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2. 123



3.
1
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1755-18091
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1681-1762
1724-1777
. 1130-1200
1152-1221,
1
2
3
4
5 1702-1764
1. 1360-14241402-1424 3

2. 1551-16241556-1627
3. 1360-14241402-1424
1377-?1399-1402
4. 1900-19661648-1711
5. Matteo Ricci, 1552-16101562-1633
. 4

1. 1830-19021890
2. 1736-17951796-1820



.

1. 1644-1912 5
17551809
1706-1763
1 1 14
2 1761-1830

. 1983
5
76
1. 3 1728-1804 1806
35 14 16
3 4

4
5
5 6
5 26
5 8
2
1728-1804
1728-1804





1

1.
2.
1881-19151644-1912 3.

1.
2 2.
3.

4.
1
6 5.
7 6.
21903

20 1.
2.
.
3.
1. 1 4.
2. 1.5 1 5.
. 6.


. 1.
2.

1.
Graduate School .
.
Preparing and Submitting Your ThesisA guide for MPhil and PhD Students A.
B.
5 6

C. 2.3.4
D. 2.3.5
2. 2.3.6
3. 3.
3.1
3.1.1
1. 3.1.2
2. 3.2
3.2.1
1. 3.2.1.1
2. 3.2.1.2
.
3.2.1.2.1
.
3. 3.2.1.2.2
3.2.1.2.3
3.2.1.2.4
3.2.2
3.2.3
4.
1728-1804 4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
1. 4.2
2. 4.2.1
4.2.2
2.1
4.2.2.1
2.1.1 4.2.2.2
2.1.2 4.2.3
2.1.3 5.
2.2 6.
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5

2.2.6
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
7 8

1981
352
.
.

. -




- 1
1991
45-49




-
2 1989


77-79







- -







- -




-
1 1901-1982

2
1980 2 345




2 1900-1966


1935 11 27

116 3 11



3

1990 180-185


-
4 445-447



5

1991 1 1991 2 -
46-47

6 3

452
1
7

61 1991

3 11-13
1986 66
8
2 1989
1968 703-708 1990 4 1990 12
62
9


7 1961
18-22
.
10
9 10


-

-

. 1 1716-1797


10 10
.
2 1139-1193

11

71

-


-





-
1 1365-1444

7

2
1 1895-1990
1982
5

-
300

2 1612-1682
1983
166-167 1 1625-1701
3 1610-1695-1971

17 -19
1959 186 2 1697-1758

1

4 42
4

5 2
5 119


-
6
1987
26-28
7 1672-1755

1974
2
1 1764-1849

7

29 12

. 2 1763-1820

6


6



-
3 1727-1814


- 4
19
4 1766-1834

1866-1940
3 1
1 1580-1664

38

4 5 1681-1762
5 3
2 1270-1337

3


-
20 -21



-
1 1705-1755

1918
11 12


77

2 1 Benjamin Schwartz
2 1893

1989 33-65
24

2 2 1897-1981
3 1810-1882
1892
1988 156-161
3 2
4 1728-1804
1806
A. Article
2 14 -15
5
1800 4 1 Author, Article, Journal, Vol. _ No. _ (Date), pp._ - _.
Author, Article, in Editor (ed.), Book (Place: Publisher,Year), pp._-_.





-
e.g.

1. Harold L. Kahn, Some Mid-Ching Views of the Monarchy, Journal of Asian


1 1807-1881

1962 Studies, Vol.24 No.2 (Feb.,1965), pp. 229-243.
7
4
2. Willard J. Peterson, Fang I-chih: Western Learning and the Investigation of
2 1775-18441964 Things , in W. T. de Bary (ed.), The Unfolding of Neo-Confucianism (New
13 -16 York: Columbia University Press, 1975), pp. 371-380.




-
B. Thesis

1 1735-1815



Author, Thesis (unpublished _____dissertation, University, Year), pp. _-_.
1806 2 e.g.
2 1602-16831620-1673 1. Lynn A. Struve, Uses of History in Traditional Chinese Society: The Southern
2 Ming in Ching Historiography (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Michigan, 1974), pp. 255-260.
3 1835-1904
1906-1907 10 6
C. Book
4


1959 1 Author, Book (Place: Publisher, Year), pp._-_.
5
e.g.
1934 2 40 -45
1. R. Kent Guy, The Emperors Four Treasuries (Cambridge & London: Council
. on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1987), pp. 155-161.



-
1.

1911
13 14

70 1981
1925 1989
43 1968 .

.
2.

-




-
1993
1 4 1993 1 4




-

3.

4.











-





-


1.

1980 535-576
2.

1990 4 1990 3-14

1.



1974
367-382
2.


1968 703-720



1.

1991
2. 1989

15 16

. 1.

1970
2.
1976



.
-



1.
1918


2.


- 3.
1806



.
-



1.
1986 45-94
1.Benjamin Schwartz
2. 1989

1989
1990 4 1990 12 59-62
2.
1988
.

1974
1.
2.
1959

3.
1982

4. 1983

17

A. Article
Surname, Given Name, Article, Journal, Vol._No._(Date), pp._-_.
Surname, Given Name, Article, in Editor(ed.), Book (Place: Publisher, Year),
pp._-_.
e.g.
1. Elman, B.A., Ching Dynasty Schools of Scholarship, Ching-shih wen-ti,
Vol.4 No.6 (Dec.,1981), pp. 1-44.
2. Ho, Ping-ti, Salient Aspects of Chinas Heritage, in Ping-ti Ho & Tang Tsou
(ed.), China in Crisis (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968), Vol.1,
Book 1, pp. 1-92.

B. Thesis
Surname, Given Name, Thesis (unpublished __ dissertation, University, Year).
e.g.
1. Struve, Lynn A., Uses of History in Traditional Chinese Society: The Southern
Ming in Ching Historiography (unpublished PhD dissertation, University of
Michigan, 1974).

C. Book
Surname, Given Name, Book (Place: Publisher, Year).
e.g.
1. Tu, Wei-ming, Centrality and Commonality (New York: State University of New
York Press, 1989).

1.

2.



3. Big 5