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Introduction to Electronics

Mrinal K Mandal
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Department of E & ECE
I.I.T. Kharagpur. 721302.
www.ecdept.iitkgp.ernet.in
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Books

Electric Circuit Theory - Van Valkenburg, Prentice Hall.


Electronic Circuits Analysis and Design Donald A. Neamean.
Digital Logic and Computer Design M. Morris Mano, Prentice
Hall.

Reference books:
1. Microelectronic Circuits, A.S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Oxford
University Press.
2. Introduction to Microelectronics, B. Razavi.
3. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Robert L. Boylestad,
Prentice Hall.
4. The Art of Electronics, Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill.
5. Electronic Devices and Circuits, David A. Bell. 2
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Some Important Points

Attendance.
Risk of deregistration: if attendance is lower than a certain
percentage.
Total marks distribution = surprise class test + attendance + mid-
sem + end-sem evaluation results.
n+1 surprise class tests: best n results will be considered.
Register in Intinno paathsaala.

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Signal
Signal is a function that conveys information about the behavior or attributes of
some phenomenon.
In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space
(such as an image) is potentially a signal that might provide information on the
status of a physical system, or convey a message.
Popular forms: audio, video, speech, image, communication, geophysical, sonar,
radar, medical and musical signals.
In electronics engineering: time varying voltage/ current/ electromagnetic waves.
Analog and digital signals.

Generation of discrete time signal Digital approximation of the


by sampling a continuous signal. analog signal. 4
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Signal
Signal
processing
transducer Transmitter

signal
Electronic
Electromagnetic
signal
wave

Transmitter.

Signal
processing transducer
Receiver

signal
Electromagnetic Electronic
wave signal
Receiver.
RMS value of a function:

T 2 2
T2
1
f ( t ) dt
T T
= lim 1
f ( t ) dt .
T2 T1 T1
f rms f rms = lim
T
0
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Function Generator
rms values:

Signal generator

Different periodic waveforms


V(t)

t
Effect of thermal noise

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Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

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Electronic Circuits

Electronics in daily life.

Nokia phone circuit board.


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Electronic Circuits

Electronic warfare and communication systems.

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Passive Components
1. Resistor

Thin film carbon resistor Adjustable Rheostat


wire wound

Resistors of different power Circuit symbol


dissipation factors

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Resistor Colour Coding
Inside material - A mixture of finely
powdered carbon and an insulating
material, usually ceramic. A resin holds the
mixture together. The resistance is
Thin film carbon resistor determined by the ratio of the powdered
ceramic to the carbon.

Colour codes:
Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Band A - first significant figure (left side),


band B - second significant figure,
band C - the decimal multiplier,
band D (if present) - tolerance of value in percent
(gold - 5%, silver - 10%, no band -20%).

Resistance AB10^C D%
Example: yellow-violet-red-gold 4.7k 5%, between 4,465 and 4,935 .
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Passive Components
2. Inductor

Different form of inductors

Magnetic field lines

Inductor stores energy in magnetic field.


Voltage leads the current.
Unit is Henry (H).
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Circuit Components
3. Capacitor

Electrolytic capacitor Ceramic capacitor Polyester capacitor

Ceramic capacitor marking AB10^C pF 10%.


Example 154 means 1510000 pF10%.

Polarized capacitor Non-polarized


symbol capacitor symbol
Capacitor stores energy in electric field.
Current leads the voltage.
Unit is Farad (F).
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Active Components

Diode Bipolar transistor

Field effect transistor Operational amplifier

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Concept of Ground
Ground: a common reference point in any electrical circuit that may or may not
physically connected to the Earth.

High power circuits: exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent
user contact with dangerous voltage if electrical insulation fails.
Connections to ground limit the build-up of static electricity when handling
flammable products or electrostatic-sensitive devices.
In some power transmission circuits, the earth itself can be used as one
conductor of the circuit, saving the cost of installing a separate return conductor.

In portable electronic devices, a large conductor attached to one side of the


power supply acts as a "ground.

Signal ground Chassis ground Earth ground

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Concept of Ground
Planet earth is not a good conductor of dc voltage.
C D
A B
1k 1k
1k 1k

Planet RCD = ?
RAB = ? earth

PCB
ground

A typical earthing electrode. Printed circuit board (PCB)


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Thevenins Theorem
Any two-terminal linear, bilateral network containing impedances and energy
sources can be represented by an independent voltage source VTh and a single
impedance ZTh.
VTh is the open circuit output voltage, ZTh is the impedance viewed at the terminals
when all independent energy sources are replaced by their internal impedances.
Rth
A
A
Black +
box Vth
-
B
B

VTh calculation:
Calculate the no load output voltage. It is equal to VTh.

RTh calculation:
Remove if any load.
Replace all sources by their input impedances.
Compute the total resistance between the load terminals. 17
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Example
Obtain the Thevenins equivalence of the following circuit.
VTh calculation:
2 k
A

1 k 7.5 V
+
-
B

RTh calculation:

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Nortons Theorem
Any two-terminal linear, bilateral network containing impedances and energy
sources can be represented by an independent current source IN in parallel with a
single impedance ZN (admittance YN).
IN is the short-circuit current between the terminals, ZN is the impedance viewed at
the terminals when all independent energy sources are replaced by their internal
impedances.

A
A
Black
IN RN
box
B
B

IN calculation:
Short the output terminals and calculate current through it.

RN calculation:
The same as RTh.
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Example

Obtain the Nortons equivalence of the previous circuit.

IN calculation:

RN calculation:

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Source Transformation

Rth
A A
A
Black + IN RN
box Vth
-
B B
B

Voltage source Current source

Calculations:

RTh = RN
VTh = I N RN
VTh
IN =
RTh
Voltage source Current source

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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Example
Obtain the Thevenins equivalent of the following circuit.

RTh calculation:
RTh = {(2||2) + 1} || 2
= 1

VTh calculation:


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Capacitor Circuit
dv ( t )
Instantaneous current: i ( t )
dt
dv ( t )
=C
dt
V0 cos t [ for v ( t ) V0 sin t ]
= C=

= CV0 sin t +
2

= I 0 sin t +
2

Current leads the phase of input voltage by 900.

Instantaneous power expended in charging:


Current and voltage wave forms.
1
=p ( t ) v=
( t ) i ( t ) CV02 sin 2t
2
t1
1
Wt1 ( t )
Energy delivered in time interval t1: = p ( t ) dt
= CV02 (1 cos 2t1 )
0
4
1
Energy delivered in n half-cycles: Wn = CV02 (1 cos 2n ) = 0
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Capacitor Circuit
1 1
Capacitive reactance: xC= = [where s= + j ].
jC sC

Joule loss due to an ideal capacitor is zero.

Representation of non-ideal capacitor.

Series and parallel connections:

1 1 1 1
= + + ... +
Ceq = C1 + C2 + ... + Cn Ceq C1 C2 Cn
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Inductor Circuit
di ( t )
Instantaneous voltage: v ( t )
dt
di ( t )
=L
dt
I 0 cos t [ for i ( t ) I 0 sin t ]
= L=
= V0 cos t.

Current lags the phase of input voltage by 900.

Instantaneous power expended in charging:


1
= p ( t ) v=
( t ) i ( t ) LI 02 sin 2t
2
t1
1 2
Wt1 ( t )
Energy delivered in time interval t1: = p ( t ) dt
= LI 0 (1 cos 2t1 )
0
4
1
Energy delivered in n half-cycles: Wn = LI 02 (1 cos 2n ) =0
4
Inductive reactance: xL= j L= sL [where s= + j ].
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Inductor Circuit

Joule loss due to an ideal inductor is zero.

Representation of non-ideal inductor.

Series and parallel connections:

1 1 1 1
= + + ... + Leq = L1 + L2 + ... + Ln
Leq L1 L2 Ln

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RC Circuit
Frequency domain analysis:
1 jC
vc = vin
R + 1 jC
vc 1 1

= =
vin 1 + jCR 1 + sCR
vc 1
RC circuit | |= (transfer function)
vin 1 + (CR )
2
(Lowpass filter)

f 0, gain =1
Pout 1 vout 1 LPF
Half-power points: = = . f , gain =0
Pin 2 vin 2
1 1
=
1 + (CR )
2
2
Log100.5 = -0.301
1 + (CR ) =
2
2
1 3dB 1
= = 3dB , f 3dB= = f3dB: cut-off frequency (fc).
RC 2 2 RC
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CR Circuit
R
vR = vin
R + 1 jC
vR jCR sCR

= =
vin 1 + jCR 1 + sCR
vR CR
| |= (transfer function)
vin 1 + (CR )
2
CR circuit
(High pass filter)

f 0, gain =0
Half-power points: HPF
f , gain =1
CR 1
=
1 + (CR )
2
2
1
= = 3dB ,
RC
1
f 3dB = 3dB = . The same as RC circuit.
2 2 RC
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Comparison of CR & RC Frequency Responses

VR = RI
I

V = ZI VC = jxCI

RC circuit Phasor diagram CR circuit

Low pass filter High pass filter


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LR & RL Circuits
Frequency domain analysis:

V = ZI
VL = jxLI

I
VR = RI

Phasor diagram
RL circuit
Output voltage across the inductor: Output voltage across the resistor:
j L R
vL = vin vR = vin
R + j L R + j L
vL L v R
| |= (transfer function) | R |= (transfer function)
vin R 2 + ( L ) R 2 + ( L )
2
vin 2

f 0, gain =0 f 0, gain =1
HPF LPF
f , gain =1 f , gain =0

R R
=
Half-power points for the both cases: 3dB = rad / S , f 3dB Hz.
L 2 L 30
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Time Domain Analysis
Steady-state response: f s (t ) = Lt f (t )
t

Transient response: response before the steady is achieved.


Laplace transform: L [ f =
(t )] F=
(s)
0
f (t ) e st dt , f (t ) < K e at , a :real and positive, K :constant

Re( s ) > a

+ iT
1
= =
L
-1
Inverse Laplace transform: f (t ) [ F ( s )] e st F ( s ) ds
2 i iT

Unit step function: U=


(t ) 1, t 0
= 0, t 0 1
U(t)

1
L=
[U (t )] =
e st dt
0
s t

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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Time Domain Analysis
1
Exponential function: L [e ] =
at

sa
dy
Differentiation: L =
[ ] sY ( s ) y (0 ) , y (0 ) is the initial value of y (t )
dt
t
1
Integration: L [ 0 y dt ] =
s
Y (s)

For a sinusoidal wave in steady state:

1 sL
sC
Capacitive reactance Inductive reactance

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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Time Domain Analysis of RC/CR Circuits

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law


V t
1
0
vc (0 ) + i dt + Ri =
V U (t ) ...(1)
C0
t=0

RC circuit Taking Laplace transform,


vc (0 ) I ( s ) V ...(2)
+ + R I (s) =
s Cs s
Considering vc(0-) = 0,

VC V 1
I ( s=) = ...(3)
1 + sCR R s + 1 CR
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V t CR ...(4)
i (t ) = e U (t )
R
t RC
Voltage across the resistor: v=
R i =
R V e ...(5)
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Time Domain Analysis of RC/CR Circuits

Voltage across the capacitor: vC =V vR =V (1 e t RC ) ...(6)

Time constant of the circuit:


Time taken to drop the voltage across the resistor to V/e.
= RC put e t RC = e 1 [Eulers number e = 2.71828]
=1 2 f c ...(7)

Rise time:
Time taken to reach the capacitor voltage from 10% to 90% of the final value.
r = 2.3 RC 0.1RC
= 2.2 RC
~ 0.35 2RC
= 0.35/ fc. ...(8)

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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Time Domain Response of RC/CR Circuits

vC V (1 e
vR = V e t RC
= t RC
)
vR / vin = 0.905 at t = 0.1
vC / vin = 0.95 at t = 3 = 0.990 at t = 0.01
= 0.993 at t = 5 = 0.05 at t = 3
= 0.007 at t = 5

Step response of a capacitor. Step response of the resistor.


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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Example
Draw the output voltage waveform for the following circuit and calculate the rise
time.

Solutions:
At t = 0, the capacitor is shorted, so V0 = 0 and I0 = 10 mA.
Time constant = 1k 1n = 1 S.

(
vC V 1 e t RC
Now, = )
Rise time = 2.2 RC
= 2.2 1k 1n
= 2.2 S.

Calculate the time when the output voltage is half


Output voltage waveform.
of that of the input. (Ans 0.693 S)
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Time Domain Response of RC/CR Circuits
Low PRF (RC<<Ton) High PRF (RC>>Ton)

Ton

RC circuit

Charging phase:

vR = V e t RC
vC V (1 e t RC )
=

Discharging phase:
vC = V e t RC
vR = V e t RC
Rectangular pulse:
V U ( t ) U ( t Ton )
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
RC Integrator
Consider the output across the capacitor at high frequency i.e. f >>1/Ton.

vin
Loop current is i = ...(1)
R + 1 jC

The frequency condition, 1 C << R gives


Integrator circuit vin
i ...(2)
R
Now, voltage across the capacitor is
1 t
vC = i dt ...(3)
C 0

1 t
vC
RC 0
vin dt ...(4) Low pass filter at high frequency

At high frequency, the voltage across the capacitor is proportional to the time
integration of the input voltage.
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RC Integrator Waveforms

1:5 approximation:
5/PRF (=5T)

Integrator circuit

at very high Input:


vc frequency

Output:
at medium
vc frequency

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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
RC Differentiator
Consider the output across the resistor at low frequency i.e. f <<1/ Ton.
vin
Loop current is i = ...(1)
R + 1 jC
The capacitor has enough time to charge up until vc
is nearly equal to the source voltage.
The frequency condition, R << 1 C gives

vin i
Differentiator circuit i vin =
vc
1 jC jC ...(2)

dvc
Now, voltage across the resistor is vR= iR= C R ...(3)
dt
dvin
vR R C ...(4)
dt High pass filter at low frequency.

At low frequency, the voltage across the resistor is proportional to the time
differentiation of the input voltage.
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RC Differentiator Waveforms
Some other waveforms.

[Differentiation]

1:5 approximation:
1/PRF (=T) 5

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RL/LR Circuits

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law


V
di
0 L + Ri =
V U (t ) ...(1)
t=0 dt

RL circuit Taking Laplace transform,


V ...(2)
L s I ( s ) i ( 0 ) + R I ( s ) =
s
Considering iL(0-) = 0,

V V 1 1
I (s) = = ...(3) Time constant: =L/R
s ( R + sL ) R s s + R L
=1 2 f c
Taking inverse Laplace transform,

i (t ) =
V
R
(1 e Rt L ) , t 0
...(4)

vR =i R =V (1 e Rt L ) , vL =v vR =Ve Rt L . ...(5)
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Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problem
A positive square wave of amplitude 10 V and PRP of 1 kHz is applied to the
following circuit. Draw the vR and vC waveforms for R = 1 k, C = 10 nF.

Solution:
Time period of the input wave: 1 mS.
Ton = 0.5 mS

Check for 1:5 approximation:

Time constant = 1 k 10 n Sec


= 10 S.

= t 0.5m=
10 50

(
= V 1 e T ON
vC max RC
)
= 10 V

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Semiconductor
A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity between that of
a conductor such as (copper, 5.96x107 S/m) and an insulator (glass, ~10-13 S/m).

In semiconductors
The conductivity increases with increasing temperature.
Current conduction occurs via free electrons and "holes", charge carriers.
Doping greatly increases the number of charge carriers.
Contains excess holes p-type, and excess free electrons n-type.

Simplified band-diagrams (a graphic representation of the energy levels)


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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors
Intrinsic semiconductor:
When the number of impurities is extremely low so that it can be considered as a
pure semiconductor material.
Example:
Semiconductor carriers/cc at room temp
Ga As 1.7 106
Si 1.5 1010
Ge 2.5 1013

Si atom Ge atom
Electron configuration: 2, 8, 4. Electron configuration: 2, 8, 18, 4.
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Intrinsic Semiconductor

Covalent bond of the Si atoms at t = 0 K


Si about 1 free
electron for every 1012
atoms at 300K)
electron
hole

Creation of electron-hole pair because of thermal agitation at t >0K.


For intrinsic semiconductor, electron density ni = hole density pi. 46
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Extrinsic Semiconductors
A semiconductor with doping material is called extrinsic semiconductor.
1. n-type material:
Created by introducing impurity elements that have five valance electrons ( eg.
antimony, arsenic, phosphorus etc).
Impurities with five valance electrons are called donor atoms.

2. p-type material:
Created by introducing impurity elements that have three valance electrons ( eg.
boron, gallium, indium etc).
Impurities with three valance electrons are called acceptor atoms.

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Extrinsic Semiconductors
The resulting material is electrically neutral.

Majority carriers and minority carriers:


Excess carriers are majority carriers.
In n-type: electrons are majority carriers and holes are minority carriers.
In p-type: holes are majority carriers and electrons are minority carriers.

For extrinsic semiconductors, np = ni2, n: electron concentration, p: hole


concentration in the extrinsic material, ni: intrinsic free electron density.

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Drift and Diffusion Currents
E
atom
electron
hole

Drift current

Charge carriers moves under the influence of electric field.


They cannot travel in a straight line.
Drift current depends on carrier concentration, carrier mobility and the applied
electric field.

=
Electrical conductivity e ( nn + p p ) (-cm)-1 n: electron concentration/ cc
p: hole concentration/ cc
n: electron mobility cm2/V-S
p: hole mobility cm2/V-S
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Drift and Diffusion Currents

Diffusion current
Diffusion

Charge carriers (one type) when injected from an external source produces
concentration gradient.
Current density is proportional to the concentration gradient.

where

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p-n Junction: Semiconductor Diode

p-n diode

Formation of depletion region

Depletion region contains an equal number of immobile ionized atoms on both


sides of the pn junction.
The barrier voltage opposes the flow of majority carriers across the junction but
assists the flow of minority carriers across the junction.
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p-n Junction: Semiconductor Diode

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Reverse-Bias Condition

pn junction under reverse-bias condition

The holes in the p-side and the electrons in the n-side are attracted by the
electrodes the depletion region widens barrier voltage increases.
Minority carriers are generated on each side causes a reverse saturation current.
Reverse saturation current is almost independent of applied voltage but increases
with increasing temperature.

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Forward-Bias Condition

pn junction under forward-bias condition

The holes in the p-side region and the electrons in the n-side region are driven
toward the junction width of the depletion region is reduced barrier voltage
decreases.
With increasing forward-bias voltage, the barrier voltage finally disappears
current increases suddenly.
=
Diode current can be given by Shockley equation: ID (
I 0 eVD nVT
1 )
n = 1 for Ge and 2 for Si, VT = kT/e = 26 mV at room temp, T temperature (K),
k = Boltzmans const (1.38x10-23 J/K), e = electronic charge (1.6x10-9 C)
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I-V Characteristics

I-V characteristics of a resistor. I-V characteristics of a diode.

Temperature coefficient for a pn junction: -1.8 mV/0C for Si and -2.02 mV/0C for
Ge. 55
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Diode Breakdown Under Reverse Bias
1. Avalanche breakdown:

Thermo-generated electron-hole pair accelerates under the applied electric field.


Under the right circumstances, they gain sufficient energy to knock other
electrons free (by collision), creating more electron-hole pairs.
The procedures is regenerative avalanche of carriers conductivity increases
suddenly.

Etotal

Ein + Eext
Avalanche breakdown Avalanche of carriers

56
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Diode Breakdown Under Reverse Bias
2. Zener breakdown:
High electric field (~107 V/m) enables tunnelling of electrons from the valence to
the conduction band of a semiconductor (tear out a covalent bond) a large
number of free minority carriers suddenly increases the reverse current.
High doping concentration is required.
Occurs at lower reverse bias voltage (~ 6 V).

ID

Iz p n VD

Symbol
Avalanche Zener
Ein + Eext breakdown breakdown

Zener breakdown Diode characteristics

Usually, Rbreakdown <RFB


Applications: voltage regulator, clipper circuit, voltage shifter etc
57
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Modelling
ID
ID

VD
VD

Ideal diode response. Ideal diode as a switch. More accurate: use to solve problems.

A good approximation for Vi >12 V (error <5%) ID

ID
dc and ac resistances:
VD VD
dc resistance, RD = , ac resitance, rd . VD
VD
ID I D
Diode characteristics

Tunnel-diode Power-diode
Si-diode Ge-diode Zener-diode 58
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Load Line
Shockley diode model: R ID Load line
Vi /R
Diode current: Q-point
Vi
I0 exp (VD nVT ) 1 ID VD IDQ
ID ...(1)
VD
VDQ Vi

Diode with a resistance Load line


Applying KVL,
=
Vi ID R +VD
Vi VD
ID = [y =
mx + C form] ...(2)
R R
So, from (1) and (2),
Vi VD
I0 exp (VD nVT ) 1 = . ...(3)
R R
Difficult to solve for VD from (1) and (2).
Plot them in a graph and obtain the solution.
59
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Analysis
iD iD
iD
R t
IDQ IDQ

vi
ID VD vD vD
Vi
t id ac comp.,
VDQ I D dc comp.,
Diode circuit Diode characteristics iD total instantaneous comp.

iD I 0 exp ( vD nVT ) 1 Diffusion resistance

(
= I 0 exp (VDQ + vd ) nVT 1
) rd VT I DQ [
= = vd id rd ]

(
I 0 exp (VDQ + vd ) nVT )=
I exp (V
0 DQ nVT ) exp ( vd nVT )
x2
= I 0 exp (VDQ nVT ) (
1 + vd nVT ) [assume vd << VT ], e = 1 + x + + ...
x
2!
linear approximation
=
I DQ + id I 0 exp (VDQ nVT ) , id =
[ I DQ = I DQ vd nVT ]
60
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Modelling: Small Signal
Mathematical models used to approximate the actual behaviour of real diodes to
enable calculations and circuit analysis.

Small signal approximation:


iD = I DQ exp ( vd nVT )
I DQ (1 + vd nVT ) [for vd << VT e x 1 + x].

Problem with large signal:


vd = a sin t.
b 2 sin 2 t b3 sin 3 t
i=
D I DQ 1 + b sin t + + + ... [ where= b a nVT ]
2! 3!
1 1
Now, sin 2 t = (1 cos 2t ) , sin 3 t = ( 3sin t sin 3t ) ...
2 4
There are many frequency components those cannot be neglected.
The output signal waveform is not an exact replica of that of the input
non-linear device.
61
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Modelling: Large Signal
Iterative Solution: R
ID I0 exp (VD nVT ) 1
ID Vi
+1=exp (VD nVT ) ID VD
I0
I
VD nVT =ln D + 1
I0 Diode with a resistance
V VD Vi VD
VD nVT =ln i + 1 put I D =
RI0 R R
ID Load line
V VD
VD nVT ln i + 1 ...(3) Vi /R
Q-point
RI0
IDQ
Guess a starting value of VDQ on R.H.S. and compute
the function. Guess a second value and continue VD
VDQ Vi
unless it converges.
Load line
Graphical solution:
Plot the two equations on a graph paper (computer) and note down the value.
62
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Modelling: Large Signal
Piecewise linear model: R
A function is broken down into several linear segments.
Vi ID VD
rD represents the 1/slope at Q-point.

VT 26 mV( at room temp)


rD .
I DQ I DQ
Diode with a resistance

ID Load line
Vi /R

V rD
ID IDQ

VD VD
(Forward bias) (Reverse bias) VDQ Vi

Diode characteristics. Equivalent model. Piecewise linear approximation.


63
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Diode Circuit
A rectifier converts alternating current to direct current. ID
Half-wave rectifier: VD
+ vD -
+ ID Ideal
diode
vi id RL vL
VD
-

Response to solve problems.


Half-wave rectifier circuit.
(Consider the ideal diode model if nothing is specified)

V
+ +
vi id RL vL vi id RL vL
- -

(in forward bias) (in reverse bias)


Equivalent circuits. 64
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Half-Wave Rectifier

Vm +

vi (V) t (mS) vi id RL vL
T/2 T 3T/2
-

Vm (in forward bias)

vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2
+
vi id RL vL
-
vD (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2
(in reverse bias)
-Vm

Voltage waveforms considering ideal diode.

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV): peak voltage in reverse bias condition that a rectifier
can block. It is limited by diode break down voltage.
65
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Half-Wave Rectifier
V + vd -
Vm
+
vi (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 vi id RL vL
-

vi = Vm sin t
V
Vm V (in forward bias)

vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 +
vi id RL vL
V
-

vD (V) t (mS) (in reverse bias)


T/2 T 3T/2
-Vm id | peak =( vi | peak V ) ( RL + RD )
Voltage waveforms.
(Vm V ) RL
66
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Half-Wave Rectifier: Analysis
Fourier series:
Any periodic function can be represented as a summation of sinusoidal functions.

V0 + ( an cos nt + bn sin nt )
v (t ) =
n =1

f (t) t (mS)

1 Rectified output voltage can be


represented by a Fourier series.
It contains a dc term + many
2 sinusoidal (time varying)
components.
6 Sinusoidal signal is represented by
its rms value.

Representation of a square wave


according to Fourier series.
67
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Half-Wave Rectifier: Analysis
dc part:
2
1
V= V= V sin d [ where=
t ]
2
dc av m
0

1

2 0
Vm sin d + 0

= Vm Vm

vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2
ac part:
2
1
= 0 V sin d Output voltage waveforms considering an
2 2
vrms
2
m
ideal diode.

Vm2 1 cos 2 rms value of a 12 V DC voltage is 12 V.


= d
2 0
2 DC contribution could not be avoided.
= Vm 2
68
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Half-Wave Rectifier: Analysis
Ripple voltage and ripple factor: vr|p-p

Ripple voltage
vr (=
rms )
Vdc (V)
vrms
2
Vdc2

Vm2 Vm2
= 2 t (mS)
4
= Vm 0.1487 vt = Vdc + vr (ripple voltage) (V)
= 0.385Vm
Efficiency:
ripple voltage (rms)
Ripple factor = 100% Vdc2 RL
dc voltage = P=
dc Pac 2
vrms RL
vr
= 100% V
2

Vdc = m
0.385Vm Vm 2
= 100% =121% = 0.406
Vm
69
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Half-Wave Rectifier
IR
In the circuit, both of the diodes have a
cut in voltage of 0.7 V. Calculate the 330
current components. 10 V ID D1 ID D2

Solution:
10 0.7
=I R V=
R R N.B.: If the diodes have different cut-in
330
= 28.18 mA voltages, the diode with lower cut-in
voltage will be switched on.
=
I D I=
R 2 14.09 mA

A sinusoidal source vi = 12sin100t V is used + vD -


in the half-wave rectifier circuit with RL = 1 +
k. The diode has a cut-in voltage of 0.7 V. vi id RL vL
Calculate the PRV and the power rating of
the diode. -
Answer: PRV = 12 V.
Power rating = Imax x Vdmax = 7.91 mW.
70
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Half-Wave Rectifier : Experiment
+ vD - Transformer:
+
Controllable voltage ratio.
Line voltage RL vL
(220 V, 50 Hz) Impedance matching.
-
Center tapped vs N 2
transformer =
(12-0-12 V) vi N1
Half-wave rectifier.

Primary Voltage regulation:


VNL VFL
Secondary =
Voltage regulation 100%
VFL

VNL: open circuited output voltage


VFL: output voltage with minimum
load resistance.
Center tapped transformer
71
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Full-Wave Rectifier
Vm1 = vs1 2
+ vD1 -
vi (V) t (mS) +
T/2 T 3T/2 +
(Diode 1) vs1 D1 RL vL
-
vs 2 2 + -
vs2 D2
vi (V) t (mS) -
T/2 T 3T/2
(Diode D2) + vD2 -

vs1 2 RL Full-wave rectifier.


D1 D1
iD1 (mA) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2
Consecutive peaks have different
vs 2 2 RL values if
iD2 (mA) D2 cut-in voltages are different.
T/2 T 3T/2 t (mS)
vs1 vs2
vs1 2 vs 2 2
For non-ideal diode
vL (V) T/2 T 3T/2 t (mS) vs1 2 V 1

Voltage waveforms considering ideal diodes. 72


Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Full-Wave Rectifier: Analysis
dc part:
2
1
V=
dc V=
av
2 V
0
m sin d Vm

vL (V) t (mS)
2 T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2

2 0
Vm sin d + 0
Output of a full-wave rectifier.
Vm
= 2= 2Vdc half wave

ac part:
Efficiency:
2
1 Vdc2 RL
= 0
2 2
vrms V sin d = P=
dc Pac
2
m full wave

2
vrms RL
Vm2 1 cos 2 8
=
= 2
2 0
2
d

2
= 2 half wave
= 0.812
V=
m 2 2 vrms
half wave
73
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Full-Wave Rectifier: Analysis
Ripple voltage and ripple factor:
Ripple voltage
Vm
vr (=
rms ) v2
rms V
2
dc
vL (V) t (mS)
T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2
Vm2 4Vm2
= 2
2 Output of a full-wave rectifier.

= Vm 0.0947
= 0.308Vm + vD1 -
+
v +
= r 100%
Ripple factor vs1 D1 C v= ?
Vdc -
+ -
0.308Vm vs2 D2
= 100% =48% -
2Vm + vD2 -

Vm should not exceed PIV.


74
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Full-Wave Rectifier
Vm1 = vs1 2
+ vD1 -
vi (V) t (mS) +
T/2 T 3T/2 +
vs1 D1 RL vL
-
vs 2 2 + -
vs2 D2
vi (V) t (mS) -
T/2 T 3T/2
+ vD2 -

vs1 2 RL Full-wave rectifier.


iD1 (mA) T/2 t (mS)
D1 T 3T/2

vs 2 2 RL
iD2 (mA) t (mS)
D2 T/2 T 3T/2

vs1 2 vs 2 2

vL (V) T/2 t (mS)


T 3T/2

Voltage waveforms considering ideal diodes. 75


Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Bridge Rectifier

D1 D3 Vm
vL RL
Line voltage
vi (V) t (mS)
(220 V, 50 Hz) T/2 T 3T/2
D4 D2
D1, D2 D1, D2
Vm RL
Bridge rectifier circuit.
iD1 (mA)
+ D1 D3
vL RL D3, D4
Vm RL
iD2 (mA)
- D4 D2
Vm RL
Equivalent circuit in positive cycle.
Vm
- D1 D3
vL RL vL (V)

For non-ideal diode:=


Vm vs1 2 2V 1
+ D4 D2
Voltage waveforms considering ideal diodes.
Equivalent circuit in negative cycle. 76
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Rectifier With Filter

C L

Rectifier. Shunt capacitor Series inductor


as a filter. as a filter.
+ Low R L
vs1 D1 Pass RL
ac
- Filter
source + C C C
C
vs2 D2
-
RC filter. LC filter.
Rectifier with a filter. Different types of filters.

Rectified output contains a dc + many sinusoidal terms (amplitude of the


sinusoidal components decreases as the frequency increases).
A series inductor attenuates and a shunt capacitor bypasses high frequency
signals.
77
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Rectifier With Filter: Half-Wave
+ vD - Analysis:
+
Time period T = T1 + T2
Line voltage C RL vL
(220 V, 50 Hz) Charging (T1) time constant
- (RD + Rind ) x C
0
Half-wave rectifier.
Discharging (T2) time constant
Vm = RL xC

vi (V) t (mS) Output voltage:


T 2T
When the capacitor discharges:
Vmexp(-t/RLC) v=
L v=
c Vm exp ( t / RL C )
Vm vL min
Vm exp ( T / RL C )
vL (V)
T 2T
t (mS) vr p p
Vm (1 (1 T / RL C ) )

mT / ( RL C ) I LT / ( C )
T1 T2
= V=
Voltage waveforms considering ideal diode. = Vm / ( f RL C )
78
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Rectifier With Filter: Half-Wave
Surge current: A repetitive surge current IS
+ vD - (during T1) flows to recharge the
+
capacitor.
Line voltage C RL vL IS is spike shaped. For simplified
(220 V, 50 Hz)
analysis, it is modeled by a
- rectangular pulse.
Half-wave rectifier with filter. Average input current to rectifier
Triangular wave approximation: vr (rms ) = vr | p p 2 3 is equal to the average load
current:
Vm
IL av
T = I S T1
vL (V) T2
=
IS IL av
1+
T1 T2 T
t (mS) T1
Surge current
Id (mA)
Rs

t (mS) Surge limiting resistor.


Surge current through the diode. 79
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problem
As shown in the figure, a half-wave rectifier + vD -
dc power supply is to provide 10 V (dc) to a +
1 k load. Calculate the capacitance Line RL vL
C
required so that the peak-to-peak ripple voltage
voltage does not exceed 10% of the -
average output voltage. Source frequency is
50 Hz. What should be the amplitude of the Half-wave rectifier with filter.
input voltage?
Solutions:
1
T= = 20 mS
f Triangular wave approximation: vr (rms ) = vr | p p 2 3
T2 T =20 mS Vm

vr p p
=
10% of 10 V 9 V - 11V 10 V
vL (V)
Vm =
11 V T

(
C =Vm / f RL vr p p ) = 110 F . T1 T2
t (mS)

80
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Rectifier With Filter: Full-Wave
+ vD1 - Analysis:
+
+ Time period T/2 = T1 + T2
vs1 D1 C RL vL
- Charging (T1) time constant
+ -
vs2 D2 = RD xC
- =0
+ vD2 -
Discharging (T2) time constant
Full-wave rectifier. = RL xC
Vm
Output voltage:
t (mS)
Vm exp ( T / 2 RL C )
vi (V)
T 2T vL min

vr p p
Vm (1 (1 T / 2 RL C ) )
Vmexp(-t/RLC)
Vm = VmT / ( 2 RL C )
vL (V) =
t (mS) m / ( 2 f RL C )
V= IL (2 f C )
T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2

T1 T2
Voltage waveforms considering ideal diodes. 81
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problem
Calculate the peak-to-peak ripple voltages for a half-wave and a full-wave rectifiers
with a capacitor filter. (RL = 1 k, C = 470 F, vi = 12 V, 50 Hz)
Solutions:
T = 1/50 = 20 mS
Discharging time constant = RLC = 470 mS.
Becomes a complex problem
T1 = 0 approximation is valid.
for RL = 1 k, C = 47 F.
Half-wave rectifier: Solve for T2 first:
vr = Vm / ( f RL C ) ( 3T 4 + T2 ) RL C
p p Half-wave: sin t = Vm e
= 12 2 ( 50 1k 470 ) (T 4 + T2 ) RL C
Full-wave: sin t = Vm e
= 0.722
= V ( 0.707 V using exp. function)

Full-wave rectifier: Triangular wave


vr p p
= Vm / ( 2 f RL C ) approximation:
vr = 2 3vr
= 12 2 ( 50 1k 470 ) p p rms

= 0.361
= V ( 0.357 V using exp. function) 82
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Voltage Regulator
Automatically maintains a constant voltage level.
Output voltage is independent of load or source voltage variation.
Rs ID (mA)
+ VZ
I IL -VD (V)
Vi IZ Vz RL VL Iz|allowed /10
RZ = 0
Operating
- region
Iz|allowed
A dc voltage regulator using Zener diode.
Zener breakdown

=
I Iz + IL (1)
=
Vi I Rs + Vz (2) When the diode operates in breakdown region.
Vi I ( Rs + RL )
= When the diode is not in breakdown region.

Conditions for proper operations:


1. The diode must be fired (in break down mode).
2. Diode current must be limited to avoid burn out.
83
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Voltage Regulator
Rs Both Vi and RL vary:
+
I IL Vi Vi min to Vi max
Vi IZ Vz RL VL
RL RL min to RL max
-
I L max to I L min
A dc voltage regulator using Zener diode.

Condition 1: diode in breakdown Condition 2: avoid diode burn out

VL ( without the diode ) > VZ Iz max


Iz allowed where I z allowed
Pz Vz
=
Calculate VL for the voltage divider formed Vi Vz
max
Iz
by Rs and RL Rs allowed Take RLmax
as infinite if
RL min Vi Vz
Vi > VZ Rs max unspecified.
min
RL min + Rs Pz Vz
Vi
Rs < RL min min 1
V
z 84
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Voltage Regulator
In the following circuit, Vi can vary between 9
Rs
and 12 V, and RL between 1 k and infinity. A
Zener diode with Vz = 6 V and PD = 400 mW +
is used to design the voltage regulator. I IL
Vi IZ Vz RL VL
Choose a suitable value of Rs to avoid diode
burn out. -

Solutions:
The diode must be fired: Maximum allowed Zener current:
RL |min I= P=
D / Vz 66.67 mA
Vi |min Vz z allowed

RL |min + Rs |max
Vi |max Vz
1k Rs |min
9 6 I z allowed
1k + Rs |max
12 6
Rs |max 0.5 k Rs |min Rs |min 90 .
66.67 m

The range of Rs is 90 <Rs <500 .


85
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Voltage Regulator
VNL VFL
Voltage regulation = 100%, VNL No load output voltage
VFL
VFL Full load output voltage.

VL
=
Source regulation 100%. VL change in output voltage for a
Vi change of Vi input voltage.

Ripple rejection ratio = output ripple voltage/ input ripple voltage.

Rs Rs Rs

I I I Rz
Vi Vi IZ Vz Vi IZ
IZ Vz
Vz

Voltage regulator Equivalent circuit Equivalent circuit


without the load. (ideal Zener).
86
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Clipping Circuits
A clipper (limiter) clips off an unwanted portion of a waveform. ID
Often used to protect a circuit from a large amplitude signal.
OFF ON
Example: half-wave rectifier.
VD

Series clipper: Diode characteristics.

6V
+ 5.3 V
+
0V vin RL v0
0V
- -

Input voltage. Negative series clipper. Output voltage.

+ + + +
vin RL v0 vin RL v0
- - - -

Equivalent circuit when the Equivalent circuit when the


diode is in forward bias. diode is in reverse bias.
87
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Series Clippers
Positive clipper:
6V
+ +
0V vin v0 0V
RL
- - -5.3 V

Input voltage. Positive series clipper. Output voltage.

Series noise clipper:

6V Dead zone
+ + 5.3 V
0.7 V
0V vin RL v0
-0.7 V 0V
- -

Input voltage. Series noise clipper. Output voltage.

Unwanted lower level noise can be eliminated by a series clipper circuit.


88
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Shunt Clippers
Positive shunt clipper:
V
R1 IL
V1 V
+ +
0V
0V vin V RL v0
- - -(V1 ILR1) V

Input voltage. Positive shunt clipper. Output voltage.

Diode is in reverse bias condition: shunt branch has no effect on the output
voltage.
Negative shunt clipper:
R1 IL
V1 V
+ + (V1 ILR1) V

0V vin V RL v0
0V
- - V
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper. Output voltage.
89
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits
Series clipper:
VB V
V1 V V1 (VB + V )
+ + V1 V

0V vin RL v0 V=
in (V B + V )
0V
- -

Input voltage. Series clipper with Output voltage.


negative shift.

No voltage values are specified: consider V1 > VB > V .

Solution steps:
Check the diode biasing condition for Vin = 0 V.
Replace the diode by its equivalent model.
Determine the value of Vin required to change the above biasing condition.
Calculate the output voltages for max./min. values of Vin.
Check for zero crossing (calculate the value of Vin for which the output is zero).
90
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits

V1 V
VB V (V1 + VB ) V
+ V1 V
+
0V vin v0
V=
in (V
VB )
RL 0V
- -

Input voltage. Series clipper with Output voltage.


positive shift.

V1 V IL
R1 F.B.
V1 V
+
0V
+
vin v0
V=
in (V B + V ) R.B.
RL 0V
vB
- -
V1 I L R1

Input voltage. Positive shunt clipper. Output voltage.

Consider ideal diode if the type of the diode (Si, Ge etc) or the cut-in voltage is
unspecified.
If unspecified consider R1 = 0. 91
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits
V1 V R.B.
R1 IL V1 V
(VB V )
F.B.
0V + + V=
in

v0 0V
vin RL
vB
- -
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper Output voltage.
with positive shift.

V1 V V1 V
R1 IL
+ 0V
0V +
v0 Vin =VB + V
vin RL F.B.
vB
- - R.B.

Input voltage. Positive shunt clipper Output voltage.


with negative shift.

92
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clipping Circuits
R.B.
V1 V V1 V
R1 IL
+ 0V
0V +
v0 (VB + V )
Vin =
vin RL
vB F.B.
- -
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper. Output voltage.

D1 in F.B.
V1 V
V1 V
R1
=
Vin (VB1 + V 1 )
0V + + 0V
D1 D2
v0 (VB 2 + V 2 )
Vin =
vin RL
vB1 vB2
- - D2 in F.B.
Input voltage. Negative shunt clipper. Output voltage.

93
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Clampers
A clamping circuit (dc restorer) shifts the entire signal by a dc value.
Change the dc voltage level but does not affect its shape.
Always use a capacitor. vin
V1 V

+ vC - IL
0V
V1 V C +
+
vin V RL v0
0V v0
- - -2V1 V

Input voltage. Negative voltage clamping circuit. Output voltage


(ideal diode).
Some important points:
Identify the charging and discharging path of the capacitor.
Diode in forward bias: input voltage appears across the capacitor (charging).
Diode in reverse bias: capacitor holds the voltage (discharging).
Charging time constant >>discharging time constant.
Total input swing = total output swing. 94
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Positive Voltage Clamper

12 V
+ vC - IL
23.3 V 5T
C +
0V +
vin V RL v0
-12 V -0.7 V
- -

Input voltage. Positive voltage clamping circuit. Output voltage.

- 11.3 V + - 11.3 V +
+ +
-12 V 0.7 V RL -0.7 V 12 V RL 23.3 V
- -

During the negative cycle. During the positive cycle.

Consider capacitor charging step first.


95
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clamping Circuits
28.3 V
12 V
C = 4.7 F IL
2 mS + +
0V V
vin RL = 10 k v0
5V 4.3 V
- - 2 mS
-12 V

Input voltage. Positive shunt clamper. Output voltage.

Charging time const. = 0, discharging time const. = 47 mS<< time period = 2 mS.

- 16.3 V + - 16.3 V +
+
+
0.7 V 0.7 V v0 = 28.3 V
-12 V v0 = 4.3 V 12 V
5V 5V
- -

Equivalent circuit in positive


Equivalent circuit in negative
half-cycle.
half-cycle.
96
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Biased Clamping Circuits
2 mS
12 V
C = 4.7 F IL -4.3 V
2 mS + +
0V V
vin RL = 10 k v0
-5 V
- -
-12 V
-28.3 V

Input voltage. Negative shunt clamper. Output voltage.

+ 16.3 V - + 16.3 V -
+
+
12 V 0.7 V v0 = -4.3 V -12 V v0 = -28.3 V
-5 V -5 V
- -

Equivalent circuit in negative


Equivalent circuit in positive
half-cycle.
half-cycle.
97
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
10 k
Q1. (i) What type of filter is it? Calculate the
cutoff frequency of the filter. +
(ii) The switch is closed at t = 0, calculate the 12 V 1 k vo
output voltage at t = 0 and at t = 10 mS. 1 F
-
(i) Lowpass filter.
Cutoff frequency = 175.1 Hz. 909
+
(ii) At t = 0, the capacitor is shorted.
Vo = 0 V. 1 F vo
-
Now, time constant = ReqC = 0.909 mS.
t 5
Vo = 1.09 V.
10 k 10 k

Calculate the time constant of the following +


circuit. 12 V 1 F vo

The output is open-circuited. -


time constant = RC = 10 mS.
98
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Q2. In the circuit, the capacitors are fully charged at t = R
0- so that vi = 12 V (C = 47 F, and R = 1 k). + +
(i) The switch is closed at t = 0, calculate the time v vc
i C C
when vc = 6 V.
-
(ii) Calculate the minimum power rating of the resistor. -

(i) Ceq = 94 F.
t RC eq
vC = Vo e
vC
ln =
t RC eq
Vo
t =65.2 mS .

( )
2
(ii). Power rating = i peak R
2
12
= 1k
1k
= 144 mW . 99
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Q3. In the following circuit, a current source ii = C
sin(2ft) mA with internal resistance Ri = 10 k is +
ii
connected to a RC circuit. Calculate the output Ri RL v0
voltages (magnitudes) at f = 10 kHz and 100 kHz. -
Given that C = 2.2 nF, and RL = 10 k.

Transform the current source into a voltage source vi.


vi = ii Ri = 10sin ( 2 ft ) V.
vRL CRL
Now, =
vi 1 + 2 C 2 ( Ri + RL )
2

vRL
at 10 kHz , CR
= C ( Ri + R=
L) = 0.47
2 2 2
L 1.382, 7.643
vi
vRL = 4.7 sin ( 20 103 t ) V.
10 kHz

vRL
=5sin ( 20 104 t ) V.
13.82
at 100 kHz , = =0.4996 vRL
vi 1 + 764.3 100 kHz
100
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Q4. In the following circuit, a pulse of height V and R
width a is applied at t = 0. Find an expression for the +
current. V C vc
-
vin (=
t ) V U ( t ) U ( t a ) .
t
1
Now, applying KVL, vc ( 0 ) + i dt +=
Ri V U ( t ) U ( t a )
C 0
Taking Laplace transform,
vc ( 0 ) I (s) V
+ + R I (s) = 1 e as
s Cs s
1 e as V 1 e as
Assuming = vc ( 0 ) 0, = I ( s ) VC =
1 + CRs R s + 1 CR s + 1 CR
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V t CR
i (t ) = e U ( t ) e ( t a ) CR
U ( t a ) .
R 101
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Q5. The circuit is in steady state. The switch is R
closed at t = 0. Find an expression for the vc. +
2 R
vc ( 0 ) = V. V vc
3 C
R
But, for t >0, looking from the capacitor terminal,
-
V
the Thevenin's voltage = .
2
t
R 1 V
Now, applying KVL, i + vc ( 0 ) + i dt =
2 C 0 2
R/2
Taking Laplace transform, +
R vc ( 0 ) I ( s ) V
I (s) + + = , V/ vc
2 s Cs 2s C
2
R 2V I ( s ) V
I (s) + + =, -
2 3s Cs 2s
V ( 3R )
Equivalent circuit for t >0.
I (s) = .
s + 2 ( CR ) 102
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Capacitor voltage for t >0, R
v ( 0 ) I ( s ) 2V V ( 3RC ) +
Vc ( s ) =c + = ,
s Cs 3s s s + 2 ( CR ) R
V vc
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) A B C
= = + . R
s s + 2 ( CR ) s s + 2 ( CR ) -
Now, expanding into partial fractions,
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) V
A =
s + 2 ( CR ) 2
s =0

( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )
V
B = .
s s = 2 CR
6
V V
Vc ( s ) = + .
2 s 6 s + 2 ( CR )
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V V 2t CR
vc ( t ) =+ e , (for t > 0).
2 6 103
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Problems
Capacitor voltage for t >0, R
v ( 0 ) I ( s ) 2V V ( 3RC ) +
Vc ( s ) =c + = ,
s Cs 3s s s + 2 ( CR ) R
V vc
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) A B C
= = + . R
s s + 2 ( CR ) s s + 2 ( CR ) -
Now, expanding into partial fractions,
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) V
A =
s + 2 ( CR ) 2
s =0

( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )
V
B = .
s s = 2 CR
6
V V
Vc ( s ) = + .
2 s 6 s + 2 ( CR )
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V V 2t CR
vc ( t ) =+ e , (for t > 0).
2 6 104
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Additional Questions
Q1. In the following circuit, charge on the capacitor is zero for t <0. R1 = 10 k, R2 =
10 k R3 = 1 k C = 10 F.
(i) At t = 0 Sec, the switch is closed. Find I1 and I2 at t = 0 and at t = 1 Sec.
(ii) The switch is reopened at t = 2 Sec. Find I1 and I2 at t = 2 Sec.
R1
Answer: +
(i) At t = 0, the capacitor is shorted. I1 C vc
I1 ( 0 ) = 9 ( R1 + R 2 || R 3 ) = 0.825 mA. and 9V R2 -
I 2 ( 0 ) =R 3 0.825 ( R 2 + R 3 ) =0.075 mA. I2 R3

==
Req C 60 mS << 1 Sec the capacitor is fully charged.
I1 (1Sec )= I 2 (1Sec )= 9 ( R1 + R 2 )= 0.45 mA.
(ii) At t = 2 Sec, left-hand part is open.
I1 ( 2 Sec
= ) 0 and I 2 ( 2 Sec=) 4.5 ( R 2 + R=
3) 0.409 mA.

105
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Additional Questions
Q2. A Series RC circuit is excited by a voltage source of variable frequency. The
output is taken across the R. Sketch the variation of the steady state transfer
function with angular frequency .
Hints: Obtain H(j) and represent in magnitude and phase form.

1.0 900
0.707
450
M()
()
1/RC 1/RC

Magnitude response Phase response

Q3. Initially the switch is connected to a and the circuit is


R
in steady state. The switch is moved from a to b at t = 0. a
Find the current in the inductor. What is the power b
dissipated in R at t = 0 and t = ? 6V
iL L

6 R e Rt L A, t 0
Answer: i = PR = 36 R W,
6 R A, t<0 = 0 W.
106
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Additional Questions
Q4. In the following circuit, the switch is closed at t = CR. Assuming that all currents
and voltages are zero at t = 0-, determine the output voltage for 0 t .
R
Answer:
+
v (t ) 0 ,
= 0 t < CR,
V0 U(t) v(t)
V
= V0 0 ( e + 1) exp ( t CR ) 2CR V, CR t < C C
-
2e

Q5. In the following circuit, the switch is connected to a. At t = 0, it is moved to


position b. Find an expression for the voltage v0 for t >0. Given that R1 = 2 k, R2 = 1
k, L1 = 2 mH, L2 = 1 mH.
Hints: i ( 0 ) = 3 mA, R1
a b
+
Applying KCL at b,
6V R2 L2 vo
1
t v0 1
t L1
( )
i 0 + 0 R2 L2
v dt + + 0 + 0 0 =
v dt 0.
L -
1 0
Answer:
v0 ( t ) =3 106 e 3t 2 , t > 0. 107
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Additional Questions
Q6. In the following circuit, obtain the complex R
transfer function and express them in magnitude +
and phase forms. Obtain the 3 dB cutoff frequency vin R vo
and the frequency at which the phase difference C
-
between the output and input voltage is 450. (5+5)

Q7. In the following circuit, the switch is R1


a b
connected to a and the circuit is in steady state. +
At t = 0, it is moved to position b. Find an 6 V L1 R2 L2 vo
expression for the voltage v0 for t >0. Given that
-
R1 = 2 k, R2 = 1 k, L1 = 2 mH, L2 = 1 mH. (10)

Q8. Express the following periodic function in


+1
terms of step functions and determine the f(t)
corresponding Laplace transform. (5) 0 t
T/2 T 3T/2
-1

108
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Thank you

?
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in
Ph. +91-3222-283550 (o)
Department of E. & E.C.E.
I.I.T. Kharagpur, 721302.
109