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What are the three types of muscles? What are myofibrils?

Cardiac muscles - in the heart. Smooth muscle


- walls of blood vessels and gut. Skeletal Fibres of muscle.
muscle - attached to bone and is voluntary.

protein fillaments in myofibrils?


What is the structure of actin?
What are the 2 types of

Thinner and consists of two


Actin and myosin.
strands twisted around each other.
What is the structure of myosin? Why do myofibrils appear striped?

Which is thicker and consists of


Because they have alternating
long, rod shaped fibres with bulbed
light and dark coloured bands.
heads that project to the side.

What are the light bands? What are the dark bands?

Isotropic bands, they are lighter because Anistotropic bands, dark coloured because
the myosin and actin do not over lap here. the actin and myosin do overlap in this region.
The sarcomere shortens. The distance between adjacent z lines.
What happens to the sarcomere
What is the sarcomere?
when a muscle contracts?
At the centre of each isotropic band. The H-zone.
What is the Z line? What is the centre of the A band?
What are the two proteins found in muscle? What are the two types of muscle fibre?

Tropomyosin - forms fibrous


strands around the actin filament. Slow twitch fibres and fast twitch fibres.
Troponin - a globular protein.

What do slow twitch fibres do? What do fast twitch fibres do?

Contrast slowly and provide less


powerful contractions over a long contract rapidly and produce powerful
period of time. They are important in contractions but only for a short period of time.
endurance work e.g. long distance running.