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Section 4


Review on routing techniques that support mobility in Wireless

Sensor Network (WSN)

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a special kind of ad hoc network that

consists of a number of sensors spread across a geographical area. Each
sensor has wireless communication capability and sufficient intelligence
for signal processing and networking of data. WSNs are being widely used
for monitoring large areas. Examples of application include environmental
monitoring, outdoor industrial processes, military surveillance etc.
Monitoring a large area requires a large number of sensor nodes which
with current technology implies a prohibitive cost and excessive (radio)
interference. An alternative approach to address this problem is to employ
mobile nodes which is nodes mounted on robots. The mobile nodes can
sample areas poorly monitored by the stationary sensors. This approach
that includes both static and mobile nodes is referred to as mixed WSN. It
employs a smaller number of stationary nodes that collaborate with few
mobile nodes in order to improve the area monitoring.

On the first part, the article focus on the available energy aware routing
protocols proposed for WSNs. These routing protocols can be classified
into three categories; Data Centric, Hierarchial-Cluster based and Location
based routing.

From what I understand, in data centric approach, it is to combine the

data coming from different sources enroute (in-network aggregation) by
eliminating redundancy, minimizing the number of transmissions; thus
saving network energy and prolonging its lifetime. It finds routes from
multiple sources to a single destination that allows in-network
consolidation of redundant data. sensors measure events and create
gradients of information in their respective neighborhoods. The base
station requests data by broadcasting interests. Interest describes a task
required to be done by the network. Interest diffuses through the network
hop-by-hop, and is broadcast by each node to its neighbors. As the
interest is propagated throughout the network, gradients are setup to
draw data satisfying the query towards the requesting node. Each sensor
that receives the interest setup a gradient toward the sensor nodes from
which it receives the interest. This process continues until gradients are
setup from the sources back to the base station.

In Hierarchial cluster based approaches, sensor nodes are grouped and

the one with the greatest residual energy is usually chosen as the cluster
head. In this case efficient energy distribution can be archived. Some of
the proposed cluster based protocols are the Low-Energy Adaptive
Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) [35], Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor
Information Systems (PEGASIS) [36], Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient
Sensor Network protocol (TEEN).

In Location based routing, the location information of the sensor nodes is

smartly utilized in order to discover energy efficient routing paths. A large
number of protocols have been developed in this category and some of
them have been primarily proposed for mobile ad hoc networks.

After explaining about some of the techniques, they had come up with
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) routing technique in order to achieve the
mobility criteria in WSN.

So, MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Network) routing techniques are explicitly

designed to cope with mobile environments. Most people said they can
also be applied to handle mobility in WSNs. In mobile ad-hoc networks,
mobile nodes form the network routing infrastructure (no fixed
infrastructure) by connecting in an ad-hoc manner and communicate with
each other over wireless links. Examples where mobile ad hoc networks
may be employed are the establishment of connectivity among handheld
devices or between vehicles. Due to the mobility of the nodes, the
topology of the network may change rapidly and without prior notice. This
makes it almost impossible to use conventional routing table methods
employed for fixed networks. These differences from the fixed network
topologies result in a much more complicated algorithms to maintain an
accurate knowledge of the network topology. Special care has to be taken
that route discovery does not use up the majority of the limited available
bandwidth. Furthermore, MANET routing protocols are usually IP based
and should allow for interaction with standard wired IP services rather
than being regarded as a completely separate entity.

Mobile ad hoc network routing protocols can be separated into two

different categories: topology-based and position-based routing.

Topology-based routing protocols use the information about the links that
exist in the network to perform packet forwarding. They can be further
divided into proactive, reactive and hybrid approaches. Position-based
routing uses the geographic position information of the nodes to forward