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In these activities we are going to embark on one hand on the clearance of the area which is the
process directed for the elimination of the superficial layer of the earth, generally of a low amble
capacity that constitutes the vegetable land of the plot. The land is suitable for sowing and it is an
environmental objective to try and recuperate it, while on the other hand well embark on the mechanical
excavation, strictly speaking, which are the operations assigned to achieve the desired level which is
below the current grade level, based on extracting earth, thus, using for this purpose mechanic methods.


Front loader /tractor mounted scoop
Back digger
Backhoe Loader
Topographic Level


Bulldozer Driver
Front loader Driver
Backdigger Driver
BackkHoe Loader
Truck Drivers
Site Technician

During the earth clearance phase, the constructive process will be as follows:
The existing trees on the land will be cut down.
The roots of the trees will be eliminated and will be taken to the dump.
Elimination of the vegetal soil layer will begin, which is generally of a dark colour and always of a low
amble capacity
If on the plant there were to exist gardens, the necessary section would have to be gathered.
The surplus can be taken up to the cultivation area of a nearby neighbour (if there was
someone that wanted them) or they will be thrown out to the dump.
In the mechanic excavation phase the following phases will be distinguished:
Marking of the different areas to excavate, taking into account the necessary allowance to work in the
extrados of the walls, space necessary to place the earth and the sloping of the earth that as a minimum
will be the internal friction angle of itself.
Excavation strictly speaking of the different areas, in this phase, the depth of the excavation has
to be periodically reviewed, using for this purpose a grade level.
Removal of surplus material to a dump or place where it can be utilized.
To obtain a satisfactory performance we must use the adequate machine for each type of soil, for this
purpose we will have the following considerations.
A bulldozer will be used for excavating bigger surfaces.
A back digger will be used for important excavations.
For smaller excavations or very small scale excavations the backhoe loader will be used.

In the clearing phase, and in case of replacing the surface back to its original aspect, it is fundamental to
gather this superficial layer of soil in such a way as to avoid polluting it and for it not to lose its aptitude
for sowing once it is laid back.

During the mechanic excavation phase, the following possible interferences will be considered:
Proximity of constructions and their condition
Existence of Water, gas or electricity conductions
Proximity from the electric and telephone posts Circulation and parking of vehicles
Vibrations focus
Filtrations and variations of the phreatic level.


Rocks: maximum Difference of 25 cm between extreme height levels of the desired height level.
Soil: Maximum difference of 10 cm between extreme height levels of the desired height level.

Rocks: differences in heights of +10 cm and -15 cm
Soil Differences in heights of 5 cm



8.1 References

The following standards are referred to in this section:

BS 1377 - Method of test for soils for civil engineering purposes.

8.2 Excavation Control

8.2.1 Excavation Support

In the case of excavation for structural works which is 1.5 m or greater in depth, details of the excavation
support system will be submitted to Direction for review and approval before any excavation work
commences. Details of the excavation support system will be complete with, but not limited to, the
(a) drawings of the structural support members showing materials, sizes and spacing,
(b) calculations showing the maximum theoretical deflection of the support member.

The system is to be designed so that no members extend through surfaces exposed in the finished
construction, and no shoring or bracing is placed under permanent structures.

8.2.2 Removal of water

At locations where the excavation extends below the groundwater table, a dewatering system will be
provided, which will lower ambient groundwater levels. The resulting groundwater level will be at a depth
which is sufficiently below the excavation level so as to allow the safe and proper execution of the work.
The resulting foundation level will be a stable, dry sub-grade which is suitable for the execution of
subsequent operations.

The design of the dewatering methods will define basins so that no critical amounts of soil, sand or silt are
removed during either the dewatering operations.

Complete working drawings showing the type of dewatering and groundwater control system proposed will
be submitted for his review, indicating the proposed location(s) for the discharge of extracted groundwater
and the details of measures required to prevent damage due to settlement of roads, pavements, utilities,
sewers, buildings and other structures outside the excavation but within the area affected by the

The designs of the structure excavation support system and the dewatering systems specified above will
be prepared by and signed by a qualified engineer experienced in this type of design work.

8.2.3 Inspection

Following a detailed inspection of all adjacent structures, a report will include the details about the pre-
construction condition of all structures that may be affected during construction of the works. The report
will include photographs, drawings and sketches with levels and dimensions fully illustrating the structure's
condition. In particular, it will note any existing damage or structural inadequacy. Deficiencies and damage
are to be suitably marked on the structure in a way that it is not permanently defaced.
For every unity of work, the inspection control related to complete Earthworks will be registered under the
form attached to Annex I of this document.

When the excavation has been carried down to formation level, the Direction will be informed to inspect
the excavation, in the case its considered necessary.

8.2.4 Unsound material

Any loose, improperly compacted, soft or other unsuitable material detected below or adjacent to structural
foundation levels will be completely removed, backfilled with a suitable material and compacted to 95% of
the maximum dry density as determined by BS 1377 Part 4. Backfilling will be done in layers with an
unconsolidated thickness not exceeding 200 mm up to the foundation level.

Any over excavation will be backfilled with Class C25 concrete.

8.2.5 Finishing to Excavation

All rock or other hard foundation material will be cleaned of all loose material. All seams or crevices will be
cleaned and grouted. All loose and disintegrated rock and thin strata will be removed.

When the structure is to rest on material other than rock, excavation to final grade will not be made until
just before the structure is to be placed/constructed and special care will be taken not to disturb the
excavated surface. The surface required will be rolled and compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density.

8.2.6 Storage of Excavated Material

Excavated material will not be stored or deposited in such a way as to endanger structures or cause an
obstruction of any kind.

If agreed by the Direction, the surplus material may be disposed for the works in an approved manner.



1. Is area released for work?
2. Is equipment adequate?
3. Are existing structures and utilities adequately protected?
4. Is removed material properly dispositioned?
5. Dust and dirt control:
a) Haul routes maintained for dust control by water or chemicals?
b) All paved areas kept clean?

1. Does completed depth and configuration comply with drawings and
2. Required shoring and bracing in place?
3. Existing utilities protected?


1. Excavation properly compacted and verified by test lab?
a) All sleeves, pipe cable, grounding, conduit installed and
2. approved?
3. Approved fill material is used?
4. Is fill being placed in level lifts within thickness limits?
5. Is proper compaction attained and verified by test lab?
Have contaminated (and spongy) areas been cut out, filled and
compacted with approved material?
Approved bedding and backfill material is used?
a) Is bedding fully compacted to support pipe or utility at line,
grade, and slope required and verified by inspector?

Approved grading material used?
2. a) Final shaping/compacting and blade and 3-wheel rollers of 8-10
3. ton?
Sufficient slope for positive drainage away from structures to
4. drainage system?
Is rough grading reasonably even and free of irregularity and
allowance made for finish grading?
Is finished grade:
a) Cleaned of all loose and foreign material?
b) Smooth and even in profile (= 1 in 10) and not more than 1
from true elevation?