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FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


(PULAU PINANG)

INTRODUCTION TO OPEN ENDED LABORATORY ACTIVITIES


From Prescriptive to Investigative

Introduction

Various methods of innovative teaching may be implemented in the teaching and learning activities to
simulate an environment where students are encouraged to be proactive. These innovative methods
may be in the form of Project Based Learning (PBL), Project Oriented Problem Based Learning (POPBL),
Active Learning (AL), Cooperative Learning (CL), Independent Learning (IL) and others.

Previous methods of teaching laboratory courses are basically in the form of fully guided assignment.
The methods are described as prescriptive or traditional methods. However these methods are now no
longer adequate within the context of outcome based learning environments (1). It could not provide the
platform where students are given opportunities to explore their own simulation and design their own
experimental works.

The Engineering Accreditation Manual (EAC) 2012 (2) stipulated that:

Students should receive sufficient laboratory work to complement engineering theory


that is learnt through lectures. The laboratory should help students develop competence
in executing experimental work. Throughout the programme, there should be adequate
provision for laboratory or similar investigative work, which will develop the young
engineer the confidence to deal with new and unusual engineering problem.

Thus the need for an open ended laboratory is emphasized in enhancing independent learning and
inculcating creativity and innovation of students. They are required to determine the objectives and
scope, identifying apparatus needed and preparing the methodology, running the experiment and finally
submitting the technical report. Through this process students must understand the principles of
technical reasoning and the experimental design (3).

This brief paper looks at the practicality of implementing the open ended laboratory activities at
different levels of education for a four year engineering degree programme and how it was
implemented at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang.

Level of Openness

Amongst the many papers (1, 4) which the author managed to review stated that fully open ended
laboratory activities should be introduced in the third year of the four year degree programme.
However, syllabi of most engineering programme contain laboratory courses spanning throughout the
four year programme. Thus it is impractical to introduce the open ended laboratory activities for all
laboratory courses from Year 1 to Year 4. The conduct of laboratory activities should be carried out at
different levels of openness throughout the period of study.

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 1


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

The concept of different level of openness was discussed by many authors. In most discussion the area
of concern is categorized as problem, ways and means and answers. Kilinc, A., 2005 (5) described the
level of openness as shown in Table 1 below based on the one proposed by Hegarty-Hazel (1986). The
ways and means are split into two different elements as apparatus and procedures respectively.

Table 1 : Level of Openness according to Hegarty-Hazel, 1986

LEVEL PROBLEM APPARATUS PROCEDURE ANSWER COMMON NAME

O Given Given Given Given Verification


1 Given Given Given Open Guided Inquiry
2a Given Given Open Open Open guided inquiry
2b Given Open Open Open Open guided inquiry
3 Open Open Open Open Open Inquiry

McComas (1997) (6) presented the level of openness as envisaged by Schwab-Herron as in Table 2 below.
Four levels were identified and three elements to be addressed were categorized.

Table 2 : Level of Openness according to Schwab-Herron

Schwab/Herron Levels of Laboratory Openness


LEVEL PROBLEM WAYS & MEANS ANSWERS

O Given Given Given

1 Given Given Open

2 Given Open Open

3 Open Open Open

Petropol-Serb (2011) (3) categorized the elements to be addressed in the open ended laboratory
activities as the experimental set-up, the experimental design and data analysis and report. Asanovic
(2009, 2012) (7, 8) referred to the elements as a directed portion and an open ended portion.

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 2


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

To simplify the matter it is suggested that there should be four (4) levels of openness, namely Levels 0-3,
and three categories of element to be incorporated into the laboratory manual, namely problem, ways
and means and answers. The scientific enquiry rubric, as given by Fay, 2009, for the levels of openness
are summarized and described as in Table 3 below by the University of New South Wales, Australia (9).

Table 3 : Scientific Enquiry Rubric

Establishing the level of independence and autonomy expected of students to carry out an
assessment task
Level of
Description
Enquiry
The problem, procedure and methods for achieving solutions are provided to the student.
0
The student performs the experiment and verifies the results with the manual
The problem and procedure are provided to the student. The student interprets the data
1
in order to propose viable solutions
The problem is provided to the student. The student develops a procedure for
2 investigating the problem, decides what data to gather, and interprets the data in order
to propose viable solutions
A raw phenomenon is provided to the student. The student chooses the problem to
3 explore, develops a procedure for investigating the problem, decides what data to gather,
and interprets the data in order to propose viable solutions

Implementation of Laboratory Activities

Implementation of the laboratory activities at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Pulau Pinang was
progressively introduced, monitored, reviewed and streamlined since the last accreditation exercise by
EAC in 2008. New guidelines were introduced to facilitate the teaching and learning activities to benefit
not only the students but new lecturers taking the courses. Manual preparation for each laboratory
activities would include the elements as shown in Table 4. The preamble to the laboratory manual
should include introduction, objectives and learning outcomes. The lecturers may also include basic
theoretical information as and when necessary.

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 3


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

Table 4 : Elements in a Laboratory Manual

WAYS & COMMON NAME DEGREE OF


LEVEL PREAMBLE PROBLEM ANSWERS
MEANS OF LAB ACTIVITIES OPEN ENDED

O Given Given Given Given Traditional 0%

1 Given Given Given Open Partially open 33%

2 Given Given Open Open Partially open 66%

3 Given Open Open Open Fully open 100%

Suggested percentage breakdown of laboratory activity based on the level of openness and year of
study is shown in Table 5. However, this is not a rigid guideline and respective course lecturers may
adopt their own breakdown with reasons. Table 5 could be used by respective laboratory course
lecturers as a guide in designing the breakdown of laboratory activities according to the year of study. At
least one open ended laboratory activity is incorporated in all laboratory courses. An open ended real
life problem is given which would require the conduct of three to four laboratory experiments carried
out in succession over a period of 3-4 weeks.
The table also shows the practice of fully open ended laboratory activities for a particular course is best
example in the course Final Year Projects I & II for those students involved in projects of investigative in
nature.

Table 5 : Suggested Percentage Breakdown based on Level of Openness and Year of Study

YEAR OF PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN BASED ON LEVEL OF OPENNESS (12 LABS)


STUDY LEVEL 0 LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3
Y 1 (S1-S2) 33 (4 LABS) 25 (3 LABS) 17 (2 LABS) 25 (3 LABS)

Y 2 (S3-S4) 25 (3 LABS) 17 (2 LABS) 25 (3 LABS) 33 (4 LABS)


Y 3 (S5-S6) 8 (1 LAB) 17 (2 LABS) 33 (4 LABS) 42 (5 LABS)
100 (ALL LABS) -
Y 4 (S7-S8) 0 0 0
FYP I & II

Assessment of the Laboratory Activities


Twelve elements were identified to be assessed for the laboratory activities. These elements are
grouped into individual, group or technical report assessments. However not all elements should be
assessed for each of the four levels of activities. Table 6 shows the suggested elements that could be
assessed based on the level of openness.

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 4


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

Table 6 : Suggested Elements to be Assessed Based on the Level of Openness


NO ELEMENTS TO ASSESS LEVEL OF OPENNESS
1 2 3 4
INDIVIDUAL IN-LAB ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT
1 PUNCTUALITIY x x
2 DISCIPLINE (DRESS CODE,SAFETY SHOES,SAFETY REGULATIONS) x x
3 KNOWLEDGE ON OPEN ENDED LABORATORY x x
GROUP IN-LAB ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT
4 LEADERSHIP SKILL x x x
5 COMMUNICATION x x
6 ORGANISATION/TEAMWORK x x x
TEST/REPORT/ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT
7 INTRODUCTION x
8 BASIC CONCEPTS x
9 SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES/ METHODS x x
10 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA x x x
11 DISCUSSION OF RESULT x x x
12 CONCLUSION x x x x

Conclusion

It is hope that the teaching of laboratory courses progressively from prescriptive to investigative in
nature will eventually mould the students to be better engineers in the future. It should be noted that
well-prepared laboratory manuals based on the different levels of openness alone could never achieve
the desired objectives without due attention and proper assessment of the activities by respective
course lecturers/laboratory facilitators. It is also anticipated that this nature of activities would enable
students to be better prepared in taking final year projects of investigative nature in the fourth year.

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FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

References
1 Abd Rahman, N., et al., 2011. Comparative Study between Open Ended Laboratory and
Traditional Laboratory
2 Engineering Acreditation Manual 2012, Board of Engineers (BEM), Malaysia
3 Petropol-Serb, G. D., et al., 2011. Open Ended Laboratory Method Applied in the Conception of
a Test Bench to Simulate a Diesel-Electric Transmission
4 Kofli, N. T., et al, 2012. Open Ended Laboratory Assignment As Enhancing Generic Skills
Amongst Engineering Students.
5 Kilinc, A., 2005. The Opinions of Turkish High School Pupils on Inquiry Based Laboratory
Activities
6 McComas, W.E, 1997. The nature of the laboratory experience: a guide for describing,
classifying and enhancing hands-on activities. CSTA Journal 6-9.
7 Asanovic, K., Beamer, S., 2009. C152 Laboratory Exercise 6
8 Asanovic, K., Celio, C., 2012. C152 Laboratory Exercise 1
9 UNSW, Australia. Assessment Toolkit. Assessing Laboratory Learning
10 Assessment Rubrics for Laboratory Courses, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Malaysia

AP Abd Rahman Mahamood


FCE, UiTM
23 February 2013
Version 1.0

Muhamad Faizal bin Latiff


FCE, UiTM Pulau Pinang
1 March 2013
Version 1.0

Editted & Updated by:


Nur Shafieza binti Azizan
FCE, UiTM Pulau Pinang
2015
Version Updated

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 6


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 1

CATEGORY MANUAL
DESCRIPTION
FOR LEVELS CONTENT
Suspended solids (particularly colloids) are often removed from water by
chemical coagulation and flocculation. Colloidal particles carry a small
electrostatic charge that keeps them in suspension. Coagulation is the
addition of chemicals to neutralize the effect of colloidal charges and allow
INTRODUCTION
aggregation of particles. Following coagulation the suspension is stirred
gently to promote particle collision and agglomeration in a process termed
flocculation.

PREAMBLE To determine the optimum alum dose and pH for suspended solids removal
OBJECTIVES from water using Jar test.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. Identify, design and perform the appropriate experiment to execute
LEARNING Jar Test process due to given problem.
OUTCOMES 2. Analyze and interpret the data and identify the optimum dosage of
coagulant in order to get optimum result of water sample.
3.
Treatment of water in the water treatment plant will cost high if the amount
of alum is highly used. Therefore it is important to determine the optimum
dosage of alum and the optimum pH for the optimum coagulation and
PROBLEM
PROBLEM flocculation process. Each group need to prepare samples of water according
STATEMENT
to the procedure and determine the optimum pH and dosage for the
coagulation and flocculation process.

Test for optimum pH (dose constant)


1. Fill six 1 liter beakers with 500 ml the given kaolin (clay)
suspension (SS about 50 mg/L).
2. Fill a burette with 50 ml alum solution of concentration 2g/L.
3. Add to the beakers alum solution corresponding to a dose 10 mg/L.
4. Add to the beakers the amounts of H2S04 or NaOH that would yield
final pH values of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
5. Mix the samples at high speed (80 rpm) for 1 minute.
6. Reduce mixing speed to 30 rpm and continue mixing for 15
minutes.
PROCEDURES 7. Stop the stirrer and let the flocs settle for 20 minutes.
(Refer to Standard 8. Determine supernatant turbidity.
WAYS & Methods for the 9. Plot graph turbidity vs. pH
MEANS Examination of
Water and Test for optimum dose (pH constant)
Wastewater) 1. Fill six I liter beakers with 500 ml the given kaolin (clay)
suspension (SS about 50 mg/L).
2. Fill a burette with 50 ml alum solution of concentration 2.0g/L.
3. Add to the beakers alum solution corresponding to doses of 0
(control), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L.
4. Add to the beakers the amount of H2S04 or NaOH that would yield a
final pH of 6.5.
5. Mix the samples at high speed (80 rpm) for 1 minute.
6. Reduce mixing speed to 30 rpm and continue mixing for 15
minutes.
7. Stop the stirrer and let the floes settle for 20 minutes.

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 7


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

8. Determine the turbidity of supernatant.


9. Plot graph turbidity vs. alum dose.

DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group


ACQUISITION
ANALYSIS & Technical data, analysis, and report to be presented by each group.
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 8


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 1

CATEGORY MANUAL DESCRIPTION


FOR LEVELS CONTENT
The presence of coliform bacteria in the water indicates that the water may
have been contaminated with sewage and is not safe to drink. Regulations
INTRODUCTION require that coliform bacteria be completely absent from 95% of the water
samples.

1. To understand and implement suitable method to prove the existing of E-


coli in water bodies.
OBJECTIVES
PREAMBLE 2. To quantify the presence of E-Coli in water samples.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. Identify, design and perform the appropriate experiment to
LEARNING determine the occurrence of E-Coli due to a given problem.
OUTCOMES 2. Analyze and interpret the data and identify the amount rate of E-
Coli in differences water sample.

Treatment of water in the water treatment plant will cost high if the amount
of alum is highly used. Therefore it is important to determine the optimum
dosage of alum and the optimum pH for the optimum coagulation and
PROBLEM
PROBLEM flocculation process. Each group need to prepare samples of water according
STATEMENT
to the procedure and determine the optimum pH and dosage for the
coagulation and flocculation process.

1. Add contents of one pack to a 100mL water sample in a sterile vessel.


PROCEDURES 2. Cap vessel and shake until dissolved.
(Refer to Standard 3. Pour sample/reagent mixture into a Quanti-Tray and seal it.
Methods for the 4. Place the sealed tray in a 35C 0.5C incubator for 24 hours.
WAYS & Examination of 5. Read results according to the Result Interpretation table below. Count the
MEANS Water and number of positive wells and refer to the MPN table provided with the trays
Wastewater) to obtain a Most Probable Number

DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group


ACQUISITION
ANALYSIS & Technical data, analysis, and report to be presented by each group.
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 9


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 2

CATEGORY MANUAL DESCRIPTION


FOR LEVELS CONTENT
At least 20 metals are classified as toxic and half of these are emitted into the
environment in quantities that pose risks to human health. Heavy metal ions
such as cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium and zinc are detected in the waste
streams from mining operations, tanneries, electronics, electroplating and
INTRODUCTION
petrochemical industries, as well as in textile mill products. Moreover, heavy
metals are major pollutants in marine, ground, industrial and even treated
wastewaters.

1. To determine the concentration of zinc and copper in the wastewater


PREAMBLE sample.
OBJECTIVES 2. To compare the results obtained from the experiments with the standard of
effluent from Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. Identify, design and perform the appropriate experiment to
LEARNING determine heavy metals due to a given problem.
OUTCOMES 2. Analyze and interpret the data and identify the amount of heavy
metal in differences water sample.
3.
Due to the high quantities of water used by the industry such as metal
finishing and electroplating mining operations, tanneries, electronics,
electroplating and petrochemical industries, as well as in textile mill products
PROBLEM dyeing processes, heavy metals contamination has become one of the biggest
PROBLEM
STATEMENT problem which requires a smart solution. Treatment of water in the water
treatment plant will cost high if the concentration of heavy metal is high
besides affecting humans health and environment.

PROCEDURES Brief procedure of work to be written by each group.


(Refer to the
WAYS & manual for DR2400
MEANS Spectrophotometer)
DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group
ACQUISITION
ANALYSIS & Technical data, analysis, and report to be presented by each group.
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 10


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 2

CATEGORY MANUAL CONTENT DESCRIPTION


FOR LEVELS
Particulates in the air vary from location to location within the area. Air
particles are tiny subdivisions of solid matter suspended in a gas or liquid.
In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and/or liquid droplets and the gas
together. Sources of particulate matter can be manmade or natural. Large
INTRODUCTION
amount of air particles in the environment is the main cause of air
pollution which can bring various implications such as health problem and
reduce visibility.

PREAMBLE To understand and implement suitable methods to prove the existing of


OBJECTIVES particles in surrounding area.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. Identify, design and perform the appropriate experiment to
LEARNING determine the air particles due to a given problem.
OUTCOMES 2. Analyze and interpret the data and identify the amount of air
particles in differences location of case studies.
3.
Each group has to conduct an experiment to determine the existing of
particulate matter in your study area. The experiment result should include
picture to prove the particulate matter presence. It is important to hold the
entire variables constant except for those that are being manipulated.
Constant (or controlled variables) would be such things as: the size of the
PROBLEM collection space, the amount of time the experiment is conducted, etc.
PROBLEM
STATEMENT Manipulated (or independent) variables would be those things that we
change to see if the response will be different, such as: location of the
experiment, height of the experiment, weather on day of collection, etc.
The responding (or dependent) variable for this experiment will be the
number and variety of particulates you gather on your equipment.

PROCEDURES Brief procedure of work to be written by each group.


(Refer to the manual
for DUSTMATE
ENVIRONMENTAL
WAYS &
DUST DETECTOR
MEANS
TURNKEY
INSTRUMENTS)
DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group
ACQUISITION
ANALYSIS & Technical data, analysis, and report to be presented by each group.
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 11


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 2

CATEGORY MANUAL DESCRIPTION


FOR LEVELS CONTENT
Noise is derived from the Latin word 'nausea' implying 'unwanted sound' or
'sound that is loud, unpleasant or unexpected'. The noise originates from
human activities, especially the urbanization and the development of
transport and industry. Though, the urban population is much more affected
by such pollution, however, small town and villages along side roads or
industries are also victim of this problem. Noise is becoming an increasingly
omnipresent, yet unnoticed form of pollution even in developed countries.
One area of environmental acoustics that has received considerable attention
INTRODUCTION in recent years is the development of new methods to describe the impact of
highway noise on the community. Attempts to correlate noise environments
with community annoyance have led to the development of several single-
number noise descriptors for the assessment of community reaction. To
accurately relate to peoples' reactions to noise, a descriptor should describe
PREAMBLE
the fluctuating noise completely by including intensity and frequency
characteristics and the variation of both with time. Furthermore, it should
describe, in a single number, the known effects of noise on humans.

1. To measure the noise level scale using appropriate devices.


OBJECTIVES 2. To determine the noise level in different of selected locations.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. Identify, design and perform the appropriate experiment to identify
LEARNING the rate of noise level due to a given problem.
OUTCOMES 2. Analyze and interpret the data and identify the rate of noise level
particles in differences location of case studies.

Noise levels from the construction site surrounding a commercial building


have become a problem to the near residential areas. Due to this problem,
their daily routines are mostly affected by this situation. Many unidentified
PROBLEM sources of noise are known to be the factors of this problem. Perform a
PROBLEM
STATEMENT relevant experiment to identify the noise level surrounding the site and also
the building. In order to verify the accuracy of noise level from different time
interval, a stopwatch will be given.

PROCEDURES Brief procedure of work to be written by each group.


(Refer to the
manual for QUEST
2200
WAYS & INTEGRATING-
MEANS AVERAGING
SOUND LEVEL
METER)
DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group
ACQUISITION
ANALYSIS & Technical data, analysis, and report to be presented by each group.
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 12


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 2

CATEGORY MANUAL DESCRIPTION


FOR LEVELS CONTENT
Fixed solids are those that remain as residue after ignition at 550C and the
weight of material lost is called the volatile solids. The determination is
useful in control of wastewater treatment plant operation because it offers a
INTRODUCTION
rough approximation of the amount of organic matter present in the
wastewater, activated sludge, and industrial wastes.

1. To determine the volatile suspended solids concentration of water samples.


2. To identify the location of samples taken based on volatile suspended
PREAMBLE OBJECTIVES
solids concentration of water samples.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. Identify, design and perform the appropriate experiment to
LEARNING determine volatile suspended solid due to a given problem.
OUTCOMES 2. Analyze and interpret the data and identify the amount of volatile
suspended solid in water sample.

Students need to bring three samples of wastewater. By using appropriate


PROBLEM experiment and result obtained, determine the VSS content for each of the
PROBLEM
STATEMENT sample.

PROCEDURES Brief procedure of work to be written by each group


(Refer to Standard
WAYS & Methods for the
MEANS Examination of
Water and
Wastewater)
DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group
ACQUISITION
ANALYSIS & Technical data, analysis, and report to be presented by each group.
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 13


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 2

CATEGORY MANUAL DESCRIPTION


FOR LEVELS CONTENT
Level 2 laboratory activities refer to the condition where only the problem is
guided and given. Students are required to find the ways & means and
provide the answers to the given assignment using the group creativity and
innovativeness. The activity will enable the students to appreciate
INTRODUCTION independent learning and prepare them for a much harder task of open ended
laboratory activities.
In this partially open laboratory activity the students are required to carry out
tests to identify air particle.

1. To make students understand and implement suitable method to


PREAMBLE
OBJECTIVES prove the existing of particles in surrounding area.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. To determine the total chlorine in the samples.
2. To explain the procedure/method used to measure total chlorine.
LEARNING 3. To analyse test data and discuss the cause and effect of total
OUTCOMES chlorine in water sample.
4. Work in a group to undertake the task and produce the relevant
technical report.

Chlorine is widely used as disinfectant in water treatment process to produce


drinking water. The presence of chlorine residual in drinking water indicates
that: 1) a sufficient amount of chlorine was added initially to the water to
inactivate the bacteria and some viruses that cause diarrheal disease; and, 2)
PROBLEM the water is protected from recontamination during storage. The presence of
PROBLEM
STATEMENT free residual chlorine in drinking water is correlated with the absence of
disease-causing organisms, and thus is a measure of the potability of water.
You are required to carry out jar test on the water sample given using the
appropriate apparatus available in the laboratory.

Apparatus
The group must identify the availability of the chosen apparatus in the lab
before the right procedures can be identified.
PROCEDURES
Procedures
(Refer to Standard
The group is required to search for the relevant procedure to carry out the test
WAYS & Methods for the
based on the available apparatus in your laboratory. The document must be
MEANS Examination of
made ready for verification by the instructor during the laboratory activity.
Water and
Wastewater) Data Acquisition
All data collected and observed during the test must be tabulate in proper
format for easy verification and presentation of the technical report

DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group


ACQUISITION
The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the apparatus used, the procedures undertaken for the test, data
ANALYSIS & acquisition process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the set-out
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION output to address the given problem. The format of the technical report is left
to the creativity discretion of the group.

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 14


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
(PULAU PINANG)

LEVEL 3

CATEGORY MANUAL DESCRIPTION


FOR LEVELS CONTENT
This open-ended laboratory is performed to determine the water quality
index for a sample of wastewater. The samples of water should be bring by
students prior to the testing. This experimental work will assess the students
INTRODUCTION
ability to design, conduct, analyze, interpret data, and to act effectively as an
individual together with leadership capabilities

To determine the water quality class of the sample of wastewater.


OBJECTIVES
PREAMBLE
At the end of the week, students should be able to:
1. Identify, design and perform the appropriate experiments to
determine the necessary water quality parameter due to a given
LEARNING
problem.
OUTCOMES
2. Convert the findings to water quality class using appropriate
formula.

Water quality data were used to determine the water quality status whether
the collected samples are clean, slightly polluted or polluted based on Water
Quality Index (WQI) and to classify the source of water in Class I, II, III, IV
or V based on Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia
PROBLEM
PROBLEM (INWQS). Each group needs to collect 2 samples of surface water from
STATEMENT
different locations. Determine the appropriate parameters of the water quality
within 4 laboratory sessions to solve the problem given. Discuss and
conclude the findings in a proper report.

PROCEDURES Refer to Water Quality Index (WQI) and Interim National Water Quality
(Refer to Standard Standards for Malaysia (INWQS)
Methods for the Brief procedure of work to be written by each group
WAYS & Examination of
MEANS Water and
Wastewater)
DATA Format for data acquisition to be prepared by the group
ACQUISITION
ANALYSIS & Technical data, analysis, and report to be presented by each group.
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION

CEW532 WATER QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Page 15