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# Experiment 5 Lab Manual

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
EEE2210: Analog Electronics 1 Laboratory

Title: Use of LM 311 as precision comparator and window detector & Triangular wave
generator using 741 IC and LM 301.

Introduction:

The laboratory experiments are designed in such a way as to reinforce the concepts that are
taught in the theory classes. Before performing the experiments, the students must be aware
of the basic laboratory safety rules for minimizing any potential dangers. The students must
finish the pre-lab part before performing the experiment. The objective of the experiment
must be kept in mind throughout the lab experiment.

## 1) To design and implement precision comparator and window detector by using

LM 311
2) To design and implement Triangular wave generator by using 741 IC and LM
301.

## Theory and Methodology:

Voltage comparator is a circuit which compares two voltages and switches output to either high or
low state depending upon which voltage is higher. Voltage Comparators are used in numerous
applications in practice, including wave-shaping, waveform generation, interfacing between analog
and digital circuits, controllers etc. There are three types of voltage comparators: Single threshold
comparator (open loop comparator), Schmitt trigger (positive feedback comparator) and window
comparator. In this experiment we will study the last two types.

Operational amplifier based triangular wave generator is a simple circuit which is widely used in
function generators. A triangular wave generator can be formed by simply cascading an integrator and
a square wave generator. So first op-amp functions as a comparator and next op amp as an integrator.
The square wave will be applied as the input to the integrator circuit.

Pre-Lab Homework:

1) Get the basic idea about the pin configuration of LM 311 Op Amp and the basic
working principle of precision comparator and window detector.

2) Get the basic idea about the pin configuration of 741 Op Amp and the basic working
principle of Integrator.

Apparatus:

1) Power Supply : DC
2) Signal Generator : AC
3) Oscilloscope :
4) Resistors : 100k, 1k, 500, 14 K, 10 K, 28 K [1 pc]
5) IC : LM 311 [2 pcs], LM 301 [1 pc] and 741 [ 2 pcs]
6) Capacitance : 0.5 F [1 pc]

## Dept. of EEE, Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 1

Experiment 5 Lab Manual
Precautions:

## Be careful of connecting elements to the correct pin number of the op-amp.

Experimental Procedure:

Precision Comparator
V++ = 5V
Rf = 100 K

+15V 500

8
+
Ri = 1K 2 311
- 7
6
3
4 Strobe
1
Ei (open)
-15V

## 1. Connect the circuit according to the figure 1.

2. Apply an input voltage of 5 V (p-p) sinusoidal waves at Ei and observe the output.
3. Apply an input voltage of 5 V (p-p) square waves at Ei and observe the output.

Window Detector:
+15V

8
+
VHT = 5.5 V 2 311
- 7 V++ = 5V
3
4
1
500

-15V
- Ei +

1
4
2
+ 7
3 311
-
VLT = 4.5 V 8

+15V

## 1. Connect the circuit according to the figure 2.

2. Apply an input voltage of 5 V (p-p) sinusoidal waves at Ei and observe the output.
3. Apply an input voltage of 5 V (p-p) square waves at Ei and observe the output.

## Dept. of EEE, Faculty of Engineering, American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 2

Experiment 5 Lab Manual
Triangular wave generator:

C= 0.05
0.5 uF
F
pR = 28K

+15 V
-15 V
-
Ri = 14K 741 +
+ A R = 10K 301
+ 741
- B
VA +
-15 V
- VB
+15 V -
Figure 3: Triangular wave generator

## 1. Connect the circuit according to the figure 3.

2. Observe the wave shapes at the points A and B.

## Questions for report writing:

Precision Comparator:

## 1. Draw the input and output waveforms.

2. Discuss strobe terminal operation.

Window Detector:

## 1. Draw the input and output waveforms.

2. Discuss the circuit operation.

## 1. Draw the input and output waveforms at points A and B.

2. Find the frequency.
3. Connect a Diode in series with the resistor pR and observe the output wave shapes.
What is the difference between the two wave shapes?

Reference(s):

1. http://www.circuitstoday.com/voltage-comparator
2. http://people.cecs.ucf.edu/kasparis/revisedlabmanuals/eel4309/EEL4309.pdf
3. http://www.circuitsgallery.com/2012/04/triangular-wave-generator-using-op-
amp.html
4. Analog Electronics 2 previous lab sheet