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/

f c = f c 1
0.15
(c o )
0.003 o
fc

Stress
c c 2
f c = f 2
/
c
o o

0
Strain 0.003

Figure 4.1: Theoretical Stress-Strain Plot of Concrete

fs = fy

Es

Stress

fs = sEs

y Strain

Figure 4.2: Theoretical Stress-Strain Plot of Steel Reinforcement

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b fc
EC
c Cc
ds fs
c s Cs

dCFRP ds

s fs
Ts
CFRP fCFRP TCFRP

Section Strain Stress Force

Figure 4.3: Strain, Stress, and Force Diagrams of CFRP


Strengthened Concrete Beam

fc
fc

Stress
dc

EC Strain 0.003

Figure 4.4: Integration of Concrete Stress-Strain Curve

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E c

R Neutral Axis c

M
M
ds

S
Tension
Steel

Section Strain Distribution

Figure 4.5: Rotation of Flexural Member

700

600

500
Moment, in-kips

400

300
Control
200 Two-Layer
Three-Layer
100
Four-Layer
0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2
Deflection, in.

Figure 4.6: Theoretical Moment-Deflection Plots of 0/90 CFRP


Strengthened Beams

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700

600

Moment, in-kips 500

400

300
Control
200
Two-Layer
100 Three-Layer
Four-Layer
0
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2
Deflection, in.

Figure 4.7: Theoretical Moment-Deflection Plots of 45 CFRP


Strengthened Beams

700

600

500
Moment, in-kips

400

300 T wo-Layer

200 T hree-Layer
Four-Layer
100

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01

CFRP Strain, in/in

Figure 4.8: Theoretical Moment-CFRP Strain Plots of 0/90 CFRP


Strengthened Beams

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700

600

500
Moment, in-kips

400

300 Two-Layer

200 Three-Layer
Four-Layer
100

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
CFRP Strain, in/in

Figure 4.9: Theoretical Moment-CFRP Strain Plots of 45 CFRP


Strengthened Beams

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FRP Reinforcement Steel Reinforcement

Moment Moment

Elastic Elastic
Energy Energy
Released Released
at Failure at Failure

Deflection Deflection

Figure 4.10: Comparison of Elastic Energy Released at Failure

EINEL, Inelastic Energy


Consumed Prior to Failure
MU
M2
EEL, Elastic Energy
Moment Released at Failure
S2

M1 * ETOT = EEL + EINEL


S
M1 S1 + (M2 - M1) S2
*S=
M2
S1
* S, S1, S2: Slopes of Lines

Deflection

Figure 4.11: Approximation Process for Energy Method

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