 3.50 OK

0.00 41.64 62.46 0.180 628 0.18 0.83 3.50 OK

Page 101

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 400 Bending 0.00 628 628

1.85 400 Bending 2.02 628 628

1.23 400 Bending 2.30 628 628

0.62 400 Bending 1.38 0.00 628 628

0.00 400 Bending 13.67 0.00 628 628

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 102

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 103

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

9.8 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2625 0.2

11.2 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2604 0.2

6.7 57.8 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2672 0.1

66.4 57.8 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1761 1.4

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 400 Bending 0.00 628 628

1.85 400 Bending 2.02 628 628

1.23 400 Bending 2.30 628 628

0.62 400 Bending 1.38 0.00 628 628

0.00 400 Bending 13.67 0.00 628 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

9.8 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2625 0.2

11.2 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2604 0.2

6.7 57.8 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2672 0.1

66.4 57.8 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1761 1.4

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 104

DESIGN OF WALL W8 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER OUTER WALL

DESIGN DATA

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 214.500 4.46 4.46 1.86 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Earth 214.500 4.46 4.46 1.86 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 5.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 4.46

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 5.46

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

and acr

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

Provided thickness 450 200 - - Taper = One side

Page 106

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.86

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

5.46

4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 931.5 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.35 0.0124 0.0054 -0.0109 931.5 11.59 5.07 -10.14

2.23 0.0156 0.0100 -0.0094 931.5 14.49 9.32 -8.80

1.12 -0.0047 -0.0003 -0.0050 931.5 -4.34 -0.31 -4.66

0.00 -0.0793 -0.0540 0.0000 931.5 -73.90 -50.30 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 200 240

4.46 0.00 0.00 246 0.00 Bending 295

3.35 -10.14 11.59 297 -10.14 Bending Page 107 356

2.23 -8.80 14.49 348 -8.80 Bending 417

1.12 -4.66 0.00 399 0.00 146 -4.66 Bending 479

0.00 -73.90 0.00 450 0.00 172 -73.90 Bending 540

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 295

4.46 193 0.00 - - 295

3.35 244 15.21 145 - 356

2.23 295 13.20 104 - 417

1.12 346 6.99 0.00 47 - 479

0.00 397 110.84 0.00 661 - 661

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 295

4.46 208 0.00 - - 295

3.35 259 17.39 156 - 356

2.23 310 21.74 163 - 417

1.12 361 0.00 - - 479

0.00 412 0.00 - - 540 Page 108

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.86

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

5.46

4.46 0.0259 0.0079 -0.0544 931.5 24.12 7.35 -50.71

3.35 0.0224 0.0089 -0.0551 931.5 20.91 8.28 -51.33

2.23 0.0160 0.0094 -0.0473 931.5 14.90 8.80 -44.09

1.12 -0.0014 -0.0009 -0.0270 931.5 -1.35 -0.83 -25.15

0.00 -0.0159 -0.0109 0.0000 931.5 -14.80 -10.14 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 200 240

4.46 -50.71 24.12 246 - 70 -50.71 Bending 295

3.35 -51.33 20.91 297 - 95 -51.33 Bending 356

2.23 -44.09 14.90 348 - 121 -44.09 Bending 417

1.12 -25.15 -1.35 399 - 146 -25.15 Bending 479

0.00 0.00 -14.80 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 109

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 993

4.46 193 76.07 0.00 993 - 993

3.35 244 77.00 0.00 766 - 766

2.23 295 66.14 0.00 532 - 532

1.12 346 37.73 0.00 254 - 479

0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 295

4.46 208 0.00 - - 295

3.35 259 0.00 - - 356

2.23 310 0.00 - - 417

1.12 361 0.00 - - 479

0.00 412 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

5.46 295 414

4.46 193 0.00 0 295 208 36.17 414 414

3.35 244 0.00 0 356 259 31.36 284 356

2.23 295 0.00 0 417 310 22.36 167 417

1.12 346 2.02 13 479 361 0.00 0 479

0.00 397 22.20 129 540 412 0.00 0 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

5.46

4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 531.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

3.35 0.0124 0.0054 -0.0109 531.8 6.62 2.89 -5.79 -

2.23 0.0156 0.0100 -0.0094 531.8 8.27 5.32 -5.02 -

1.12 -0.0047 -0.0003 -0.0050 531.8 -2.48 -0.18 -2.66 -

0.00 -0.0793 -0.0540 0.0000 531.8 -42.18 -28.71 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 200 240

4.46 0.00 0.00 246 0.00 Bending 295

3.35 6.62 -5.79 297 -5.79 Bending 356

2.23 8.27 -5.02 348 -5.02 Bending 417

1.12 0.00 -2.66 399 0.00 161 -2.66 Bending 479

0.00 0.00 -42.18 450 0.00 187 -42.18 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 295

4.46 208 0.00 - - 295

3.35 259 8.68 80 - 356

2.23 310 7.53 56 - 417

1.12 361 3.99 0.00 29 - 479

0.00 412 63.28 0.00 357 - 540

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 111

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 295

4.46 193 0.00 18 - 295

3.35 244 9.93 100 - 356

2.23 295 12.41 94 - 417

1.12 346 0.00 10 - 479

0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

5.46

4.46 0.0259 0.0079 -0.0544 531.8 13.77 4.19 -28.95

3.35 0.0224 0.0089 -0.0551 531.8 11.93 4.73 -29.30

2.23 0.0160 0.0094 -0.0473 531.8 8.51 5.02 -25.17

1.12 -0.0014 -0.0009 -0.0270 531.8 -0.77 -0.47 -14.36

0.00 -0.0159 -0.0109 0.0000 531.8 -8.45 -5.79 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 200 240

4.46 -28.95 13.77 246 0.00 85 -28.95 Bending 295

3.35 -29.30 11.93 297 0.00 110 -29.30 Bending 356

2.23 -25.17 8.51 348 0.00 136 -25.17 Bending 417

1.12 -14.36 -0.77 399 0.00 161 -14.36 Bending 479

0.00 0.00 -8.45 450 0.00 187 0.00 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 112

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 502

4.46 208 43.42 0.00 502 - 502

3.35 259 43.96 0.00 397 - 397

2.23 310 37.75 0.00 283 - 417

1.12 361 21.54 0.00 135 - 479

0.00 412 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 295

4.46 193 0.00 - - 295

3.35 244 0.00 - - 356

2.23 295 0.00 - - 417

1.12 346 0.00 - - 479

0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

5.46 295 295

4.46 193 20.65 256 295 208 0.00 0 295

3.35 244 17.90 172 356 259 0.00 0 356

2.23 295 12.76 106 417 310 0.00 0 417

1.12 346 0.00 0 479 361 1.16 10 479

0.00 397 0.00 0 540 412 12.67 67 540

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

5.46 295 295 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

4.46 356 295 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

3.35 417 356 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

2.23 479 417 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180

1.12 540 479 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180

Page 113

0.00 661 540 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

5.46 993 502 295 414

4.46 993 502 295 414

3.35 766 397 356 356

2.23 532 417 417 417

1.12 479 479 479 479

0.00 540 540 540 540

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

5.46 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

4.46 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

3.35 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

2.23 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160

1.12 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160

0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 1.86

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 Side edge - 0.087 18.27 246 193

3.35 Side edge - 0.223 46.60 297 244

2.23 Side edge - 0.359 74.93 348 295

1.12 Side edge - 0.380 79.28 399 346

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.563 -117.61 450 397

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.361 75.36 450 397

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 114

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

5.46

4.46 18.27 27.41 0.142 1964 1.02 1.46 3.50 OK

3.35 46.60 69.90 0.287 1964 0.81 1.21 3.50 OK

2.23 74.93 112.39 0.381 1964 0.67 1.12 3.50 OK

1.12 79.28 118.92 0.344 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

0.00 117.61 176.42 0.444 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

0.00 75.36 113.04 0.285 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 Side edge - 0.087 10.43 246 208

3.35 Side edge - 0.223 26.60 297 259

2.23 Side edge - 0.359 42.77 348 310

1.12 Side edge - 0.380 45.26 399 361

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.563 -67.14 450 412

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.361 43.02 450 412

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

5.46

4.46 10.43 15.65 0.075 707 0.34 1.09 3.50 OK

3.35 26.60 39.90 0.154 707 0.27 0.99 3.50 OK

2.23 42.77 64.16 0.207 707 0.23 0.91 3.50 OK

1.12 45.26 67.89 0.188 707 0.20 0.86 3.50 OK

0.00 67.14 100.71 0.244 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK

0.00 43.02 64.53 0.157 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK

Page 115

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 246 Bending 0.00 707 628

3.35 297 Bending 10.14 707 628

2.23 348 Bending 8.80 707 628

1.12 399 Bending 4.66 0.00 1414 628

0.00 450 Bending 73.90 0.00 1414 628

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 116

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 117

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

63.1 49.3 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0004 -0.0839 1.7

45.0 54.6 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0006 -0.1430 1.1

10.3 80.6 0.0001 0.0005 -0.0004 -0.0987 0.3

142.1 87.2 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0780 4.3

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 246 Bending 0.00 628 707

3.35 297 Bending 11.59 628 707

2.23 348 Bending 14.49 628 707

1.12 399 Bending 2.66 0.00 628 1414

0.00 450 Bending 42.18 0.00 628 1414

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

76.2 49.9 0.0005 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0624 1.9

79.1 54.5 0.0005 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0939 1.8

12.4 58.4 0.0001 0.0010 -0.0009 -0.2250 0.3

171.6 62.1 0.0010 0.0011 -0.0002 -0.0380 3.3

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 118

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 246 Bending 50.71 0.00 1964 707

3.35 297 Bending 51.33 0.00 1964 707

2.23 348 Bending 44.09 0.00 1964 707

1.12 399 Bending 25.15 0.00 628 707

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 707

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

119.5 75.4 0.0007 0.0002 0.0005 0.1065 5.7

84.2 84.3 0.0005 0.0003 0.0002 0.0510 3.6

122.3 56.2 0.0007 0.0011 -0.0004 -0.0991 2.5

0.0 60.4 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3218 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 246 Bending 28.95 0.00 707 1964

3.35 297 Bending 29.30 0.00 707 1964

2.23 348 Bending 25.17 0.00 707 1964

1.12 399 Bending 14.36 0.00 707 628

0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 707 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

171.8 52.4 0.0011 0.0007 0.0004 0.0830 4.7

122.4 56.6 0.0007 0.0008 0.0000 -0.0112 2.9

59.7 62.0 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0005 -0.1292 1.3

0.0 66.4 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2491 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 119

Height Overall Provided reinf

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 246 24.12 707 707

3.35 297 20.91 707 707

2.23 348 14.90 707 707

1.12 399 0.00 707 628

0.00 450 0.00 707 628

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

122.5 52.3 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0182 3.3

72.5 57.2 0.0004 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0786 1.8

0.0 62.0 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.2126 0.0

0.0 66.4 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2491 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of D As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 246 13.77 707 707

3.35 297 11.93 707 707

2.23 348 8.51 707 707

1.12 399 0.00 628 707

0.00 450 0.00 628 707

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

74.2 49.2 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0687 2.0

43.5 54.4 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0006 -0.1453 1.1

0.0 56.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2780 0.0

0.0 60.4 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3218 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 120

DESIGN OF WALL W9 Location: INLET CHAMBER OUTER LONG WALL

DESIGN DATA

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 214.500 4.46 4.46 0.80 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Earth 214.500 4.46 4.46 0.80 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 5.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 4.46

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 5.46

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

and acr

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

Provided thickness 250 175 - - Taper = One side

Page 122

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.8

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

5.46

4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 931.5 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.35 0.0012 0.0000 -0.0026 931.5 1.10 0.00 -2.38

2.23 0.0057 0.0026 -0.0036 931.5 5.34 2.38 -3.31

1.12 0.0072 0.0034 -0.0032 931.5 6.69 3.14 -2.97

0.00 -0.0260 -0.0163 0.0000 931.5 -24.24 -15.17 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 175 210

4.46 0.00 0.00 189 0.00 Bending 226

3.35 -2.38 1.10 204 -2.38 Bending Page 123 245

2.23 -3.31 5.34 219 -3.31 Bending 263

1.12 -2.97 6.69 235 0.00 64 -2.97 Bending 282

0.00 -24.24 0.00 250 0.00 72 -24.24 Bending 300

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 136 0.00 - - 226

3.35 151 3.57 55 - 245

2.23 166 4.96 69 - 263

1.12 182 4.45 0.00 57 - 282

0.00 197 36.36 0.00 441 - 441

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 151 0.00 - - 226

3.35 166 1.65 23 - 245

2.23 181 8.01 103 - 263

1.12 197 10.04 119 - 282

0.00 212 0.00 - - 300 Page 124

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.8

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

5.46

4.46 0.0049 0.0012 -0.0090 931.5 4.58 1.10 -8.40

3.35 0.0086 0.0022 -0.0132 931.5 7.97 2.03 -12.30

2.23 0.0106 0.0034 -0.0192 931.5 9.83 3.14 -17.89

1.12 0.0042 0.0032 -0.0143 931.5 3.95 2.97 -13.31

0.00 -0.0054 -0.0034 0.0000 931.5 -5.00 -3.14 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 175 210

4.46 -8.40 4.58 189 - 41 -8.40 Bending 226

3.35 -12.30 7.97 204 - 49 -12.30 Bending 245

2.23 -17.89 9.83 219 - 57 -17.89 Bending 263

1.12 -13.31 3.95 235 - 64 -13.31 Bending 282

0.00 0.00 -5.00 250 - 72 0.00 Bending 300

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 125

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 136 12.61 0.00 219 - 226

3.35 151 18.45 0.00 290 - 290

2.23 166 26.84 0.00 386 - 386

1.12 182 19.96 0.00 259 - 282

0.00 197 0.00 0.00 - - 300

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 151 0.00 - - 226

3.35 166 0.00 - - 245

2.23 181 0.00 - - 263

1.12 197 0.00 - - 282

0.00 212 0.00 - - 300

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

5.46 226 226

4.46 136 0.00 0 226 151 6.87 106 226

3.35 151 0.00 0 245 166 11.95 168 245

2.23 166 0.00 0 263 181 14.74 190 263

1.12 182 0.00 0 282 197 5.93 70 282

0.00 197 7.50 88 300 212 0.00 0 300

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

5.46

4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 531.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

3.35 0.0012 0.0000 -0.0026 531.8 0.63 0.00 -1.36 -

2.23 0.0057 0.0026 -0.0036 531.8 3.05 1.36 -1.89 -

1.12 0.0072 0.0034 -0.0032 531.8 3.82 1.79 -1.69 -

0.00 -0.0260 -0.0163 0.0000 531.8 -13.84 -8.66 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 175 210

4.46 0.00 0.00 189 0.00 Bending 226

3.35 0.63 -1.36 204 -1.36 Bending 245

2.23 3.05 -1.89 219 -1.89 Bending 263

1.12 3.82 -1.69 235 0.00 79 -1.69 Bending 282

0.00 0.00 -13.84 250 0.00 87 -13.84 Bending 300

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 151 0.00 - - 226

3.35 166 2.04 21 - 245

2.23 181 2.83 38 - 263

1.12 197 2.54 0.00 35 - 282

0.00 212 20.76 0.00 232 - 300

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 127

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 136 0.00 25 - 226

3.35 151 0.94 23 - 245

2.23 166 4.57 63 - 263

1.12 182 5.73 76 - 282

0.00 197 0.00 18 - 300

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

5.46

4.46 0.0049 0.0012 -0.0090 531.8 2.62 0.63 -4.80

3.35 0.0086 0.0022 -0.0132 531.8 4.55 1.16 -7.02

2.23 0.0106 0.0034 -0.0192 531.8 5.61 1.79 -10.21

1.12 0.0042 0.0032 -0.0143 531.8 2.26 1.69 -7.60

0.00 -0.0054 -0.0034 0.0000 531.8 -2.85 -1.79 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

5.46 175 210

4.46 -4.80 2.62 189 0.00 56 -4.80 Bending 226

3.35 -7.02 4.55 204 0.00 64 -7.02 Bending 245

2.23 -10.21 5.61 219 0.00 72 -10.21 Bending 263

1.12 -7.60 2.26 235 0.00 79 -7.60 Bending 282

0.00 0.00 -2.85 250 0.00 87 0.00 Bending 300

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 128

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 151 7.20 0.00 116 - 226

3.35 166 10.53 0.00 148 - 245

2.23 181 15.32 0.00 194 - 263

1.12 197 11.40 0.00 142 - 282

0.00 212 0.00 0.00 - - 300

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

5.46 226

4.46 136 0.00 - - 226

3.35 151 0.00 - - 245

2.23 166 0.00 - - 263

1.12 182 0.00 - - 282

0.00 197 0.00 - - 300

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

5.46 226 226

4.46 136 3.92 77 226 151 0.00 0 226

3.35 151 6.82 116 245 166 0.00 0 245

2.23 166 8.42 126 263 181 0.00 0 263

1.12 182 3.38 38 282 197 0.00 0 282

0.00 197 0.00 0 300 212 4.28 49 300

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

5.46 226 226 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

4.46 245 226 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

3.35 263 245 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

2.23 282 263 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

1.12 300 282 12-180+10-180 00-000+10-180

Page 129

0.00 441 300 12-180+10-180 00-000+10-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

5.46 226 226 226 226

4.46 226 226 226 226

3.35 290 245 245 245

2.23 386 263 263 263

1.12 282 282 282 282

0.00 300 300 300 300

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

5.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180

4.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180

3.35 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180

2.23 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180

1.12 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180

0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20 4.40

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.8

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 Side edge - 0.006 1.24 189 136

3.35 Side edge - 0.105 22.02 204 151

2.23 Side edge - 0.205 42.81 219 166

1.12 Side edge - 0.265 55.31 235 182

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.366 -76.39 250 197

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.201 41.94 250 197

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 130

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

5.46

4.46 1.24 1.85 0.014 491 0.36 1.05 3.50 OK

3.35 22.02 33.03 0.219 942 0.62 1.29 3.50 OK

2.23 42.81 64.21 0.386 942 0.57 1.21 3.50 OK

1.12 55.31 82.96 0.457 628 0.35 0.95 3.50 OK

0.00 76.39 114.58 0.582 1065 0.54 1.12 3.50 OK

0.00 41.94 62.90 0.319 1065 0.54 1.12 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 Side edge - 0.006 0.71 189 151

3.35 Side edge - 0.105 12.57 204 166

2.23 Side edge - 0.205 24.44 219 181

1.12 Side edge - 0.265 31.57 235 197

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.366 -43.61 250 212

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.201 23.94 250 212

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

5.46

4.46 0.71 1.06 0.007 436 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK

3.35 12.57 18.86 0.114 436 0.26 0.99 3.50 OK

2.23 24.44 36.65 0.202 436 0.24 0.94 3.50 OK

1.12 31.57 47.36 0.241 436 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK

0.00 43.61 65.41 0.309 436 0.21 0.88 3.50 OK

0.00 23.94 35.91 0.169 436 0.21 0.88 3.50 OK

Page 131

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 189 Bending 0.00 436 436

3.35 204 Bending 2.38 436 436

2.23 219 Bending 3.31 436 436

1.12 235 Bending 3.82 0.00 1065 436

0.00 250 Bending 24.24 0.00 1065 436

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 132

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 133

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

38.8 31.9 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1356 1.1

48.8 33.5 0.0003 0.0010 -0.0007 -0.1377 1.3

21.8 50.2 0.0001 0.0004 -0.0003 -0.0536 0.9

126.8 52.5 0.0008 0.0004 0.0004 0.0789 4.9

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 189 Bending 0.00 436 436

3.35 204 Bending 1.36 436 436

2.23 219 Bending 5.34 436 436

1.12 235 Bending 6.69 0.00 436 1065

0.00 250 Bending 13.84 0.00 436 1065

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

20.1 34.9 0.0001 0.0008 -0.0007 -0.1215 0.6

72.3 36.3 0.0005 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0711 1.9

83.6 39.4 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0694 2.2

159.8 40.5 0.0010 0.0010 0.0001 0.0134 4.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 134

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 189 Bending 8.40 0.00 491 436

3.35 204 Bending 12.30 0.00 942 436

2.23 219 Bending 17.89 0.00 942 436

1.12 235 Bending 13.31 0.00 628 436

0.00 250 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 436

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

95.5 43.1 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0.0418 4.1

125.5 45.5 0.0008 0.0004 0.0004 0.0751 5.1

125.9 40.5 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0187 3.9

0.0 42.2 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1579 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

T' T"

bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'

2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

5.46

4.46 189 Bending 4.80 0.00 436 491

3.35 204 Bending 7.02 0.00 436 942

2.23 219 Bending 10.21 0.00 436 942

1.12 235 Bending 7.60 0.00 436 628

0.00 250 Bending 0.00 0.00 436 628

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

104.6 36.6 0.0007 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0157 3.2

138.7 37.9 0.0009 0.0009 0.0001 0.0133 3.9

94.7 38.3 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0003 -0.0565 2.4

0.0 39.5 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.1920 0.0

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 135

DESIGN OF WALL W10 Location: B/W SCREEN CHAMBER &INLET CHAMBER WALL

DESIGN DATA

GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

Fill Type b/a Design Methodology

m m HOF a

Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 0.89 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 0.89 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer

Case 1 - - - No

Case 2 - - - No

Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall

Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

2 2 2

m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m

Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

2

T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 7.16 on Fill 2 face: 7.16

Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000

c=Clear cover to reinforcement

3 3

r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5

3

r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0

3

r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0

r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

and acr

k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Fill Type

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

Provided thickness 175 175 - - Taper = Both sides

Page 137

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.89

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.85 0.0016 0.0000 -0.0037 156.3 0.25 0.00 -0.58

1.23 0.0073 0.0037 -0.0047 156.3 1.14 0.58 -0.74

0.62 0.0076 0.0042 -0.0036 156.3 1.18 0.65 -0.56

0.00 -0.0303 -0.0190 0.0000 156.3 -4.74 -2.98 0.00

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 175 210

2.46 0.00 0.00 175 0.00 Bending 210

1.85 -0.58 0.25 175 -0.58 Bending Page 138 210

1.23 -0.74 1.14 175 -0.74 Bending 210

0.62 -0.56 1.18 175 0.00 35 -0.56 Bending 210

0.00 -4.74 0.00 175 0.00 35 -4.74 Bending 210

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16

Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 0.00 - - 210

1.85 122 0.87 16 - 210

1.23 122 1.11 21 - 210

0.62 122 0.84 0.00 16 - 210

0.00 122 7.12 0.00 137 - 210

Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)

2

Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)

T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy

Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 0.00 - - 210

1.85 122 0.37 7 - 210

1.23 122 1.71 32 - 210

0.62 122 1.78 34 - 210

0.00 122 0.00 - - 210 Page 139

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.89

Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000

Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Ht from

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall (m) Mid-point point

Edge Mid-point

point

Edge

2.46

2.46 0.0069 0.0016 -0.0133 156.3 1.08 0.25 -2.09

1.85 0.0097 0.0026 -0.0179 156.3 1.52 0.40 -2.80

1.23 0.0117 0.0042 -0.0239 156.3 1.83 0.65 -3.74

0.62 -0.0017 0.0036 -0.0170 156.3 -0.26 0.56 -2.66

0.00 -0.0062 -0.0042 0.0000 156.3 -0.96 -0.65 0.00

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.

No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section

Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

Direct

wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 175 210

2.46 -2.09 1.08 175 - 35 -2.09 Bending 210

1.85 -2.80 1.52 175 - 35 -2.80 Bending 210

1.23 -3.74 1.83 175 - 35 -3.74 Bending 210

0.62 -2.66 -0.26 175 - 35 -2.66 Bending 210

0.00 0.00 -0.96 175 - 35 0.00 Bending 210

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 140

Edge - Fill 1 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 3.13 0.00 60 - 210

1.85 122 4.20 0.00 80 - 210

1.23 122 5.61 0.00 107 - 210

0.62 122 4.00 0.00 76 - 210

0.00 122 0.00 0.00 - - 210

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 0.00 - - 210

1.85 122 0.00 - - 210

1.23 122 0.00 - - 210

0.62 122 0.00 - - 210

0.00 122 0.00 - - 210

Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 210 210

2.46 122 0.00 0 210 122 1.61 31 210

1.85 122 0.00 0 210 122 2.28 43 210

1.23 122 0.00 0 210 122 2.75 52 210

0.62 122 0.39 7 210 122 0.00 0 210

0.00 122 1.44 27 210 122 0.00 0 210

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

2

Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

where h = height from top of fill

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments

wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m

2.46

2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -

1.85 0.0016 0.0000 -0.0037 156.3 0.25 0.00 -0.58 -

1.23 0.0073 0.0037 -0.0047 156.3 1.14 0.58 -0.74 -

0.62 0.0076 0.0042 -0.0036 156.3 1.18 0.65 -0.56 -

0.00 -0.0303 -0.0190 0.0000 156.3 -4.74 -2.98 0.00 -

Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

(unfactored) (unfactored)

Ht from Provided Section in

Direct

bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf

Tension T

wall D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 175 210

2.46 0.00 0.00 175 0.00 Bending 210

1.85 0.25 -0.58 175 -0.58 Bending 210

1.23 1.14 -0.74 175 -0.74 Bending 210

0.62 1.18 -0.56 175 0.00 35 -0.56 Bending 210

0.00 0.00 -4.74 175 0.00 35 -4.74 Bending 210

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 0.00 - - 210

1.85 122 0.87 28 - 210

1.23 122 1.11 28 - 210

0.62 122 0.84 0.00 28 - 210

0.00 122 7.12 0.00 144 - 210

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Page 142

Fill 1 Face

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 0.00 28 - 210

1.85 122 0.37 28 - 210

1.23 122 1.71 28 - 210

0.62 122 1.78 28 - 210

0.00 122 0.00 28 - 210

3

r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-

wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge

point point

2.46

2.46 0.0069 0.0016 -0.0133 156.3 1.08 0.25 -2.09

1.85 0.0097 0.0026 -0.0179 156.3 1.52 0.40 -2.80

1.23 0.0117 0.0042 -0.0239 156.3 1.83 0.65 -3.74

0.62 -0.0017 0.0036 -0.0170 156.3 -0.26 0.56 -2.66

0.00 -0.0062 -0.0042 0.0000 156.3 -0.96 -0.65 0.00

Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)

bottom of Provided Section in

wall Direct

Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf

Tension

D Bending

2

m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm

2.46 175 210

2.46 -2.09 1.08 175 0.00 35 -2.09 Bending 210

1.85 -2.80 1.52 175 0.00 35 -2.80 Bending 210

1.23 -3.74 1.83 175 0.00 35 -3.74 Bending 210

0.62 -2.66 -0.26 175 0.00 35 -2.66 Bending 210

0.00 0.00 -0.96 175 0.00 35 0.00 Bending 210

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Page 143

Edge - Fill 2 Face

Secion in Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /

bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf

M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u

wall

Factored Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 3.13 0.00 57 - 210

1.85 122 4.20 0.00 86 - 210

1.23 122 5.61 0.00 115 - 210

0.62 122 4.00 0.00 86 - 210

0.00 122 0.00 0.00 - - 210

Bending Section in Tension

Ht from

Moment Tension Tension Ast for

bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf

Mu T'' T''u Mu

wall

Factored Unfactor Factored

2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm

2.46 210

2.46 122 0.00 - - 210

1.85 122 0.00 - - 210

1.23 122 0.00 - - 210

0.62 122 0.00 - - 210

0.00 122 0.00 - - 210

Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Fill 1 face Fill 2 face

Ht from

Moment Moment

bottom of

d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast

wall

Factored Factored

2 2 2 2

m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm

2.46 210 210

2.46 122 1.61 28 210 122 0.00 0 210

1.85 122 2.28 57 210 122 0.00 0 210

1.23 122 2.75 57 210 122 0.00 0 210

0.62 122 0.00 0 210 122 0.39 28 210

0.00 122 0.00 0 210 122 1.44 28 210

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Ht from

bottom of

wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

2.46 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

2.46 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

1.85 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

1.23 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

0.62 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

Page 144

0.00 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Edge Middle portion

Ht from

bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2

wall

2.46 210 210 210 210

2.46 210 210 210 210

1.85 210 210 210 210

1.23 210 210 210 210

0.62 210 210 210 210

0.00 210 210 210 210

Edge Middle Portion

Ht from

Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)

bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)

Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)

wall

2.46 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160

2.46 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160

1.85 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160

1.23 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160

0.62 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160

0.00 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160

Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.89

Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.008 0.50 175 122

1.85 Side edge - 0.119 7.57 175 122

1.23 Side edge - 0.231 14.65 175 122

0.62 Side edge - 0.289 18.36 175 122

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.402 -25.51 175 122

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.221 14.02 175 122

This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 145

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)

Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 0.50 0.75 0.006 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK

1.85 7.57 11.36 0.093 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK

1.23 14.65 21.97 0.180 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK

0.62 18.36 27.55 0.226 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK

0.00 25.51 38.27 0.314 436 0.36 1.08 3.50 OK

0.00 14.02 21.03 0.172 436 0.36 1.08 3.50 OK

Ht from Effective

Pressure

bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =

of fill

wall h D - c'

2

m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 Side edge - 0.008 0.86 175 122

1.85 Side edge - 0.119 12.98 175 122

1.23 Side edge - 0.231 25.11 175 122

0.62 Side edge - 0.289 31.48 175 122

0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.402 -43.74 175 122

0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.221 24.04 175 122

Factored Provided Maximum Check for

bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength

Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear

wall h stress tv Factor * tc

2 2 2 2

m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

2.46

2.46 0.86 1.29 0.011 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK

1.85 12.98 19.48 0.160 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK

1.23 25.11 37.67 0.309 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK

0.62 31.48 47.22 0.387 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK

0.00 43.74 65.61 0.538 436 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

0.00 24.04 36.05 0.296 436 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

Page 146

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face

(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face

(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face

(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face

(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the

moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small

Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Height

Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf

from

thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2

bottom of T' T"

D Tension M Tension T As As'

wall 2 2

m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm

2.46

2.46 175 Bending 0.00 436 436

1.85 175 Bending 0.58 436 436

1.23 175 Bending 1.14 436 436

0.62 175 Bending 1.18 0.00 436 436

0.00 175 Bending 4.74 0.00 436 436

Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier

T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face

T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension

Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 147

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

Strain gradient =

Crack width w =

Page 148

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')

Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

2

Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6

Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct

2 2 2 2

N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

12.0 30.5 0.0001 0.0009 -0.0008 -0.1389 0.4

23.4 30.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1227 0.8

24.3 30.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1215 0.9

97.2 30.5 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0001 -0.0186 3.5

ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 149

DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS

Page 150

Foundation for Wall: W1 Location: PIPE GALLERY OUTER LONG WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Earth 0.30 18.0 Case 1 0.05

Fill 2 Earth 0.52 18.0 Case 2 0.14

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 151

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 0.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 122.7 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 150

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 150 0.30 0.30 150

information only. 150 -

m mm mm m mm mm

0.30 150 150 0.30 150 150

Page 152

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.150 m WCF = 0.56 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 0.05

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 1.62 0.60 -0.97

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.13 0.60 -0.68

d = LB - GF1

Page 153

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.15 -0.17

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.38 -0.21

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 5.70 0.38 -2.14

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 4.16

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 89.07

Net moment (kN-m/m) 4.12 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.41 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) -0.03 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 16.90 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 14.19 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 12.83 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 10.12 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 4.66 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.15 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) 0.31 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 3.44 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.14 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 154

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 0.33

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Bottom 1.92 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 2.32 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 0.05

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -0.14 -0.14

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 1.62 0.15 0.60 0.24

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 2.81 0.60 1.68 0.15 1.68

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.13 0.15 0.17 0.60 0.17

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.60 0.68 0.15 0.68

Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.38 0.21 0.38 0.21

Self weight of wall 5.70 0.38 2.14 0.38 2.14

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.45 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.30 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.38 0.00 0.38 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 4.88 5.17

Check for overturning 34.72 36.78

Net moment (kN-m/m) 4.74 5.03

Distance resultant from respective point 0.42 0.39

Distance of resultant from S 0.33 0.36

Eccentricity 0.04 0.01

Base Pressure at P 9.85 OK 15.40 OK

Base Pressure at Q 14.05 OK 16.88 OK

Base Pressure at R 16.14 OK 17.62 OK

Base Pressure at S 20.33 OK 19.11 OK

Page 155

Total base pressure P-Q 3.58 4.84

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.14 0.15

Moment at Q (base) 0.34 0.30

Total base pressure R-S 5.47 5.51

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.16 0.15

Moment at R (base) 0.26 0.25

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 2.46 Q 3 Bottom 2.10

R 2 Bottom 1.54 R 3 Bottom 1.58

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 0.30 Earth 38 53

kN-m/m Base 0.34 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 0.25 Earth 38 53

kN-m/m Base 0.33 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 0.30 0.46 150 112 0.036 0.008 9 180 180

Page 156

Q - Bot 0.34 0.51 150 112 0.040 0.009 10 180 180

R - Top 0.25 0.37 150 112 0.030 0.007 8 180 180

R - Bot 0.33 0.49 150 112 0.039 0.009 10 180 180

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

279 279

Fill 1 = Earth Fill 2 = Earth

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

P 279 279 Q R 279 279 S

180 180 Top 180 180

08-180 279 Distribution 180 279 08-180

180 180 Bottom 180 180

00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180

279 279 279 279

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

Q 2 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

Q 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

R 1 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

R 2 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

R 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 157

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 1.92 2.88 112 0.026 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

Q-2 2.46 3.69 112 0.033 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

Q-3 2.10 3.15 112 0.028 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

R-1 2.32 3.48 112 0.031 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

R-2 1.54 2.31 112 0.021 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

R-3 1.58 2.36 112 0.021 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 150 0.30 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279

Q - Bot 150 0.34 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279

R - Top 150 0.25 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279

R - Bot 150 0.33 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 158

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Permissible values

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 10.5 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1470 0.3

Q - Bot 11.6 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1456 0.4

R - Top 8.5 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1493 0.3

R - Bot 11.3 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1460 0.3

All OK All OK All OK

Page 159

Foundation for Wall: W2 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER LONG WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 7.55 10.5 Case 1 72.63

Fill 2 Earth 7.55 18.0 Case 2 41.46

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 160

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.4

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 253.7 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Bottom

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 400

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 400 0.80 0.60 200

information only. 250 -

m mm mm m mm mm

0.80 400 250 0.60 400 200

Page 161

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 4.50 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 1.45 -91.96

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 1.42 -9.22

d = LB - GF1

Page 162

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 0.33 -1.50

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 0.83 -3.71

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 73.50 0.87 -63.85

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 170.25

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.34

Net moment (kN-m/m) 97.61 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.64 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.28 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 6.35 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 72.11 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 109.11 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 158.43 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 31.38 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.29 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -18.72 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 80.26 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.32 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 163

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 24.36

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 38.54 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 75.76 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -41.46 -41.46

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 0.40 1.45 -91.96

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 81.54 1.55 126.39 0.30 -24.46

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 0.43 2.80 1.42 -9.22

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 1.52 6.83 0.33 -1.50

Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 4.61 0.83 -3.71

Self weight of wall 73.50 0.98 72.12 0.87 -63.85

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.05 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.25 0.00 0.60 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.87 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 212.75 236.17

Check for overturning 5.13 3.25

Net moment (kN-m/m) 171.29 163.54

Distance resultant from respective point 1.00 0.70

Distance of resultant from S 0.85 0.70

Eccentricity 0.08 0.23

Base Pressure at P 68.45 OK 33.77 OK

Base Pressure at Q 88.98 OK 113.94 OK

Base Pressure at R 100.52 OK 159.03 OK

Base Pressure at S 115.92 OK 219.16 OK

Page 164

Total base pressure P-Q 62.97 59.08

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.38 0.33

Moment at Q (base) 21.69 -8.41

Total base pressure R-S 64.93 113.46

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.31 0.32

Moment at R (base) -5.72 10.18

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 56.47 Q 3 Top 10.84

R 2 Top 21.11 R 3 Bottom 27.42

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 18.72 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 21.69 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 5.72 Earth 38 53

kN-m/m Base 24.36 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 18.72 28.08 400 347 0.233 0.054 188 480 480

Page 165

Q - Bot 21.69 32.54 400 362 0.248 0.058 209 480 480

R - Top 5.72 8.58 400 362 0.065 0.015 55 480 480

R - Bot 24.36 36.53 400 362 0.279 0.065 235 480 480

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180

1414 628

Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

P 628 628 Q R 628 628 S

480 480 Top 480 480

10-180 436 Distribution 360 436 10-180

480 480 Bottom 480 480

00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

628 628 1414 1414

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Top Water 400 53 347

Q 2 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Q 3 Top Water 400 53 347

R 1 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

R 2 Top Earth 400 38 362

R 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 166

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 38.54 57.80 347 0.167 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

Q-2 56.47 84.70 362 0.234 628 0.17 0.62 3.50 OK

Q-3 10.84 16.26 347 0.047 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

R-1 75.76 113.64 362 0.314 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

R-2 21.11 31.66 362 0.087 628 0.17 0.62 3.50 OK

R-3 27.42 41.13 362 0.114 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 400 18.72 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 628

Q - Bot 400 21.69 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 628 628

R - Top 400 5.72 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 628 1414

R - Bot 400 24.36 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 167

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Permissible values

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 90.8 56.5 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1459 1.9

Q - Bot 100.9 59.0 0.0006 0.0010 -0.0004 -0.1014 2.1

R - Top 26.6 58.5 0.0002 0.0010 -0.0009 -0.2059 0.5

R - Bot 51.6 83.6 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0272 1.7

All OK All OK All OK

Page 168

Foundation for Wall: W3 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER SCREEN CHANNEL SIDE W

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 6.26 10.5 Case 1 51.52

Fill 2 Water 6.26 10.5 Case 2 51.52

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 169

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.4

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 253.7 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Bottom

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 400

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 400 0.80 0.60 200

information only. 250 -

m mm mm m mm mm

0.80 400 250 0.60 400 200

Page 170

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 4.50 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 51.52

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 71.16 1.45 -103.18

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 1.42 -9.22

d = LB - GF1

Page 171

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 0.33 -1.50

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 0.83 -3.71

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 73.50 0.87 -63.85

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 181.47

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 3.52

Net moment (kN-m/m) 129.94 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.81 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.11 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 54.66 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 82.26 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 97.79 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 118.49 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 54.77 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.37 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -10.43 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 64.88 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.31 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 172

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 18.88

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 22.89 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 60.38 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 51.52

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -51.52 -51.52

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 71.16 0.40 1.45 28.46

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 53.37 1.55 82.72 0.30 82.72

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 0.43 2.80 1.42 2.80

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 1.52 6.83 0.33 6.83

Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 4.61 0.83 4.61

Self weight of wall 73.50 0.98 72.12 0.87 72.12

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.05 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.25 0.00 0.60 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.87 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 169.09 249.08

Check for overturning 3.28 4.83

Net moment (kN-m/m) 117.56 197.55

Distance resultant from respective point 0.83 0.93

Distance of resultant from S 1.02 0.92

Eccentricity -0.10 0.00

Base Pressure at P 101.73 OK 115.36 OK

Base Pressure at Q 80.30 OK 115.41 OK

Base Pressure at R 68.25 OK 115.44 OK

Base Pressure at S 52.19 OK 115.49 OK

Page 173

Total base pressure P-Q 72.81 92.31

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.42 0.40

Moment at Q (base) 27.87 6.06

Total base pressure R-S 36.13 69.28

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.29 0.30

Moment at R (base) -6.85 3.57

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 66.31 Q 3 Bottom 14.65

R 2 Top 21.74 R 3 Bottom 11.41

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 10.43 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 27.87 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 6.85 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 18.88 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 10.43 15.64 400 347 0.130 0.030 104 480 480

Page 174

Q - Bot 27.87 41.80 400 362 0.319 0.074 269 480 480

R - Top 6.85 10.28 400 347 0.085 0.020 68 480 480

R - Bot 18.88 28.33 400 362 0.216 0.050 181 480 480

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

1414 1414

Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

P 628 628 Q R 628 628 S

480 480 Top 480 480

10-180 436 Distribution 360 436 10-180

480 480 Bottom 480 480

12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

1414 1414 1414 1414

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Top Water 400 53 347

Q 2 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Q 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

R 1 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

R 2 Top Water 400 53 347

R 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 175

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 22.89 34.34 347 0.099 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

Q-2 66.31 99.47 362 0.275 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

Q-3 14.65 21.97 362 0.061 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

R-1 60.38 90.57 362 0.250 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

R-2 21.74 32.61 347 0.094 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

R-3 11.41 17.11 362 0.047 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 400 10.43 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414

Q - Bot 400 27.87 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

R - Top 400 6.85 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414

R - Bot 400 18.88 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 176

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

Permissible values

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 50.5 54.7 0.0003 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.2065 1.0

Q - Bot 59.0 83.6 0.0004 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0169 1.9

R - Top 33.2 54.7 0.0002 0.0011 -0.0009 -0.2318 0.7

R - Bot 40.0 83.6 0.0002 0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0432 1.3

All OK All OK All OK

Page 177

Foundation for Wall: W4 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP INTERNAL WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 7.55 10.5 Case 1 72.63

Fill 2 Water 7.55 10.5 Case 2 72.63

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 178

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.4

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 253.7 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Top

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - -

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 400 0.80 0.80 400

information only. 250 250

m mm mm m mm mm

0.80 400 250 0.80 400 250

Page 179

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 4.50 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 1.65 -104.64

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 1.62 -10.52

d = LB - GF1

Page 180

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 6.50 0.43 -2.80

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 -4.61

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 69.47 1.03 -71.21

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 193.79

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.67

Net moment (kN-m/m) 121.15 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.81 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.22 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 26.25 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 63.02 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 83.70 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 120.47 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 35.71 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.35 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -15.44 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 81.67 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.42 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 181

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 32.23

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 34.21 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 75.17 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -72.63 -72.63

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 0.40 1.65 25.37

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 63.42 1.65 104.64 0.40 104.64

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 0.43 2.80 1.62 2.80

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 6.50 1.62 10.52 0.43 10.52

Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 4.61 1.03 4.61

Self weight of wall 69.47 1.03 71.21 1.03 71.21

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.25 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.25 0.00 0.80 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 1.03 0.00 1.03 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 193.79 291.79

Check for overturning 2.67 4.02

Net moment (kN-m/m) 121.15 219.15

Distance resultant from respective point 0.81 1.03

Distance of resultant from S 1.24 1.03

Eccentricity -0.22 0.00

Base Pressure at P 120.47 OK 104.30 OK

Base Pressure at Q 83.70 OK 104.30 OK

Base Pressure at R 63.02 OK 104.30 OK

Base Pressure at S 26.25 OK 104.30 OK

Page 182

Total base pressure P-Q 81.67 83.44

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.42 0.40

Moment at Q (base) 32.23 5.61

Total base pressure R-S 35.71 83.44

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.35 0.40

Moment at R (base) -15.44 5.61

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 75.17 Q 3 Bottom 13.52

R 2 Top 34.21 R 3 Bottom 13.52

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 15.44 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 32.23 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 15.44 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 32.23 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 15.44 23.17 400 347 0.192 0.045 155 480 480

Page 183

Q - Bot 32.23 48.34 400 362 0.369 0.086 312 480 480

R - Top 15.44 23.17 400 347 0.192 0.045 155 480 480

R - Bot 32.23 48.34 400 362 0.369 0.086 312 480 480

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

1414 1414

Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

P 628 628 Q R 628 628 S

480 480 Top 480 480

10-180 436 Distribution 390 436 10-180

480 480 Bottom 480 480

12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

1414 1414 1414 1414

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Top Water 400 53 347

Q 2 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Q 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

R 1 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

R 2 Top Water 400 53 347

R 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 184

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 34.21 51.32 347 0.148 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

Q-2 75.17 112.75 362 0.311 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

Q-3 13.52 20.28 362 0.056 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

R-1 75.17 112.75 362 0.311 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

R-2 34.21 51.32 347 0.148 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

R-3 13.52 20.28 362 0.056 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 400 15.44 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414

Q - Bot 400 32.23 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

R - Top 400 15.44 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414

R - Bot 400 32.23 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 185

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 74.8 54.7 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1709 1.5

Q - Bot 68.2 83.6 0.0004 0.0004 0.0000 -0.0041 2.2

R - Top 74.8 54.7 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1709 1.5

R - Bot 68.2 83.6 0.0004 0.0004 0.0000 -0.0041 2.2

All OK All OK All OK

Page 186

Foundation for Wall: W5 Location: B/W STAIRCASE & SCREEN CHAMBER WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 1 13.67

Fill 2 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 2 13.67

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 187

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.60 0.60 200

information only. 200 -

m mm mm m mm mm

0.60 200 200 0.60 200 200

Page 188

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.200 m WCF = 1.00 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 15.50 1.10 -17.05

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.00 1.10 -3.30

d = LB - GF1

Page 189

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 0.30 -0.90

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 1.00 0.70 -0.70

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 12.30 0.70 -8.61

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 30.56

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.24

Net moment (kN-m/m) 16.89 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.49 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.21 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 2.00 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 21.59 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 28.12 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 47.72 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 7.08 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.22 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -4.01 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 22.75 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.33 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 190

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 6.51

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 11.42 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 19.75 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -13.67 -13.67

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 15.50 0.30 1.10 4.65

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 15.50 1.10 17.05 0.30 17.05

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.00 0.30 0.90 1.10 0.90

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 1.10 3.30 0.30 3.30

Self weight of central portion of footing 1.00 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70

Self weight of wall 12.30 0.70 8.61 0.70 8.61

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.80 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 0.60 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.70 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 30.56 48.87

Check for overturning 2.24 3.58

Net moment (kN-m/m) 16.89 35.21

Distance resultant from respective point 0.49 0.70

Distance of resultant from S 0.91 0.70

Eccentricity -0.21 0.00

Base Pressure at P 47.72 OK 35.93 OK

Base Pressure at Q 28.12 OK 35.93 OK

Base Pressure at R 21.59 OK 35.93 OK

Base Pressure at S 2.00 OK 35.93 OK

Page 191

Total base pressure P-Q 22.75 21.56

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.33 0.30

Moment at Q (base) 6.51 0.92

Total base pressure R-S 7.08 21.56

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.22 0.30

Moment at R (base) -4.01 0.92

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 19.75 Q 3 Bottom 3.06

R 2 Top 11.42 R 3 Bottom 3.06

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 4.01 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 6.51 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 4.01 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 6.51 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 4.01 6.02 200 147 0.279 0.065 95 240 240

Page 192

Q - Bot 6.51 9.77 200 162 0.372 0.087 141 240 240

R - Top 4.01 6.02 200 147 0.279 0.065 95 240 240

R - Bot 6.51 9.77 200 162 0.372 0.087 141 240 240

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180

716 716

Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

P 436 436 Q R 436 436 S

240 240 Top 240 240

08-160 314 Distribution 240 314 08-160

240 240 Bottom 240 240

00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

436 436 436 436

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Top Water 200 53 147

Q 2 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Q 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

R 1 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

R 2 Top Water 200 53 147

R 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 193

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 11.42 17.13 147 0.117 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK

Q-2 19.75 29.63 162 0.183 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

Q-3 3.06 4.59 162 0.028 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

R-1 19.75 29.63 162 0.183 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

R-2 11.42 17.13 147 0.117 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK

R-3 3.06 4.59 162 0.028 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 200 4.01 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436

Q - Bot 200 6.51 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436

R - Top 200 4.01 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436

R - Bot 200 6.51 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 194

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 67.4 31.5 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0005 -0.0949 2.0

Q - Bot 99.2 34.5 0.0007 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0206 2.9

R - Top 67.4 31.5 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0005 -0.0949 2.0

R - Bot 99.2 34.5 0.0007 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0206 2.9

All OK All OK All OK

Page 195

Foundation for Wall: W7 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER INTERNAL WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 1 13.67

Fill 2 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 2 13.67

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 196

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.50 0.50 200

information only. 200 -

m mm mm m mm mm

0.50 200 200 0.50 200 200

Page 197

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.400 m WCF = 2.00 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 1.15 -14.85

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 1.15 -2.88

d = LB - GF1

Page 198

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.25 -0.63

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 2.00 0.70 -1.40

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 24.60 0.70 -17.22

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 36.97

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.71

Net moment (kN-m/m) 23.31 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.52 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.18 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 7.75 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 24.93 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 38.67 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 55.84 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 8.17 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.21 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -2.17 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 23.63 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.27 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 199

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 5.64

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 7.25 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 21.13 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -13.67 -13.67

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 0.25 1.15 3.23

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 12.92 1.15 14.85 0.25 14.85

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 0.25 0.63 1.15 0.63

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 1.15 2.88 0.25 2.88

Self weight of central portion of footing 2.00 0.70 1.40 0.70 1.40

Self weight of wall 24.60 0.70 17.22 0.70 17.22

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.90 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.50 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.70 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 36.97 53.87

Check for overturning 2.71 3.94

Net moment (kN-m/m) 23.31 40.20

Distance resultant from respective point 0.52 0.70

Distance of resultant from S 0.88 0.70

Eccentricity -0.18 0.00

Base Pressure at P 55.84 OK 41.02 OK

Base Pressure at Q 38.67 OK 41.02 OK

Base Pressure at R 24.93 OK 41.02 OK

Base Pressure at S 7.75 OK 41.02 OK

Page 200

Total base pressure P-Q 23.63 20.51

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.27 0.25

Moment at Q (base) 5.64 1.27

Total base pressure R-S 8.17 20.51

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.21 0.25

Moment at R (base) -2.17 1.27

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 21.13 Q 3 Bottom 5.10

R 2 Top 7.25 R 3 Bottom 5.10

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 2.17 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 5.64 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 2.17 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 5.64 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 2.17 3.25 200 147 0.151 0.035 51 240 240

Page 201

Q - Bot 5.64 8.46 200 162 0.322 0.075 122 240 240

R - Top 2.17 3.25 200 147 0.151 0.035 51 240 240

R - Bot 5.64 8.46 200 162 0.322 0.075 122 240 240

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180

628 628

Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

P 436 436 Q R 436 436 S

240 240 Top 240 240

08-160 314 Distribution 240 314 08-160

240 240 Bottom 240 240

00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180

436 436 436 436

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Top Water 200 53 147

Q 2 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Q 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

R 1 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

R 2 Top Water 200 53 147

R 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 202

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 7.25 10.87 147 0.074 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK

Q-2 21.13 31.69 162 0.196 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

Q-3 5.10 7.64 162 0.047 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

R-1 21.13 31.69 162 0.196 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

R-2 7.25 10.87 147 0.074 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK

R-3 5.10 7.64 162 0.047 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 200 2.17 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436

Q - Bot 200 5.64 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436

R - Top 200 2.17 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436

R - Bot 200 5.64 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 203

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 36.4 31.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1347 1.1

Q - Bot 85.9 34.5 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0002 -0.0369 2.5

R - Top 36.4 31.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1347 1.1

R - Bot 85.9 34.5 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0002 -0.0369 2.5

All OK All OK All OK

Page 204

Foundation for Wall: W8 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER OUTER WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 4.46 10.5 Case 1 73.90

Fill 2 Earth 4.46 18.0 Case 2 42.18

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 205

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 196.3 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Bottom

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 300

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 300 1.20 0.80 200

information only. 200 -

m mm mm m mm mm

1.20 300 200 0.80 300 200

Page 206

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 3.38 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 73.90

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 56.20 1.85 -103.96

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 7.50 1.81 -13.58

d = LB - GF1

Page 207

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 5.00 0.43 -2.14

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 3.38 1.03 -3.46

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 44.36 1.08 -47.89

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 171.02

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.31

Net moment (kN-m/m) 97.13 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.83 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.39 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 2.04 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 46.60 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 63.30 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 93.01 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 29.18 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.42 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -25.76 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 62.53 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.43 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 208

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 24.73

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 34.52 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 57.53 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 73.90

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -42.18 -42.18

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 56.20 0.60 1.85 -103.96

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 64.22 2.05 131.66 0.40 -25.69

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 7.50 0.64 4.80 1.81 -13.58

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 5.00 2.02 10.12 0.43 -2.14

Self weight of central portion of footing 3.38 1.43 4.81 1.03 -3.46

Self weight of wall 44.36 1.37 60.80 1.08 -47.89

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 1.20 0.00 1.25 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.65 0.00 0.80 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 1.37 0.00 1.08 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 212.18 238.89

Check for overturning 5.03 3.23

Net moment (kN-m/m) 170.00 165.00

Distance resultant from respective point 1.37 0.91

Distance of resultant from S 1.08 0.91

Eccentricity 0.14 0.31

Base Pressure at P 33.27 OK 17.45 OK

Base Pressure at Q 50.44 OK 72.59 OK

Base Pressure at R 56.88 OK 93.26 OK

Base Pressure at S 68.33 OK 130.02 OK

Page 209

Total base pressure P-Q 50.23 54.03

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.56 0.48

Moment at Q (base) 23.88 -12.12

Total base pressure R-S 50.08 89.31

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.41 0.42

Moment at R (base) -6.91 10.13

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 42.73 Q 3 Top 9.67

R 2 Top 19.14 R 3 Bottom 20.09

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 25.76 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 23.88 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 6.91 Earth 38 53

kN-m/m Base 24.73 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 25.76 38.64 300 247 0.633 0.149 369 360 369

Page 210

Q - Bot 23.88 35.82 300 262 0.522 0.123 321 360 360

R - Top 6.91 10.37 300 262 0.151 0.035 92 360 360

R - Bot 24.73 37.09 300 262 0.540 0.127 333 360 360

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180

1414 628

Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+12-150 00-000+12-150 00-000+12-150 00-000+12-150

P 754 754 Q R 754 754 S

369 369 Top 360 360

10-180 436 Distribution 300 436 10-180

360 360 Bottom 360 360

00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160

628 628 1414 1414

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Top Water 300 53 247

Q 2 Bottom Earth 300 38 262

Q 3 Top Water 300 53 247

R 1 Bottom Earth 300 38 262

R 2 Top Earth 300 38 262

R 3 Bottom Earth 300 38 262

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 211

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 34.52 51.77 247 0.210 754 0.31 0.80 3.50 OK

Q-2 42.73 64.10 262 0.245 628 0.24 0.72 3.50 OK

Q-3 9.67 14.50 247 0.059 754 0.31 0.80 3.50 OK

R-1 57.53 86.29 262 0.329 1414 0.54 1.02 3.50 OK

R-2 19.14 28.71 262 0.110 754 0.29 0.78 3.50 OK

R-3 20.09 30.14 262 0.115 1414 0.54 1.02 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 300 25.76 Water 53 38 0.2 250 754 628

Q - Bot 300 23.88 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 628 754

R - Top 300 6.91 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 754 1414

R - Bot 300 24.73 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 754

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 212

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 148.5 51.0 0.0009 0.0007 0.0002 0.0432 4.1

Q - Bot 154.9 50.2 0.0010 0.0008 0.0002 0.0395 3.9

R - Top 37.6 53.9 0.0002 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0856 1.0

R - Bot 73.3 69.6 0.0005 0.0003 0.0001 0.0289 2.8

All OK All OK All OK

Page 213

Foundation for Wall: W9 Location: INLET CHAMBER OUTER LONG WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 4.46 10.5 Case 1 24.24

Fill 2 Earth 4.46 18.0 Case 2 13.84

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 214

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.70 0.50 200

information only. 200 -

m mm mm m mm mm

0.70 200 200 0.50 200 200

Page 215

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.250 m WCF = 1.25 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 24.24

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 32.78 1.10 -36.06

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.50 1.10 -3.85

d = LB - GF1

Page 216

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.25 -0.63

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 1.25 0.63 -0.78

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 29.01 0.64 -18.64

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 59.96

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.47

Net moment (kN-m/m) 35.72 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.52 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.21 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 6.70 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 46.20 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 60.31 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 88.52 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 18.52 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.26 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -7.83 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 37.21 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.27 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 217

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 9.26

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 17.77 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 34.71 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 24.24

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -13.84 -13.84

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 32.78 0.35 1.10 -36.06

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 40.14 1.20 48.17 0.25 -10.04

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.50 0.35 1.23 1.10 -3.85

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 1.20 3.00 0.25 -0.63

Self weight of central portion of footing 1.25 0.83 1.03 0.63 -0.78

Self weight of wall 29.01 0.81 23.42 0.64 -18.64

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.75 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.95 0.00 0.50 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.81 0.00 0.64 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 76.84 83.83

Check for overturning 5.55 3.46

Net moment (kN-m/m) 63.00 59.59

Distance resultant from respective point 0.82 0.55

Distance of resultant from S 0.63 0.55

Eccentricity 0.10 0.18

Base Pressure at P 30.95 OK 19.46 OK

Base Pressure at Q 51.94 OK 73.37 OK

Base Pressure at R 59.43 OK 92.62 OK

Base Pressure at S 74.43 OK 131.13 OK

Page 218

Total base pressure P-Q 29.01 32.49

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.32 0.28

Moment at Q (base) 8.07 -3.53

Total base pressure R-S 33.46 55.94

CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.26 0.26

Moment at R (base) -1.98 4.13

V Tension V

Point Case Tension at Point Case

kN/m at kN/m

Q 2 Bottom 25.51 Q 3 Top 3.79

R 2 Top 9.18 R 3 Bottom 13.30

Top/Base Moment Face c' d'

Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 7.83 Water 53 38

kN-m/m Base 8.07 Earth 38 53

Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 1.98 Earth 38 53

kN-m/m Base 9.26 Earth 38 53

Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

2

Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)

2

Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Moment

Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf

Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf

Factor Th D Mu required

M

2 2 2

kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 7.83 11.75 200 147 0.544 0.128 188 240 240

Page 219

Q - Bot 8.07 12.11 200 162 0.461 0.108 175 240 240

R - Top 1.98 2.97 200 162 0.113 0.026 42 240 240

R - Bot 9.26 13.90 200 162 0.530 0.124 201 240 240

Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.

(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall

(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side

(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face

(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S

(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill

(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

12-180+10-180 00-000+10-180

1065 436

Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth

B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D

00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160

P 314 314 Q R 314 314 S

240 240 Top 240 240

10-160 491 Distribution 240 491 10-160

240 240 Bottom 240 240

00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 12-180+10-180 12-180+10-180

436 436 1065 1065

A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Provided Th

Point Case Tension at Face c' d

D

mm mm mm

Q 1 Top Water 200 53 147

Q 2 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Q 3 Top Water 200 53 147

R 1 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

R 2 Top Earth 200 38 162

R 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2

% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)

Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000

Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.

Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength

tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 220

tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab

tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000

Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear

Nominal

Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for

Shear V d shear stress % Ast

Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear

tv

tc

2 2 2 2

kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm

Q-1 17.77 26.65 147 0.181 314 0.21 0.82 3.50 OK

Q-2 25.51 38.27 162 0.236 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

Q-3 3.79 5.69 147 0.039 314 0.21 0.82 3.50 OK

R-1 34.71 52.06 162 0.321 1065 0.66 1.34 3.50 OK

R-2 9.18 13.76 162 0.085 314 0.19 0.79 3.50 OK

R-3 13.30 19.95 162 0.123 1065 0.66 1.34 3.50 OK

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s

D As As'

2 2

mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm

Q - Top 200 7.83 Water 53 38 0.2 250 314 436

Q - Bot 200 8.07 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 314

R - Top 200 1.98 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 314 1065

R - Bot 200 9.26 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1065 314

As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

as given in design parameters.

fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively

x = Depth of NA

d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)

d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 221

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Crack width w =

2

Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400

2

Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

fs x e1 e2 em w fc

2 2

N/mm mm mm N/mm

Q - Top 181.0 27.9 0.0012 0.0013 -0.0001 -0.0244 4.6

Q - Bot 122.8 34.0 0.0009 0.0008 0.0000 0.0079 3.5

R - Top 41.8 33.7 0.0003 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.1476 1.2

R - Bot 59.6 47.9 0.0004 0.0003 0.0001 0.0197 2.7

All OK All OK All OK

Page 222

Foundation for Wall: W10 Location: B/W SCREEN CHAMBER &INLET CHAMBER WALL

1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

3

HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

Fill 3 Case

m kN/m kN-m/m

Fill 1 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 1 4.74

Fill 2 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 2 4.74

Location V M L' X

Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)

L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed

X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall

Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

DESIGN PARAMETERS

2 2 2

N/mm N/mm N/mm

f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f

w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement

acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 223

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'

and acr

Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77

Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

2

Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120

Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m

2

3

rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall

Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B

footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200

footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.50 0.50 200

information only. 200 -

m mm mm m mm mm

0.50 200 200 0.50 200 200

Page 224

GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S

GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25

CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre

LCF = 0.175 m WCF = 0.88 kN/m

Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S

Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P

Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S

Clock-wise moments are +ve

Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.

Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance

Moment

along length from S

Description Explanation

V d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m

Overturning moment. Refer design

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 4.74

data

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 0.93 -11.95

d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 0.93 -2.31

d = LB - GF1

Page 225

V = WF2 Refer Calculations above

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.25 -0.63

d = GF2

Self weight of central portion of footing 0.88 0.59 -0.51

d = 0.5 * LCF

Self weight of wall 10.76 0.59 -6.32

d = G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = L2 - X2

Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00

d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 21.72

Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 4.58

Net moment (kN-m/m) 16.98 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.57 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Eccentricity e (m) 0.01 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S

2

Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 23.48 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

2

Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 24.90 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 25.40 Interpolated between P and S OK

2

Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 26.83 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 12.09 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q

CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.25 Using formulae as given earlier

= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -

Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -0.86 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1

-ve moments indicate tension at top

Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 13.06 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S

CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.25 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 226

= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)

Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 2.67

-ve moments indicate tension at top

V

Point Case Tension at Explanation

kN/m

Q 1 Top 3.32 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1

R 1 Bottom 10.56 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2

Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3

Load /m

Moment Moment

along length Distance Distance

Description about P about S

V from P d from S d

V*d V*d

kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m

Horizontal pressure Fill 1 4.74

Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -4.74 -4.74

Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 0.25 0.93 3.23

Weight of Fill 2 on footing 12.92 0.93 11.95 0.25 11.95

Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 0.25 0.63 0.93 0.63

Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.93 2.31 0.25 2.31

Self weight of central portion of footing 0.88 0.59 0.51 0.59 0.51

Self weight of wall 10.76 0.59 6.32 0.59 6.32

Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.68 0.00

Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.68 0.00 0.50 0.00

Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.59 0.00 0.59 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00

Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total resisting moments 21.72 29.69

Check for overturning