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Venturi meter Principle

A venture meter is a device used for measuring the rate of a flow of a fluid flowing
through a pipe.
It consists of three parts.

1. A short converging part


2. Throat
3. Diverging part

It is based on the principle of Bernoullis equation. Inside of the venture meter pressure
difference is created by reducing the cross-sectional area of the flow passage. The
pressure difference is measured by using a differential U-tube manometer. This
pressure difference helps in the determination of rate of flow of fluid .
Advantages
High-pressure recovery. Low permanent pressure drop.
High coefficient of discharge.
Smooth construction and low cone angle help to solid particles flow
through it. So it can be used for dirty fluids.
It can be installed in any direction horizontal, vertical and inclined.
More accurate than orifice and flow nozzle.
Disadvantages
Size, as well as cost is high
Difficult to inspection due to its construction
Nonlinear
For satisfactory operation, the venturi must be proceeded by long
straight pipes.
Its maintenance is not easy
It cannot use in pipe that has small diameter (70mm)

Orifice Meter :
Applications of Orifice Meter
1. The concentric orifice plate is used to measure flow rates of pure fluids and has a
wide applicability as it has been standardized.
2. The eccentric and segmental orifice plates are used to measure flow rates of
fluids containing suspended materials such as solids, oil mixed with water and wet
steam.

Advantages of Orifice Meter


1. It is very cheap and easy method to measure flow rate.
2. It has predictable characteristics and occupies less space.
3. Can be use to measure flow rates in large pipes.
Rotameter
The rotameter is an industrial flowmeter used to measure the flowrate of liquids and
gases. The rotameter consists of a tube and float.
Principle of Operation
The rotameter's operation is based on the variable area principle: fluid flow raises a float
in a tapered tube, increasing the area for passage of the fluid. The greater the flow, the
higher the float is raised. The height of the float is directly proportional to the flowrate.

Advantages:
Pressure drop is constant
No special fuel or external energy is required to pump
Very easy to construct and we can use a wide variety of materials to
construct.
Disadvantages:

Due to its use of gravity, a rotameter must always be vertically


oriented and right way up, with the fluid flowing upward.