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A Partial Fulfillment in the Subject Professional
Ethics (IT 15)

Submitted by:
Student: Febby James M. Jaron
Submiited to:
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
What is Professional Ethics?
Ethics (Greek ethika, from ethos, character, custom),
principles or standards of human conduct, sometimes called morals
(Latin mores, customs), and, by extension, the study of such
principles, sometimes called moral philosophy. This article is concerned
with ethics chiefly in the latter sense and is confined to that of Western
civilization, although every culture has developed an ethic of its own.

Ethics, as a branch of philosophy, is considered a normative

science, because it is concerned with norms of human conduct, as
distinguished from the formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic,
and the empirical sciences, such as chemistry and physics. The empirical
social sciences, however, including psychology, impinge to some extent
on the concerns of ethics in that they study social behavior. For example,
the social sciences frequently attempt to determine the relation of
particular ethical principles to social behavior and to investigate the
cultural conditions that contribute to the formation of such principles.

Concepts of Professional Ethics

Dharma, Sanskrit term incorporating a number of interrelated

concepts central to Hinduism: the nature of the world, the social order,
cosmic law, and social law. One of the four goals of humanity (along
with pleasure, profit, and release), dharma represents the belief that the
way things are (descriptive law), for example, the sun rises in the east, is
inseparable from the way things should be (prescriptive law), for
example, Brahmins should not eat beef. The Sanskrit textbooks of
dharma (Dharmasutras and Dharmasastras), with their argumentative
commentaries, attempt to reconcile the particular, relativistic dharma of
caste (svadharma, what each person is and should therefore do) with the
general, absolute dharma of a universal ethics (sanatana dharma, eternal
dharma, what all people should do: tell the truth, refrain from killing, be
virtuous, and the like).
Chapter 2
Codes of Ethics
Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in
understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying
that understanding to their decisions. An ethical code generally implies
documents at three levels: codes of business ethics, codes of conduct for
employees, and codes of professional practice.
Levels of Ethical Practices


The U.S. is a society bound by laws. These laws define the difference
between right and wrong, and what is considered acceptable behavior by
the majority of people. A business organization must abide by these laws
to uphold its ethical standards. Wage and hour laws that protect
employees are one example, while guidelines overseeing environmental
protection are another. Businesses must adhere to laws instituted by the
federal government, the state and the local municipality. There are
situations where the actions of a business organization are legal, yet they
may not be particularly ethical. This is a fine line and the organization
has a responsibility to self-police if it wants to be held to a high ethical
The second level of ethical standards for a business organization
concerns its internal policies and procedures. The business creates these
as a guideline for its managers and employees to follow. A set of clearly
stated, highly ethical policies takes the guesswork out of decisions made
on a daily basis. These policies should include hiring practices,
termination procedures, sexual harassment issues, vendor relationships
and gift-giving limits. When staff members of an organization are
trained in a company's policies, actions and reactions become second
nature. Ensuring those policies are ethically sound removes the
possibility for improper actions or decisions.
Though a business organization may be bound by applicable laws and
internal policies, adherence by individuals determines the true integrity
of the company. When an employee joins a business organization, he
comes equipped with his own moral values based on heritage and
upbringing. It is the responsibility of the business organization to foster a
corporate climate that supports ethical behavior by all employees. This is
achieved by continual training in the ethical policies and guidelines of
the company, positive reinforcement of ethical actions and leadership
leading by example.
There are notable consequences for a business organization when it
ignores or breaks the ethical standards at each level. If a business does
not adhere to the law, ramifications may include fines, penalties or even
jail sentences for business owners. Infractions might include polluting
the environment, breaking labor laws or fraudulent financial reporting.
Infractions at the company policy level can result in the need for internal
audits, legal investigations and the institution of corrective actions.
These consequences will most certainly have a financial impact due to
time and costs involved, and may also negatively impact employee
morale as business operations are strained under the pressure.
Noncompliance with ethical standards at the individual level may be the
most costly. If the actions damage the business's reputation, the
consequences may include loss of customers, employee turnover and
damage to staff loyalty.
12 Principles of Ethics
Will and Ego
This is the "moral agent," the person who is doing the moral action. The
will can tend toward the good or toward evil.
The ego is not quite the same as the will. It can be understood as the free
principle of action as well as the demanding, self-centered personality so
beloved of psychological egoists.
In the Nietzschian theory, the "will" to power means that the superior
intellects impose themselves upon the ignorant "herd." for N.
Machiavelli, power is the only real good worth striving for. For both,
power can make the bad good and the good bad. People worship the
superior and, therefore, the superior get to define what is ethical.
Important in Greek and Roman ethics, friendship means far more than
just "being friends" in the modern sense. Ancient concepts of friendship
include civic trust, social unity and political agreement. Friendship, in
short, is what maintains any social unity.
Aristotle deals with justice as either the distribution of goods according
to merit or the respect given to individuals in society. The former leads
to unequal results --since people's merits differ -- the latter, equality
among citizens.
Both ancient and modern ethics deal with the concept of the soul,
roughly speaking, the center of ego, will and intellect. For Plato and his
many followers, the soul must be rightly ordered for both ethical and just
relationships to develop. Reason and intellect must dominate both the
ego and the will.
Some modern ethical theories begin from the idea of a "social contract."
A society is structured in the way that rational people would agree to
before the creation of a society. This "pre-political" agreement -- that is,
an agreement before a society is created -- is called a "contract."
Contract can also refer to reciprocity, where people in civil society
maintain social peace and trust by carrying out all agreements.
Equality and Universality
In modern ethical theories, equality refers to the equal treatment of
persons. This is a rejection of earlier "class" models of society, where
people's honor differed according to what class they belonged to. The
basic idea of equality is that people matter because they are people, not
because they serve a specific function.
Both J.J. Rousseau and Immanuel Kant take universality as the center of
all ethical judgement. If an action, to put it simply, cannot be willed as
universal law binding on everyone, then it cannot be a moral action.
Grace is another word for the "power" of God. In Christian theology,
grace is necessary to achieve blessedness because mankind is inherently
fallen and evil.
The nation is the collective personality of a specific people. Just like the
individual person, the collective person---the nation---should be
sovereign and independent, not the subject of empires, whether political
or economic
Labor has gone from a curse to the very center of human life. Labor is
not just drudgery but is how man creates himself. Labor has ethical
content for this reason.

Principles and Virtue Ethics

Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in
normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that
emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach
which emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that which emphasizes
the consequences of actions (consequentialism). Suppose it is obvious
that someone in need should be helped. A utilitarian will point to the fact
that the consequences of doing so will maximize well-being, a
deontologist to the fact that, in doing so the agent will be acting in
accordance with a moral rule such as Do unto others as you would be
done by and a virtue ethicist to the fact that helping the person would
be charitable or benevolent.

Three of virtue ethics' central concepts, virtue, practical

wisdom and eudaimonia are often misunderstood. Once they are
distinguished from related but distinct concepts peculiar to modern
philosophy, various objections to virtue ethics can be better assessed.
Chapter 3

Morality (from the Latin moralitas "manner, character, proper

behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions,
and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that
are improper. Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived
from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy,religion, or culture,
or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be
universal. Morality may also be specifically synonymous with
"goodness" or "rightness."

Moral philosophy includes moral ontology, or the origin of morals, as

well as moral epistemology, or knowledge about morals. Different
systems of expressing morality have been proposed,
including deontological ethical systems which adhere to a set of
established rules, and normative ethical systems which consider the
merits of actions themselves. An example of normative ethical
philosophy is the Golden Rule, which states that: "One should treat
others as one would like others to treat oneself.
Immorality is the active opposition to morality (i.e. opposition to that
which is good or right), while amorality is variously defined as an
unawareness of, indifference toward, or disbelief in any set of moral
standards or principle
Chapter 4
Professionalism Apply Definition and Differences
Professionalism and work ethic are two important features in the
small-business environment. Business owners often use these elements
to ensure that their company operates in the highest professional and
ethical manner possible. While businesses may be started under a variety
of circumstances, they often contain similar business elements. The style
and organizational structure may also depend on the entrepreneurs
personal use of professionalism and his work ethic when handling
business situations. Professionalism and the work ethic demonstrated by
individuals in the business environment may be built around an internal
moral system or code of ethics. Morality and ethics usually represent the
personal beliefs individuals display when working in business. Common
traits often include transparency, honesty and integrity. These personal
traits often display themselves publicly when individuals respond to
various business situations. A professional work ethic may be seen as
somebody walking the walk regarding their personal morality and
Chapter 5
Hacking is the gaining of access(wanted or unwanted) to a
computer and viewing, copying, or creating data(leaving a trace) without
the intention of destroying data or maliciously harming the computer.
This represents the Good Guys most of the time for they are the ones
who search for these exploits to prevent crackers use a method called
cracking(opposite of hacking). Hacking and hackers are commonly
mistaken to be the bad guys most of the time. Crackers are the ones who
screw things over as far as creating virus, cracks, spyware, and
destroying data.
Coverage of Hacking
Chapter 6
Computer Ethics

Computer Ethics is a part of practical philosophy which concern

with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding
professional and social conduct.[1] Margaret Anne Pierce, a professor in
the Department of Mathematics and Computers at Georgia Southern
University has categorized the ethical decisions related to computer
technology and usage into 3 primary influences:

1. The individual's own personal code.

2. Any informal code of ethical conduct that exists in the work place.

3. Exposure to formal codes of ethics


Anonymity, adjective "anonymous", is derived from

the Greek word , anonymia, meaning "without a name" or
"namelessness". In colloquial use, "anonymous" is used to describe
situations where the acting person's name is unknown. It can be said as
not using your own name, simply. Some writers have argued that
namelessness, though technically correct, does not capture what is more
centrally at stake in contexts of anonymity. The important idea here is
that a person be non-identifiable, unreachable, or untrackable.
Anonymity is seen as a technique, or a way of realizing, certain other
values, such as privacy, or liberty.

Globalization is the tendency of businesses, technologies, or
philosophies to spread throughout the world, or the process of making
this happen. The global economy is sometimes referred to as a globality,
characterized as a totally interconnected marketplace, unhampered by
time zones or national boundaries.
6 Topics of Computer Topics
Chapter 7
Cyber Crimes
Cyber crimes are criminal offenses committed via the Internet or
otherwise aided by various forms of computer technology, such as the
use of online social networks to bully others or sending sexually explicit
digital photos with a smart phone. But while cyber crime is a relatively
new phenomenon, many of the same offenses that can be committed
with a computer or smart phone, including theft or child pornography,
were committed in person prior to the computer age. This sub-section
includes articles on cyber bullying, sexting, and a whole host of other
crimes commonly committed online or with the help of computer
networking technology.