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Seizures(are(the(clinical(manifestation(of(a(hyperexcitabile(neuronal(network,(drivin(by(the(

flex(of(ions(across(the(cell(membrane.((
Actions(of(glutamate(OR(inadequate(inhibition(of(GABA(
Available(antiepileptic(drugs((AED)(generally(act(to(enhance(inhibitory(processes(or(oppose(
excitatory(processes.(AED(affects(numerous(molecular(targets(and(some(act(on(multiple(
targets(to(help(control(seizures.(
(
Voltage(gates(sodium(channels:((
Voltage(gated(sodium(channels(enter(an(inactive(stage(following(each(action(potential,(
prolongation(of(this(inactive(stage(prevents(neurons(from(firing(rapidly(and(is(thought(the(
principle(mechanism(of(AEDs(of((PHYNETOIN,(carbamazepine(and(mamotrigine)((
(
Potassium(
A(potassium(channel(opener(enhances(the(transmembrane(potassium(currents.(By(keeping(
these(channels(open(longer.(This(is(believed(to(stabilize(the(resting(membrane(potential(and(
reduce(brain(excitability((
(
Calcium(
Calcium(channels(also(represent(AED(targets.(Low(voltage(calcium(currents(cause(rhythmic(
spike(and(wave(patterns(of(generalized(absence(siezures,(some(AEDs(block(this(chanell,(
inhibiting(slow(depolarizations(necessary(to(generate(spike(wave(bursts.(
(
Synaptic(visicles((
The(AED(binds(to(the(viscle(protein(SV2A,(binding(at(this(site(may(modulate(synaptic(
transmission(through(alteration(of(viscle(fusion(
(
GABA(
GABA(is(an(inhibitory(neurotransmitter(and(the(GABA(receptor(is(part(of(a(chloride(channel(
complex.(Mechanisms(enhancing(GABA(mediated(inhibition(are(believed(to(include((
1T! Receptor(agonist(
2T! Prevention(of(the(breakdown(of(GABA(by(the(inhibition(of(GABA(transaminase(
3T! Decrease(of(reuptake(of(GABA(
(
Multiple(targets(
(
(
By(knowing(the(differences(and(MOAs(among(AEDs,(in(particular(their(effect(on(neuronal(
activity.(We(can(begin(to(more(fully(understand(the(impact(of(that(can(have(on(effective(
seizure(control(