Mrinal K Mandal
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Department of E & ECE
I.I.T. Kharagpur. 721302.
www.ecdept.iitkgp.ernet.in
1
Books
Reference books:
1. Microelectronic Circuits, A.S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Oxford
University Press.
2. Introduction to Microelectronics, B. Razavi.
3. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Robert L. Boylestad,
Prentice Hall.
4. The Art of Electronics, Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill.
5. Electronic Devices and Circuits, David A. Bell. 2
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Some Important Points
Attendance.
Risk of deregistration: if attendance is lower than a certain
percentage.
Total marks distribution = surprise class test + attendance + mid
sem + endsem evaluation results.
n+1 surprise class tests: best n results will be considered.
Register in Intinno paathsaala.
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Signal
Signal is a function that conveys information about the behavior or attributes of
some phenomenon.
In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space
(such as an image) is potentially a signal that might provide information on the
status of a physical system, or convey a message.
Popular forms: audio, video, speech, image, communication, geophysical, sonar,
radar, medical and musical signals.
In electronics engineering: time varying voltage/ current/ electromagnetic waves.
Analog and digital signals.
signal
Electronic
Electromagnetic
signal
wave
Transmitter.
Signal
processing transducer
Receiver
signal
Electromagnetic Electronic
wave signal
Receiver.
RMS value of a function:
T 2 2
T2
1
f ( t ) dt
T T
= lim 1
f ( t ) dt .
T2 T1 T1
f rms f rms = lim
T
0
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Function Generator
rms values:
Signal generator
t
Effect of thermal noise
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Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
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Electronic Circuits
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Passive Components
1. Resistor
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Resistor Colour Coding
Inside material  A mixture of finely
powdered carbon and an insulating
material, usually ceramic. A resin holds the
mixture together. The resistance is
Thin film carbon resistor determined by the ratio of the powdered
ceramic to the carbon.
Colour codes:
Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Resistance AB10^C D%
Example: yellowvioletredgold 4.7k 5%, between 4,465 and 4,935 .
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Passive Components
2. Inductor
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Concept of Ground
Ground: a common reference point in any electrical circuit that may or may not
physically connected to the Earth.
High power circuits: exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent
user contact with dangerous voltage if electrical insulation fails.
Connections to ground limit the buildup of static electricity when handling
flammable products or electrostaticsensitive devices.
In some power transmission circuits, the earth itself can be used as one
conductor of the circuit, saving the cost of installing a separate return conductor.
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Concept of Ground
Planet earth is not a good conductor of dc voltage.
C D
A B
1k 1k
1k 1k
Planet RCD = ?
RAB = ? earth
PCB
ground
VTh calculation:
Calculate the no load output voltage. It is equal to VTh.
RTh calculation:
Remove if any load.
Replace all sources by their input impedances.
Compute the total resistance between the load terminals. 17
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Example
Obtain the Thevenins equivalence of the following circuit.
VTh calculation:
2 k
A
1 k 7.5 V
+

B
RTh calculation:
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Nortons Theorem
Any twoterminal linear, bilateral network containing impedances and energy
sources can be represented by an independent current source IN in parallel with a
single impedance ZN (admittance YN).
IN is the shortcircuit current between the terminals, ZN is the impedance viewed at
the terminals when all independent energy sources are replaced by their internal
impedances.
A
A
Black
IN RN
box
B
B
IN calculation:
Short the output terminals and calculate current through it.
RN calculation:
The same as RTh.
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Example
IN calculation:
RN calculation:
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Source Transformation
Rth
A A
A
Black + IN RN
box Vth

B B
B
Calculations:
RTh = RN
VTh = I N RN
VTh
IN =
RTh
Voltage source Current source
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Example
Obtain the Thevenins equivalent of the following circuit.
RTh calculation:
RTh = {(22) + 1}  2
= 1
VTh calculation:
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Capacitor Circuit
dv ( t )
Instantaneous current: i ( t )
dt
dv ( t )
=C
dt
V0 cos t [ for v ( t ) V0 sin t ]
= C=
= CV0 sin t +
2
= I 0 sin t +
2
1 1 1 1
= + + ... +
Ceq = C1 + C2 + ... + Cn Ceq C1 C2 Cn
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Inductor Circuit
di ( t )
Instantaneous voltage: v ( t )
dt
di ( t )
=L
dt
I 0 cos t [ for i ( t ) I 0 sin t ]
= L=
= V0 cos t.
1 1 1 1
= + + ... + Leq = L1 + L2 + ... + Ln
Leq L1 L2 Ln
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RC Circuit
Frequency domain analysis:
1 jC
vc = vin
R + 1 jC
vc 1 1
= =
vin 1 + jCR 1 + sCR
vc 1
RC circuit  = (transfer function)
vin 1 + (CR )
2
(Lowpass filter)
f 0, gain =1
Pout 1 vout 1 LPF
Halfpower points: = = . f , gain =0
Pin 2 vin 2
1 1
=
1 + (CR )
2
2
Log100.5 = 0.301
1 + (CR ) =
2
2
1 3dB 1
= = 3dB , f 3dB= = f3dB: cutoff frequency (fc).
RC 2 2 RC
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CR Circuit
R
vR = vin
R + 1 jC
vR jCR sCR
= =
vin 1 + jCR 1 + sCR
vR CR
 = (transfer function)
vin 1 + (CR )
2
CR circuit
(High pass filter)
f 0, gain =0
Halfpower points: HPF
f , gain =1
CR 1
=
1 + (CR )
2
2
1
= = 3dB ,
RC
1
f 3dB = 3dB = . The same as RC circuit.
2 2 RC
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Comparison of CR & RC Frequency Responses
VR = RI
I
V = ZI VC = jxCI
V = ZI
VL = jxLI
I
VR = RI
Phasor diagram
RL circuit
Output voltage across the inductor: Output voltage across the resistor:
j L R
vL = vin vR = vin
R + j L R + j L
vL L v R
 = (transfer function)  R = (transfer function)
vin R 2 + ( L ) R 2 + ( L )
2
vin 2
f 0, gain =0 f 0, gain =1
HPF LPF
f , gain =1 f , gain =0
R R
=
Halfpower points for the both cases: 3dB = rad / S , f 3dB Hz.
L 2 L 30
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Time Domain Analysis
Steadystate response: f s (t ) = Lt f (t )
t
Laplace transform: L [ f =
(t )] F=
(s)
0
f (t ) e st dt , f (t ) < K e at , a :real and positive, K :constant
Re( s ) > a
+ iT
1
= =
L
1
Inverse Laplace transform: f (t ) [ F ( s )] e st F ( s ) ds
2 i iT
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Time Domain Analysis
1
Exponential function: L [e ] =
at
sa
dy
Differentiation: L =
[ ] sY ( s ) y (0 ) , y (0 ) is the initial value of y (t )
dt
t
1
Integration: L [ 0 y dt ] =
s
Y (s)
1 sL
sC
Capacitive reactance Inductive reactance
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Time Domain Analysis of RC/CR Circuits
VC V 1
I ( s=) = ...(3)
1 + sCR R s + 1 CR
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V t CR ...(4)
i (t ) = e U (t )
R
t RC
Voltage across the resistor: v=
R i =
R V e ...(5)
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Time Domain Analysis of RC/CR Circuits
Rise time:
Time taken to reach the capacitor voltage from 10% to 90% of the final value.
r = 2.3 RC 0.1RC
= 2.2 RC
~ 0.35 2RC
= 0.35/ fc. ...(8)
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Time Domain Response of RC/CR Circuits
vC V (1 e
vR = V e t RC
= t RC
)
vR / vin = 0.905 at t = 0.1
vC / vin = 0.95 at t = 3 = 0.990 at t = 0.01
= 0.993 at t = 5 = 0.05 at t = 3
= 0.007 at t = 5
Solutions:
At t = 0, the capacitor is shorted, so V0 = 0 and I0 = 10 mA.
Time constant = 1k 1n = 1 S.
(
vC V 1 e t RC
Now, = )
Rise time = 2.2 RC
= 2.2 1k 1n
= 2.2 S.
Ton
RC circuit
Charging phase:
vR = V e t RC
vC V (1 e t RC )
=
Discharging phase:
vC = V e t RC
vR = V e t RC
Rectangular pulse:
V U ( t ) U ( t Ton )
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
RC Integrator
Consider the output across the capacitor at high frequency i.e. f >>1/Ton.
vin
Loop current is i = ...(1)
R + 1 jC
1 t
vC
RC 0
vin dt ...(4) Low pass filter at high frequency
At high frequency, the voltage across the capacitor is proportional to the time
integration of the input voltage.
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RC Integrator Waveforms
1:5 approximation:
5/PRF (=5T)
Integrator circuit
Output:
at medium
vc frequency
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
RC Differentiator
Consider the output across the resistor at low frequency i.e. f <<1/ Ton.
vin
Loop current is i = ...(1)
R + 1 jC
The capacitor has enough time to charge up until vc
is nearly equal to the source voltage.
The frequency condition, R << 1 C gives
vin i
Differentiator circuit i vin =
vc
1 jC jC ...(2)
dvc
Now, voltage across the resistor is vR= iR= C R ...(3)
dt
dvin
vR R C ...(4)
dt High pass filter at low frequency.
At low frequency, the voltage across the resistor is proportional to the time
differentiation of the input voltage.
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RC Differentiator Waveforms
Some other waveforms.
[Differentiation]
1:5 approximation:
1/PRF (=T) 5
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
RL/LR Circuits
V V 1 1
I (s) = = ...(3) Time constant: =L/R
s ( R + sL ) R s s + R L
=1 2 f c
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
i (t ) =
V
R
(1 e Rt L ) , t 0
...(4)
vR =i R =V (1 e Rt L ) , vL =v vR =Ve Rt L . ...(5)
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problem
A positive square wave of amplitude 10 V and PRP of 1 kHz is applied to the
following circuit. Draw the vR and vC waveforms for R = 1 k, C = 10 nF.
Solution:
Time period of the input wave: 1 mS.
Ton = 0.5 mS
(
= V 1 e T ON
vC max RC
)
= 10 V
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Semiconductor
A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity between that of
a conductor such as (copper, 5.96x107 S/m) and an insulator (glass, ~1013 S/m).
In semiconductors
The conductivity increases with increasing temperature.
Current conduction occurs via free electrons and "holes", charge carriers.
Doping greatly increases the number of charge carriers.
Contains excess holes ptype, and excess free electrons ntype.
Si atom Ge atom
Electron configuration: 2, 8, 4. Electron configuration: 2, 8, 18, 4.
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Intrinsic Semiconductor
2. ptype material:
Created by introducing impurity elements that have three valance electrons ( eg.
boron, gallium, indium etc).
Impurities with three valance electrons are called acceptor atoms.
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Extrinsic Semiconductors
The resulting material is electrically neutral.
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Drift and Diffusion Currents
E
atom
electron
hole
Drift current
=
Electrical conductivity e ( nn + p p ) (cm)1 n: electron concentration/ cc
p: hole concentration/ cc
n: electron mobility cm2/VS
p: hole mobility cm2/VS
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Drift and Diffusion Currents
Diffusion current
Diffusion
Charge carriers (one type) when injected from an external source produces
concentration gradient.
Current density is proportional to the concentration gradient.
where
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pn Junction: Semiconductor Diode
pn diode
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ReverseBias Condition
The holes in the pside and the electrons in the nside are attracted by the
electrodes the depletion region widens barrier voltage increases.
Minority carriers are generated on each side causes a reverse saturation current.
Reverse saturation current is almost independent of applied voltage but increases
with increasing temperature.
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ForwardBias Condition
The holes in the pside region and the electrons in the nside region are driven
toward the junction width of the depletion region is reduced barrier voltage
decreases.
With increasing forwardbias voltage, the barrier voltage finally disappears
current increases suddenly.
=
Diode current can be given by Shockley equation: ID (
I 0 eVD nVT
1 )
n = 1 for Ge and 2 for Si, VT = kT/e = 26 mV at room temp, T temperature (K),
k = Boltzmans const (1.38x1023 J/K), e = electronic charge (1.6x109 C)
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IV Characteristics
Temperature coefficient for a pn junction: 1.8 mV/0C for Si and 2.02 mV/0C for
Ge. 55
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Diode Breakdown Under Reverse Bias
1. Avalanche breakdown:
Etotal
Ein + Eext
Avalanche breakdown Avalanche of carriers
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Diode Breakdown Under Reverse Bias
2. Zener breakdown:
High electric field (~107 V/m) enables tunnelling of electrons from the valence to
the conduction band of a semiconductor (tear out a covalent bond) a large
number of free minority carriers suddenly increases the reverse current.
High doping concentration is required.
Occurs at lower reverse bias voltage (~ 6 V).
ID
Iz p n VD
Symbol
Avalanche Zener
Ein + Eext breakdown breakdown
VD
VD
Ideal diode response. Ideal diode as a switch. More accurate: use to solve problems.
ID
dc and ac resistances:
VD VD
dc resistance, RD = , ac resitance, rd . VD
VD
ID I D
Diode characteristics
Tunneldiode Powerdiode
Sidiode Gediode Zenerdiode 58
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Load Line
Shockley diode model: R ID Load line
Vi /R
Diode current: Qpoint
Vi
I0 exp (VD nVT ) 1 ID VD IDQ
ID ...(1)
VD
VDQ Vi
vi
ID VD vD vD
Vi
t id ac comp.,
VDQ I D dc comp.,
Diode circuit Diode characteristics iD total instantaneous comp.
(
= I 0 exp (VDQ + vd ) nVT 1
) rd VT I DQ [
= = vd id rd ]
(
I 0 exp (VDQ + vd ) nVT )=
I exp (V
0 DQ nVT ) exp ( vd nVT )
x2
= I 0 exp (VDQ nVT ) (
1 + vd nVT ) [assume vd << VT ], e = 1 + x + + ...
x
2!
linear approximation
=
I DQ + id I 0 exp (VDQ nVT ) , id =
[ I DQ = I DQ vd nVT ]
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Diode Modelling: Small Signal
Mathematical models used to approximate the actual behaviour of real diodes to
enable calculations and circuit analysis.
ID Load line
Vi /R
V rD
ID IDQ
VD VD
(Forward bias) (Reverse bias) VDQ Vi
V
+ +
vi id RL vL vi id RL vL
 
Vm +
vi (V) t (mS) vi id RL vL
T/2 T 3T/2

vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2
+
vi id RL vL

vD (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2
(in reverse bias)
Vm
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV): peak voltage in reverse bias condition that a rectifier
can block. It is limited by diode break down voltage.
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HalfWave Rectifier
V + vd 
Vm
+
vi (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 vi id RL vL

vi = Vm sin t
V
Vm V (in forward bias)
vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 +
vi id RL vL
V

f (t) t (mS)
= Vm Vm
vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2
ac part:
2
1
= 0 V sin d Output voltage waveforms considering an
2 2
vrms
2
m
ideal diode.
Ripple voltage
vr (=
rms )
Vdc (V)
vrms
2
Vdc2
Vm2 Vm2
= 2 t (mS)
4
= Vm 0.1487 vt = Vdc + vr (ripple voltage) (V)
= 0.385Vm
Efficiency:
ripple voltage (rms)
Ripple factor = 100% Vdc2 RL
dc voltage = P=
dc Pac 2
vrms RL
vr
= 100% V
2
Vdc = m
0.385Vm Vm 2
= 100% =121% = 0.406
Vm
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
HalfWave Rectifier
IR
In the circuit, both of the diodes have a
cut in voltage of 0.7 V. Calculate the 330
current components. 10 V ID D1 ID D2
Solution:
10 0.7
=I R V=
R R N.B.: If the diodes have different cutin
330
= 28.18 mA voltages, the diode with lower cutin
voltage will be switched on.
=
I D I=
R 2 14.09 mA
vL (V) t (mS)
2 T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2
2 0
Vm sin d + 0
Output of a fullwave rectifier.
Vm
= 2= 2Vdc half wave
ac part:
Efficiency:
2
1 Vdc2 RL
= 0
2 2
vrms V sin d = P=
dc Pac
2
m full wave
2
vrms RL
Vm2 1 cos 2 8
=
= 2
2 0
2
d
2
= 2 half wave
= 0.812
V=
m 2 2 vrms
half wave
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
FullWave Rectifier: Analysis
Ripple voltage and ripple factor:
Ripple voltage
Vm
vr (=
rms ) v2
rms V
2
dc
vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2
Vm2 4Vm2
= 2
2 Output of a fullwave rectifier.
= Vm 0.0947
= 0.308Vm + vD1 
+
v +
= r 100%
Ripple factor vs1 D1 C v= ?
Vdc 
+ 
0.308Vm vs2 D2
= 100% =48% 
2Vm + vD2 
vs 2 2 RL
iD2 (mA) t (mS)
D2 T/2 T 3T/2
vs1 2 vs 2 2
D1 D3 Vm
vL RL
Line voltage
vi (V) t (mS)
(220 V, 50 Hz) T/2 T 3T/2
D4 D2
D1, D2 D1, D2
Vm RL
Bridge rectifier circuit.
iD1 (mA)
+ D1 D3
vL RL D3, D4
Vm RL
iD2 (mA)
 D4 D2
Vm RL
Equivalent circuit in positive cycle.
Vm
 D1 D3
vL RL vL (V)
C L
mT / ( RL C ) I LT / ( C )
T1 T2
= V=
Voltage waveforms considering ideal diode. = Vm / ( f RL C )
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Rectifier With Filter: HalfWave
Surge current: A repetitive surge current IS
+ vD  (during T1) flows to recharge the
+
capacitor.
Line voltage C RL vL IS is spike shaped. For simplified
(220 V, 50 Hz)
analysis, it is modeled by a
 rectangular pulse.
Halfwave rectifier with filter. Average input current to rectifier
Triangular wave approximation: vr (rms ) = vr  p p 2 3 is equal to the average load
current:
Vm
IL av
T = I S T1
vL (V) T2
=
IS IL av
1+
T1 T2 T
t (mS) T1
Surge current
Id (mA)
Rs
vr p p
=
10% of 10 V 9 V  11V 10 V
vL (V)
Vm =
11 V T
(
C =Vm / f RL vr p p ) = 110 F . T1 T2
t (mS)
80
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Rectifier With Filter: FullWave
+ vD1  Analysis:
+
+ Time period T/2 = T1 + T2
vs1 D1 C RL vL
 Charging (T1) time constant
+ 
vs2 D2 = RD xC
 =0
+ vD2 
Discharging (T2) time constant
Fullwave rectifier. = RL xC
Vm
Output voltage:
t (mS)
Vm exp ( T / 2 RL C )
vi (V)
T 2T vL min
vr p p
Vm (1 (1 T / 2 RL C ) )
Vmexp(t/RLC)
Vm = VmT / ( 2 RL C )
vL (V) =
t (mS) m / ( 2 f RL C )
V= IL (2 f C )
T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2
T1 T2
Voltage waveforms considering ideal diodes. 81
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problem
Calculate the peaktopeak ripple voltages for a halfwave and a fullwave rectifiers
with a capacitor filter. (RL = 1 k, C = 470 F, vi = 12 V, 50 Hz)
Solutions:
T = 1/50 = 20 mS
Discharging time constant = RLC = 470 mS.
Becomes a complex problem
T1 = 0 approximation is valid.
for RL = 1 k, C = 47 F.
Halfwave rectifier: Solve for T2 first:
vr = Vm / ( f RL C ) ( 3T 4 + T2 ) RL C
p p Halfwave: sin t = Vm e
= 12 2 ( 50 1k 470 ) (T 4 + T2 ) RL C
Fullwave: sin t = Vm e
= 0.722
= V ( 0.707 V using exp. function)
= 0.361
= V ( 0.357 V using exp. function) 82
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Voltage Regulator
Automatically maintains a constant voltage level.
Output voltage is independent of load or source voltage variation.
Rs ID (mA)
+ VZ
I IL VD (V)
Vi IZ Vz RL VL Izallowed /10
RZ = 0
Operating
 region
Izallowed
A dc voltage regulator using Zener diode.
Zener breakdown
=
I Iz + IL (1)
=
Vi I Rs + Vz (2) When the diode operates in breakdown region.
Vi I ( Rs + RL )
= When the diode is not in breakdown region.
Solutions:
The diode must be fired: Maximum allowed Zener current:
RL min I= P=
D / Vz 66.67 mA
Vi min Vz z allowed
RL min + Rs max
Vi max Vz
1k Rs min
9 6 I z allowed
1k + Rs max
12 6
Rs max 0.5 k Rs min Rs min 90 .
66.67 m
VL
=
Source regulation 100%. VL change in output voltage for a
Vi change of Vi input voltage.
Rs Rs Rs
I I I Rz
Vi Vi IZ Vz Vi IZ
IZ Vz
Vz
6V
+ 5.3 V
+
0V vin RL v0
0V
 
+ + + +
vin RL v0 vin RL v0
   
6V Dead zone
+ + 5.3 V
0.7 V
0V vin RL v0
0.7 V 0V
 
Diode is in reverse bias condition: shunt branch has no effect on the output
voltage.
Negative shunt clipper:
R1 IL
V1 V
+ + (V1 ILR1) V
0V vin V RL v0
0V
  V
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper. Output voltage.
89
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits
Series clipper:
VB V
V1 V V1 (VB + V )
+ + V1 V
0V vin RL v0 V=
in (V B + V )
0V
 
Solution steps:
Check the diode biasing condition for Vin = 0 V.
Replace the diode by its equivalent model.
Determine the value of Vin required to change the above biasing condition.
Calculate the output voltages for max./min. values of Vin.
Check for zero crossing (calculate the value of Vin for which the output is zero).
90
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits
V1 V
VB V (V1 + VB ) V
+ V1 V
+
0V vin v0
V=
in (V
VB )
RL 0V
 
V1 V IL
R1 F.B.
V1 V
+
0V
+
vin v0
V=
in (V B + V ) R.B.
RL 0V
vB
 
V1 I L R1
Consider ideal diode if the type of the diode (Si, Ge etc) or the cutin voltage is
unspecified.
If unspecified consider R1 = 0. 91
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits
V1 V R.B.
R1 IL V1 V
(VB V )
F.B.
0V + + V=
in
v0 0V
vin RL
vB
 
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper Output voltage.
with positive shift.
V1 V V1 V
R1 IL
+ 0V
0V +
v0 Vin =VB + V
vin RL F.B.
vB
  R.B.
92
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits
R.B.
V1 V V1 V
R1 IL
+ 0V
0V +
v0 (VB + V )
Vin =
vin RL
vB F.B.
 
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper. Output voltage.
D1 in F.B.
V1 V
V1 V
R1
=
Vin (VB1 + V 1 )
0V + + 0V
D1 D2
v0 (VB 2 + V 2 )
Vin =
vin RL
vB1 vB2
  D2 in F.B.
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper. Output voltage.
93
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Clampers
A clamping circuit (dc restorer) shifts the entire signal by a dc value.
Change the dc voltage level but does not affect its shape.
Always use a capacitor. vin
V1 V
+ vC  IL
0V
V1 V C +
+
vin V RL v0
0V v0
  2V1 V
12 V
+ vC  IL
23.3 V 5T
C +
0V +
vin V RL v0
12 V 0.7 V
 
 11.3 V +  11.3 V +
+ +
12 V 0.7 V RL 0.7 V 12 V RL 23.3 V
 
Charging time const. = 0, discharging time const. = 47 mS<< time period = 2 mS.
 16.3 V +  16.3 V +
+
+
0.7 V 0.7 V v0 = 28.3 V
12 V v0 = 4.3 V 12 V
5V 5V
 
+ 16.3 V  + 16.3 V 
+
+
12 V 0.7 V v0 = 4.3 V 12 V v0 = 28.3 V
5 V 5 V
 
(i) Ceq = 94 F.
t RC eq
vC = Vo e
vC
ln =
t RC eq
Vo
t =65.2 mS .
( )
2
(ii). Power rating = i peak R
2
12
= 1k
1k
= 144 mW . 99
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Q3. In the following circuit, a current source ii = C
sin(2ft) mA with internal resistance Ri = 10 k is +
ii
connected to a RC circuit. Calculate the output Ri RL v0
voltages (magnitudes) at f = 10 kHz and 100 kHz. 
Given that C = 2.2 nF, and RL = 10 k.
vRL
at 10 kHz , CR
= C ( Ri + R=
L) = 0.47
2 2 2
L 1.382, 7.643
vi
vRL = 4.7 sin ( 20 103 t ) V.
10 kHz
vRL
=5sin ( 20 104 t ) V.
13.82
at 100 kHz , = =0.4996 vRL
vi 1 + 764.3 100 kHz
100
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Q4. In the following circuit, a pulse of height V and R
width a is applied at t = 0. Find an expression for the +
current. V C vc

vin (=
t ) V U ( t ) U ( t a ) .
t
1
Now, applying KVL, vc ( 0 ) + i dt +=
Ri V U ( t ) U ( t a )
C 0
Taking Laplace transform,
vc ( 0 ) I (s) V
+ + R I (s) = 1 e as
s Cs s
1 e as V 1 e as
Assuming = vc ( 0 ) 0, = I ( s ) VC =
1 + CRs R s + 1 CR s + 1 CR
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V t CR
i (t ) = e U ( t ) e ( t a ) CR
U ( t a ) .
R 101
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Q5. The circuit is in steady state. The switch is R
closed at t = 0. Find an expression for the vc. +
2 R
vc ( 0 ) = V. V vc
3 C
R
But, for t >0, looking from the capacitor terminal,

V
the Thevenin's voltage = .
2
t
R 1 V
Now, applying KVL, i + vc ( 0 ) + i dt =
2 C 0 2
R/2
Taking Laplace transform, +
R vc ( 0 ) I ( s ) V
I (s) + + = , V/ vc
2 s Cs 2s C
2
R 2V I ( s ) V
I (s) + + =, 
2 3s Cs 2s
V ( 3R )
Equivalent circuit for t >0.
I (s) = .
s + 2 ( CR ) 102
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Capacitor voltage for t >0, R
v ( 0 ) I ( s ) 2V V ( 3RC ) +
Vc ( s ) =c + = ,
s Cs 3s s s + 2 ( CR ) R
V vc
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) A B C
= = + . R
s s + 2 ( CR ) s s + 2 ( CR ) 
Now, expanding into partial fractions,
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) V
A =
s + 2 ( CR ) 2
s =0
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )
V
B = .
s s = 2 CR
6
V V
Vc ( s ) = + .
2 s 6 s + 2 ( CR )
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V V 2t CR
vc ( t ) =+ e , (for t > 0).
2 6 103
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Capacitor voltage for t >0, R
v ( 0 ) I ( s ) 2V V ( 3RC ) +
Vc ( s ) =c + = ,
s Cs 3s s s + 2 ( CR ) R
V vc
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) A B C
= = + . R
s s + 2 ( CR ) s s + 2 ( CR ) 
Now, expanding into partial fractions,
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) V
A =
s + 2 ( CR ) 2
s =0
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )
V
B = .
s s = 2 CR
6
V V
Vc ( s ) = + .
2 s 6 s + 2 ( CR )
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V V 2t CR
vc ( t ) =+ e , (for t > 0).
2 6 104
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Additional Questions
Q1. In the following circuit, charge on the capacitor is zero for t <0. R1 = 10 k, R2 =
10 k R3 = 1 k C = 10 F.
(i) At t = 0 Sec, the switch is closed. Find I1 and I2 at t = 0 and at t = 1 Sec.
(ii) The switch is reopened at t = 2 Sec. Find I1 and I2 at t = 2 Sec.
R1
Answer: +
(i) At t = 0, the capacitor is shorted. I1 C vc
I1 ( 0 ) = 9 ( R1 + R 2  R 3 ) = 0.825 mA. and 9V R2 
I 2 ( 0 ) =R 3 0.825 ( R 2 + R 3 ) =0.075 mA. I2 R3
==
Req C 60 mS << 1 Sec the capacitor is fully charged.
I1 (1Sec )= I 2 (1Sec )= 9 ( R1 + R 2 )= 0.45 mA.
(ii) At t = 2 Sec, lefthand part is open.
I1 ( 2 Sec
= ) 0 and I 2 ( 2 Sec=) 4.5 ( R 2 + R=
3) 0.409 mA.
105
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Additional Questions
Q2. A Series RC circuit is excited by a voltage source of variable frequency. The
output is taken across the R. Sketch the variation of the steady state transfer
function with angular frequency .
Hints: Obtain H(j) and represent in magnitude and phase form.
1.0 900
0.707
450
M()
()
1/RC 1/RC
6 R e Rt L A, t 0
Answer: i = PR = 36 R W,
6 R A, t<0 = 0 W.
106
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Additional Questions
Q4. In the following circuit, the switch is closed at t = CR. Assuming that all currents
and voltages are zero at t = 0, determine the output voltage for 0 t .
R
Answer:
+
v (t ) 0 ,
= 0 t < CR,
V0 U(t) v(t)
V
= V0 0 ( e + 1) exp ( t CR ) 2CR V, CR t < C C

2e
108
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Thank you
?
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Ph. +913222283550 (o)
Department of E. & E.C.E.
I.I.T. Kharagpur, 721302.
109
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