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5
8
11
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20
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48
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60
60
64
69

74
74
76
82
87
101

108
109
110
113


vs. 116
vs. 118
121

124

personal beingspersonal creator

God

3
4

1
2009 59
2
59-60
3
2011 491
4
1999
194
1


On the Two Kinds of
Righteousness, 1519
Against Latomus, 1521

On the Bondage
of the Will, 1525

1517 10 31 The
Ninety-Five Theses

1519
1521 1525

1505 7 StoternheimSaxon



St. Anne5

Thuringia

5
2005 2
5
Sanctus

BenedictusAgnus DeiConfiteor

6
11
7
11-12
8
12
9
1991 80
6




10

1538

11

10
513
11
WA 40 II.445.24-29. WA Martin Luther, Luthers Werke, Weimarer
Ausgabe, 1883-2003.
7

A. Nygren

12

13 Paul Avis14

1516 1545
iustitia Dei

15

16

12

1950 415
13
1997 9
14
P. D. L. Avis, The Church in the Theology of the Reformers (Louisville, KYJohn Knox Press,
1981), p. 1.
15
Alister E. McGrath, Luthers Theology of The Cross: Martin Luthers Theology Breakthrough ( New
York: Basil Blackwell Inc., 1985), p. 103.
16
Ibid., p. 100.
8

Studia HumanitatisVia Moderna

Schola Augustinian Moderna17

William of Ockham

nomialism18

1518 theologia crucis

1519 John Eck

Gregory of Rimini

19 Erfurt

via antiqua

St. Thomas Aquinas

ThomismJohn Duns ScotusScotist

realism20

17
Ibid., pp. 27-92.
18
Ibid., p. 30.
19
Leif Grane, Gregor von Rimini und Luthers Leipziger Disputation, Studia Theologica 22 (1968),
pp. 29-49.
20
McGrath, Luthers Theology of The Cross, p. 30.
9

21

22

humanitas

23

24

absolute powerordained power

25

21
Ibid., p. 36.
22
Steven Ozment, The Age of Reform 1250-1550: An Intellectual and Religious History of Medieval
and Reformation Europe (New Haven, CTYale University Press, 1981)p. 59.
23
McGrath, Luthers Theology of The Cross, p. 36.
24
Ibid., p. 35.
25
Ibid., pp. 55-63.
10

26

grace27

substance

28

1215 the Fourth Lateran Council

29

26
Ibid., p. 58.
27
2006
141
28
141
29
81
11

30

31

32

33

30

31
1985
242

32

12

34

35

1225-1274

36

37

38

2009 14

33
21
34
22
35
244
36
vol.2, 53

2009 24
37
25
38
vol. 4, 233
13

39

40

Against Latomus, 1521

Latomus 1520 6 15

41

42

39
vol. 4, 138
40
26-27
41
Articulorum doctrine fratris M. Lutheri per theologos Lovaniensis damnatorum ratio ex sacris
literis et veteribus (1521).
42
LW 32:136. LW Luther's Works vol. 32: Career of the Reformer II.
Fortress, 1958
14

Jerome

43

44

45

46

47

48

49 123

450

51 52

53

43
Jerome, Dialogue Against the Pelagians, Migne 23, 537.
44
LW 32:153, note 24.
45
LW 32:153.
46
LW 32:153.
47
LW 32:154.
48
LW 32:157.
49
LW 32:158.
50
LW 32:193.
51
LW 32:194.
52
LW 32:204.
53
LW 32:203.
15

54

55

56

57

58

59 60

61

62

54
LW 32:207.
55
LW 32:210.
56
LW 32:213.
57
LW 32:238-239.
58
LW 32:212.
59
LW 32:159.
60
LW 32:159.
61
LW 32:159.
62
LW 32:160.
16

Renaissance
humanism





rhetoric

willclassical
antiquity63

ad fontes

1516 Greek

New Testament64

65

63
Lewis W. Spitz, The Protestant Reformation 1517-1559 (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers,
1992), pp. 55-56; Cf. William J. Bouwsma, Renaissance and Reformation: An Essay in Their Affinities and
Connections, in Heiko Oberman, ed., Luther and the Dawn of the Modern Era (Leiden: Brill, 1974), pp.
127-49.
64
Ozment, The Age of Reform 1250-1550, p. 292.
65

II2004 610
17

neutral moral agents



free choice66

freedom of the will

Everything a person does on his own is sin.67

skepticismassertions

68

69

70

66
Ozment, The Age of Reform 1250-1550, p. 290.
67
Martin Brecht, Martin Luther: Shaping and Defining the Reformation 1521-1532., (trans. James L.
Schaaf ; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1990), pp. 215; Cf. P.S. Allen and H. M. Allen, eds., Opus epistolarum
Des. Erasmi Roterdami, 12 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-58). Vol. 4, no. 1195, lines 64-66.
68
65613 Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation, trans. E. Gordon Rupp, LCC 17
(Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969), p. 37.
69
618 Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation, , p. 47.
70
619
18
71

72

73

74

75

76

71
619
72
620
73

74
629
75
634
76
635-40
19

20

77






78

1513 8 1513 8

1515 4 1516 10

1517 10 31





79

80

77
20-21
78
WA 54.185.12-186.2158
79

80
McGrath, Luthers Theology of The Cross, p. 149.
21


On the Two
Kinds of Righteousness, 1519Against Latomus, 1521
On the Bondage of the Will, 1525

1519 81
1520 3 82 1520 6 15

83
84 1521 5 26
85

81
Facultatis theologiae Lovaniensis doctrinalis condemntio Martini Lutheri, WA 6, 175.
82
Responsio Lutheriana ad condemnationem doctrinalem per magistres nostros Lovaniensis et
Coloniensis, WA 6, 181-195.
83
78164
84
Articulorum doctrine fratris M. Lutheri per theologos Lovaniensis damnatorum ratio ex sacris
literis et veteribus (1521).
85
LW 32:135.
22

Against Latomus, 1521

1524 9 1 A Diatribe

or Discourse Concerning Free Choice86

87

88

1525

1525 12 31 De

Servo Arbitrio; Concerning Unfree [or Enslaved] Choice

89

86
Brecht, Martin Luther: Shaping and Defining the Reformation 1521-1532., (trans. James L. Schaaf ;
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1990), pp. 220.
87
Ibid., p. 218-19.
88
To Johann Lang, WABr 1, p. 90. 65613
89
Ibid., no. 86, pp. 224-25.
23

90
91

92

93

94

90
LW 32:222.
91
LW 32:223.
92
LW 32:175.
93
LW 32:146.
94
LW 32:148.
24
95

96

synecdoche

97 98

99

100

101

102

103

104

12

95
LW 32:148.
96
LW 32:149.
97
LW 32:161.
98
LW 32:161.
99
LW 32:161.
100
LW 32:165.
101
LW 32:165.
102
LW 32:166.
103
LW 32:167.
104
LW 32:167.
25

105

106

107

108

3109

110

111

112

105
LW 32:168-169.
106
LW 32:170.
107
LW 32:182.
108
LW 32:184.
109
LW 32:188.
110
LW 32:189.
111
LW 32:200.
112
LW 32:196.
26
113

114

ad fontes

1516 Greek New Testament115

116

117

7 32118

119

obscure

120





121

113
LW 32:244.
114
LW 32:245.
115
Ozment, Steven, The Age of Reform 1250-1550, p. 292.
116
65610
117
614
118
614-5
119
615
120
616
121
617
27

122

clarity

assertioncertainty

The Holy Spirit is no

skeptic.123 assertion

certain

124

122
617-8
123
LW, vol. 33, p. 24. WA 18, 605, 32.
124
Ibid., no. 10, p. 221.
28

125

126

clarity127

128



45
15129

130

dual clarity

131

125
II
2004 340 De servo arbitrio (1525) WA XVIII,
606.22-24=LW 33, 25.
126
340
127
Ibid., no. 86, p. 227.
128
Ibid.
129
125341
130

29

132




133

134

On the Bondage of the Will, 1525

131
343
132
Ibid., no. 86, p. 227.
133
125343
134
399-400
30

1524 10 9 135

You are the stallion, the devil is riding you.

1361524

works

137

1525

138

1.

139

un-free

choice

135
WA 15:713-16.
136
Ibid., no. 86, p. 224.
137
Ibid.
138
125332
139
Ibid., no. 86, p. 222.
31
140

141





142

143

144

2.

140
65618
141
125414
142
415
143
416
144
417
32
145

146

147

148

149

150

145
421
146
423-4
147
423-6
148
429
149
435
150
429
33






151

152

151
547
152
554
34

153

Martin Brecht

154

155

Against Latomus, 1521

123

456

7156 1

23157

153
603-4
154
Ibid., no. 86, p. 220. 65614
155
Ibid., p. 220-21.
156
LW 32:136.
157
LW 32:136.
35

1.

158

159

160

4:15 5:20

161

162

163

164

165

158
LW 32:151.
159
LW 32:153, note 24.
160
LW 32:153.
161
LW 32:154.
162
LW 32:155.
163
LW 32:155.
164
LW 32:156.
165
LW 32:157.
36
2.

166

167

13:10

168

169

8:2

170

171

172

166
LW 32:157.
167
LW 32:158.
168
LW 32:158.
169
LW 32:200-201.
170
LW 32:207.
171
LW 32:208.
172
LW 32:208.
37
173

174

3.

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

173
LW 32:209.
174
LW 32:209.
175
LW 32:159.
176
LW 32:159.
177
LW 32:159.
178
LW 32:160.
179
The Leipzig Debate (1519), Thesis 2. LW 31:317.
180
LW 32:172.
181
LW 32:173.
182
LW 32:174.
38

183

184

185

186

187

4.

188

189

190

191

183
LW 32:175.
184
LW 32:182.
185
LW 32:191.
186
LW 32:192.
187
LW 32:212-213.
188
LW 32:194.
189
LW 32:195.
190
LW 32:202.
191
LW 32:203.
39

192

193

194

195

196

197

12

198

199

200

192
LW 32:210.
193
LW 32:213.
194
LW 32:213.
195
LW 32:214.
196
LW 32:214.
197
LW 32:238-239.
198
LW 32:239.
199
LW 32:239.
200
LW 32:240.
40

201 202

5.

203

204

205

206

207

208

12

12

201
LW 32:249.
202
LW 32:250.
203
LW 32:177.
204
LW 32:177.
205
LW 32:178.
206
LW 32:178.
207
LW 32:178.
208
LW 32:178.
41
209 1

210

211

212

213

214

215

24:47

216

209
LW 32:223.
210
LW 32:224.
211
LW 32:224.
212
LW 32:226.
213
LW 32:227.
214
LW 32:227-228.
215
LW 32:229.
216
LW 32:231-233.
42

217

6.

218

219

220

221

222

7.

223

224

217
LW 32:233.
218
LW 32:251-252.
219
LW 32:254.
220
LW 32:254.
221
LW 32:255.
222
LW 32:256.
223
LW 32:213.
224
LW 32:213.
43

225

226

227

On the Two Kinds of Righteousness, 1519

15181519

228

225
LW 32:193.
226
LW 32:236.
227
LW 32:236.
228
LW 31:296.
44

1.

229
12:3

230

229
LW 31:297.
230
LW 31:299.
45

231

2.

proper righteouseness

232

233

234

3.

231
LW 31:299.
232
LW 31:299.
233
LW 31:300.
234
LW 31:300.
46
235 56

236

237

238

239

240

235
LW 31:300.
236
LW 31:301.
237
LW 31:301.
238
LW 31:302.
239
LW 31:302.
240
LW 31:303.
47

241

242

W. Pannenberg

243

241
LW 31:304.
242
LW 31:304.
243
W. Pannenberg, Freedom and the Lutheran Reformation, Theology Today, 1981/38-3, p. 291.
48

244

1518 The Heidelberg

DisputationVercruysse1-28

1-12 13-18

19-24

25-28

245

244
McGrath, p. 149.
245
Gerhard O. Forde, On Being a Theologian of the Cross: Reflections on Luthers Heidelberg
Disputation, 1518 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishings Co., 1997), pp. 21-22;
Vercruysse, Gesetz und Leibe: Die Struktur der Heidelberger Disputation Luthers (1518),
Lutherjahrbuch 48 (1981) 7-43.
49

246

247

248

249

250

251

252

253

254

16

255

246
Walther von Loewenich, Luthers Theology of the Cross (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House,
1976), p. 29.
247
Explanation of Thesis 20, Heidelberg Disputation, W. I, 362; LW 31, 52.
248
WA. 1.357.3-4: vivimus in abscondito Dei, id est, in nuda fiducia misericordiae eius.
249
McGrath, p. 152.
250
WA 1.362.30-31.
251
WA 1.362.12-13.
252
McGrath, p. 150.
253
Ibid., p. 149.
254
Ibid., p. 151.
255
Forde, p. 59.
50

256

opus alienum Dei

opus proprium Dei

257

258

Anfechtung

259

260

256
LW 31.50.
257
LW 31.50-51.
258
McGrath, p. 151.
259
Ibid., p. 151.
260
Forde, p. 1.
51

261

humanitas

262

19-21

19

20

21

263

22

261
Ibid., pp. 18, 23.
262
McGrath, p. 36.
263
Forde, p. 23.
52
23

24

20

264

265

266

267

268

269

270

264
WA 5.163.28-29.
265
WA 1.362.14.
266
McGrath, p. 150.
267
Ibid., p. 152.
268
WA 5.176.32-3: CRUX sola est nostra theologia.
269
Forde, pp. 23-24.
270
Ibid., p. 18.
53

271

271
James Nestingen, Luthers Heidelberg Disputation: An Analysis of the Argument, in All Things
New, Essays in Honor of Roy a. Harrisville, ed. Arland J. Hultgren el al., Word and World Supplement
Series, no. 1 (St. Paul: Luther Seminary, 1992), 147-48.
54

272

273

274
Fides Christirighteousness

275

276

277 Loewenich

278

272
WA 5.107.5-9; 5. 263.17-18.
273
WA 5.615.17-22.
274
McGrath, p. 152.
275
Ibid., p. 155.
276
Ibid., p. 156.
277
Loewenich, Luthers Theology of the Cross, p. 112.
278
Ibid., p. 113.
55
279

280

281 Beintker
Anfechtung

282

283

284

285

286

279
McGrath, p. 155.
280
Ibid., p. 150.
281
Ibid., p. 151.
282
H. Beintker, Die Uberwindugn der Anfechtung bei Luther: Eine Studies zu seiner Theologie nach
den Operatones In Psalmos 1519-21 (Evangelische VerlagsanstaltBerlin, 1954), pp. 38-56, 99-104, 106-7,
132-44.
283
H. M. Barth, Der Teufel und Jesus Christus in der Theologie Martin Luthers (Gottingen:
Vandenhoeck u. Ruprecht, 1967), pp. 165-6, 183, 188, 200-201P. T. Buhler, Die
Anfechtung bei Martin Luther (Zurich: Zwingli-Verlag , 1944)
284
WA 5.165.39-166.1.
285
McGrath, p. 151.
286
Ibid., p. 154.
56
287

288

289

290

291

292

287
Loewenich, Luthers Theology of the Cross, p. 135.
288
LW 31, 346-3482004
5-8
289
LW 31, 3442
290
LW 31, 349-35111-13
291
LW 31, 351-35214-16
292
LW 31, 35620-21
57
293

294

295

296

297

298

299

293
LW 31, 364-36538-39
294
LW 31, 364-36538-39
295
LW 31, 36436
296
LW 31, 36740
297
LW 31, 36741
298
LW 31, 37147
299
LW 31, 36841
58

11 771 770 256

300 1911

301

300
1979 24-25
301
25
59

302

303

302
1986 208-209
303
209
60

304

305

304
1976 34
305
40
61

306

307

308

309

306
41
307
30
308

309
31
62

310

311

312

313

314

310

311
32
312

2010 9
313
304146
314
1992 60
63
315

234

316

317

315
60
316
1979 71
317
1997 2
64

318

319

320

321

322

318
3
319
3-4
320
3
321
21
322
45
65

323

324

325

326

327

328

329

330

323
19
324
22
325
25
326
47
327
4
328
55
329
4
330
6
66

331

332

333

334

335

331
7
332
13
333
12
334
13
335
54
67

336

337

338

336
54
337
48
338
19
68

339

340

341

339
45
340
45-46
341
69
69


342
343

344

12

345

descent

346

342
73
343
74
344

345
2011
109
346
1983
261
70

347

348

349

350

347
111
348
1991 112
349
110
350
72-73
71

351

352

353

354 patrilineal descent

351
86
352

353
87
354
90
72
355

356

357

1234

56358

359

360

361

355
267
356
111
357
267
358
110
359
111
360
466
361
63
73

362

363

364

362
69
363
17
364
15
74

365

366

367
368

369

370

371

365
16
366
17
367

368
18
369
20
370
79
371
65
75

372

373

374

375

376

372
79-80
373
465
374
72
375
49
376
265
76
family

377

378

379

380

381

382

377
255
378
265
379
85-86
380
106
381
107
382
108
77

383

384

385

386

387

383
108-109
384
1979 73
385
119
386
119
387
1987 391
78
388

389

390

391

392

393

388
391
389
54-55
390

2010 20
391
1983 172
392
283
393
21
79

394







395

396

397






398

394
282
395
120
396
1979 73
397
11
398
12
80

399

400





1991
131 401







402

399
13
400
23
401
207
402

81

403

404

403
260
404

1981 20-22
82
405

406

407

408

409

410 411

405
1990 204-205
406
234
407
234-235
408
7
409
17
410
52
411
53
83

412

413

414

415

416

412
62
413
54
414
54
415
48-51
416
70
84

417

418

419

417
2010
50-51
418
53
419
126
85

420

421

422

423

424

425

420
127
421
1983 3

Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game, American Journal of


Sociology, Vol. 92, No. 4, January 1987, 944-974
2010 1-44
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17
423
23
424
34
425
35
86





426

427

426
48
427
169-171
87
428

429

430

428
260-261
429
7
430
131
88
431

432

1.

433

434

435

436

437

438

431

432

433
2
434
4
435
7
436
7
437
9
438
11
89

439

440

441

442

439
8
440
9
441

442
11
90
2.

443

444

445

3446

443
157
444
3
445
15
446
12-14
91

447

448

449

450

451

452

453

447
14
448
17
449
17
450
31
451

452
72
453
242
92
454

1.









455

456

454
45
The Chinese Concepts of Face, American Anthropology, Vol. 46, 45-64,
1944Hu, Hsien-Chin
2010 45-70

455
72
456
45
93

457

458

459

460

461

462

457
46
458
132
459
76
460

461

462
76
94

463

464

465

2.

Arthur Henderson Smith,

1845-1932 22 Chinese

Characteristics, 1890

466

463
77
464
92
465
79
466
133
95



467

468

469

470

471

467
39
468
66
469

470
67
471
133
96

472

473

474

475

476

477

472
135
473
138
474

475
231-233
476
235
477
239
97

478

479

480

481

482

483

478
263
479
240
480
288
481

482
111
483
249
98








484

485

486

487

488

484
257-260
485
124
486
22
487

488
22-23
99

489

490

491

492

493

494

495

489
23
490
24
491
93
492
211
493
212
494
22
495
343-344
100

496

497








498

496

497
8-9
498
227
101

499

500

501

Amato

502

503

504

Benedict

499
157
500
269
501
270
502
219
503

504
220
102


505

506

507

34

508

509

510

505
215
506
216
507

508
221
509
270
510
157
103

511

512

1.

513

514

511

512
157
513
71
514
76
104

515

2.

516

517

518

515
77
516
129
517
130
518
96
105

519

520

521

3.

519

520
96
521
99
106

522

523

524

525

526

522
65
523
51
524
46-47
525
49-50
526
57
107





527

528

529

530

527
208
528
53
529
158
530
89
108

531


Lily Abegg


532

531
218
532
39
109

533

533
218
110

25

Wilhelm, 1928

534

535

1981







536

534
74-75
535
95
536
50-52
111

537






538

539

540

537
168
538
172-173
539
92
540
93
112


541

542

543

544

545

541
35
542
346
543
344-345
544
179
545
214
113

546

10

15

16-18

547

546
218
547
50-51
114

115

vs.

116

117

vs.

548

548
2008 51
118

549

549
54-56
119

120

121

122

123

2009

1991

1973
1988

1987

1989

2008

1978

1991

2011

1988

1985

1981

1978

1976

14-22
2009

2008

1990

1995

1959
1983
1984

2010

124
2009

1997

1981

2001

1977

2006

1999
2007

2003
2006
2000
2004
II
2004
1980
1978
2000

1979

23-43
2009

1979

1984

1995

2009

1983

1981

1991
2006

1964

2010

1988

1986

125
1997

1998

1992

2011

1979

2005

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127