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2 Discussion

The main procedures had been done after the main power supply turned on and the panel
instrument lit up. All the valves were in the startup position, and the default value entered for
FIC81 and LIC81. The default value for FIC81 and LIC81 is stated at Table 1. All the basic
operation had been familiarized. The controllers were in manual mode. For startup, both the
controller output at 50% and the valve at FCV81 and LCV81 were 50% opened, and started
recording. Water was flowing into T82 until 50% before the outflow pump, P82 started. Because
T82 is a non-self-regulating, water can overflow if the inflow is greater than outflow. The result
can be seen at Chart 1.

The accuracy of control instrumentation is very important with accuracy requirements

inherently related to control system objectives. (Seborg et al., 2010). Based on the results for
level measurement, Chart 2, 3, 4 and 5 shows the setpoint for 200mm, 400mm, 500mm and
600mm respectively. All of them are labelled as A, B, C, and D. Based on Table 2, the level
measurement result, for 200mm, value of engineering unit in LIC81 is 204mm, but when the P81
and P82 turned off, the value is 199mm. For the red pen value, the value is 24.5%, weather both
of the pump is turned on or vice versa. For Channel 1, the value when the pump turned on is 199
and 198 when the pump is off. Based on ruler length, the value obtained is 190mm when pump is
on and 185 when pump is off. For B, the readings for Engineering Unit, Red pen, Channel 1 and
Ruler when the pump is turned on are 400mm, 50.0%, 400mm and 385mm respectively. When
the pump is off, the readings obtained are 385mm, 48.5%, 393mm and 377mm. For C, which is
set at 500mm. the values are 500mm, 62.0%, 500mm and 484mm. All of these value are when
the pump is turned on. When the pump is turned off, the values are 505mm, 62.5%, 505mm and
490mm. Lastly, for D, 600mm, the values acquired are 599mm, 74.5%, 599mm and 593mm.
Those are the values for Engineering Unit, Red pen, Channel 1, and Ruler when the pump is on.
For turned off pump, the values are 596mm, 74.0%, 596mm and 587mm. Based on the results
obtained, it shows that the value for ruler is too different compared to the electronic reading. This
may be cause by human errors. When trying to obtain the value for T82 when the pumped is on,
it is almost impossible to acquire the perfect value, as the water inside the tank rippled too much.
But, electronic also is not accurate. Based on the results for Engineering Unit, there are a small
differences when the pump is either turned on or off.
For Inflow load step disturbance test, the results obtained is not completed as the valve
cannot operate effectively. This was cause when the compressed air stopped supplying air to the
valve, causing the valve to not operate as usual. So, theoretically, the inflow load step
disturbance can be cause by cycling of a process controller at an upstream process unit, (Wade,
2005). If sinusoidal disturbance is detected, the input will cause the level and outflow to oscillate
at the same period. Generally, disturbances is often a problem is process control. Eliminating
disturbances is usually the top goal for process control. Disturbance will cause a bigger problem
if it occurs in a steady state.

For the open loop test, the test cannot be done as the compressed is not available at the
moment. The general procedure is switch the LIV81 to manual mode and the manual value is 0.
The trend should shows a step decrease about 10%. Then, the level remain unchanged over Dead
Time and then rise again in straight line. Theoretically, in open loop, the variations are depends
on the source of the disturbance. Usually, steps are introduced because it contains all the
frequencies from zero till infinity. Because of that, it is useful for evaluating loop response and to
test the controllers effectiveness. Dynamic elements consists of dead time and lags. For this part,
the Dead Time and Response Rate has to be determined from the chart response. After obtaining
the data, the Ziegler and Nichols open loop test formulae was used to determine the Proportional
Band (PB%) and Integral Time, (TI, secs).
D. E. Seborg, D. A. Mellichamp, T. F. Edgar, F. J. Doyle. (2010). Process Dynamic Control. John
Wiley & Sons.

H.L. Wade, (2005). Tuning Level Control Loops. Retrieved from

K. R. Muske, (2003). An Introductory Process Control Laboratory Experience. Villanova

University, Villanova

B. G. Liptak, (2013). Process Control: Instrument Engineers Handbook. Butterworth-