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Table of Contents
Map of OKCG Food Forest pg 7
Maps of each Guild pg 8
List of Plants pg 24
(common and scientific names)
Plant Information Pages pg 25
(listed alphabetically by common name)
Template: Plant Information pg 97
Template: Guild Map pg 99

Precaution: Use caution when eating wild foods, if you cannot posi-
tively identify a plant do not eat it due to the possibility of eating
something poisonous.
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GUILD MAPS

The maps on the following pages are designed to help you identify the plants you are
looking at. To identify the plant you are looking at:
1. Identify the guild you are standing in front of by looking at the map above.
2. Find the guild drawing marked with your guild number
3. Find the plant based on its location relative to the tree in the center of the guild.
4. Go to the start of this guide and find the common name of the plant you are interest-
ed in in the Common Names Alphabetically list and then look up the page number
referenced.
7
1 Bing Cherry Guild
Fence Line

3
1 2
4
7

6
Bing
Cherry

1
5

4 5

8
1

1)Comfrey 7)Tansey
2)Gooseberry 8)Mint
3)Pea Shrub
4)Horseradish
5)Lupin
6)Strawberry

8
2 Stella Cherry Guild
Fence Line

Stella
Cherry

3
4 4
1 2

1)Hollyhock 7)Horseradish
2)Comfrey
3)Poppy
4)Cabbage
5)Lupin
6)Strawberry

9
3 Rainer Plum Guild
Fence Line

1 2

Rainer
1 Plum
1
3

1
7 5 3
9 6
1
1 5
? 5

1)Gooseberry 7)Horseradish
2)Goji Berry 8)Strawberry
3)Asparagus 9)Rhubarb
4)Lavendar
5)Comfrey
6)Hollyhock

10
4 Mt Royal Plum Guild
Fence Line

6 5

Mt Royal
Plum

1
4 2

4 3
3
3

1)Hollyhock
2)Primrose
3)Comfrey
4)Asparagus
5)Goji Berry
6)Gooseberry

11
5 Stanley Plum Guild
Fence Line

Stanley
Plum

2
4

5 3
5
2 3
3

1)Asparagus
2)Comfrey
3)Onion
4)Echinacea
5)Goji Berry
6)Hollyhock

12
6 Dogwood Guild
Fence Line

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

13
7 Dogwood Guild
Fence Line

1
1

Dog-
2
wood
3

6
3 5
5

1)Blackberry 7)Allium Gladiator


2)Russian Sage
3)False Lupine
4)Serviceberry
5)Echinacea
6)Lavendar

14
8 Viburnum Guild
Fence Line

Vibur-
num
3
7

5 4
6
4
3
6 3
6

1)Gooseberry 7)Mahonia
2)Oregon Grape 8)Russian Sage
3)Sage, Pineapple
4)Currant
5)Comfrey
6)Echinacea

15
9 Stanley Plum Guild
Fence Line

8 1
1

Stanley
Plum
2

4
3
5

6
2
7
7
6

1)Aronia 7)Mexican Evening Prim-


2)Liatrus rose
3)Sweet William 8)Gooseberry
4)Bellflower
5)Serviceberry
6)Lavender

16
10 __________________ Guild
Fence Line

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

17
11 Canada Red Chokeberry Guild
Fence Line

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

18
12 __________________ Guild
Fence Line

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

19
13 Pear Guild
Fence Line

Summer
Crisp Pear
1

3 2

1)Raspberry
2)Strawberry
3)Ornamental Grass

20
14 Pear Guild
Fence Line

10 1
7

11

2
Summer
Crisp Pear
3

9 5
8 2
7 8

6
7

1)Grape 7)Horseradish
2)Lupine 8)Daylilly
3)Raspberry 9)Rhubarb
4)Gooseberry 10)Grape, Edelweis
5)Strawberry 11)Mint
6)Indigo

21
10 __________________ Guild
Fence Line

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

22
10 __________________ Guild
Fence Line

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

23
COMMON NAMES, ALPHABETICALLY SCIENTIFIC NAMES, ALPHABETICALLY

Common Name Scientific Name Page Scientific Name Common Name Page
Aronia Aronia melanocarpa 25 Achillea millefolium Yarrow, Common 95

Asparagus Asparagus officinalis 27 Alcea rosea Hollyhocks 53

Bellflower, Clustered Campanula glomerata 29 Allium cepa proliferum Onion, Egyptian Walking 67

Blackberry Rubus canadensis 31 Allium schoenoprasum Chives 37

Blazingstar Liatris spicata 33 Amelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry, Saskatoon 87

Cherry, Bing Prunus Avium Bing 35 Amorpha fruticosa Indigo, False 57

Chives Allium schoenoprasum 37 Armoracia rusticana Horseradish 55

Currant, Golden Ribes aureum 39 Aronia melanocarpa Aronia 25

Daylily Hemerocallis fulva 41 Asparagus officinalis Asparagus 27

Dogwood, Cornelian Cherry Cornus mas 43 Campanula glomerata Bellflower, Clustered 29

Echinacea Echinacea purpurea 45 Caragana arborescens Peashrub, Siberian 69

Goji Berry Lycium barbarum 47 Cornus mas Dogwood, Cornelian Cherry 43

Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa 49 Dianthus barbatus Sweet William 91

Grape, Oregon Mahonia aquifolium 51 Echinacea purpurea Echinacea 45

Hollyhocks Alcea rosea 53 Eschscholzia californica Poppy, California 77

Horseradish Armoracia rusticana 55 Fragaria x ananassa Strawberry 89

Indigo, False Amorpha fruticosa 57 Hemerocallis fulva Daylily 41

Lavendar, English Lavandula angustifolia 59 Lavandula angustifolia Lavendar, English 59

Lupine Lupinus 61 Liatris spicata Blazingstar 33

Mint, Spear Mentha spicata 63 Lupinus Lupine 61


Mulberry, White Morus Alba 65 Lycium barbarum Goji Berry 47
Onion, Egyptian Walking Allium cepa proliferum 67 Mahonia aquifolium Grape, Oregon 51
Peashrub, Siberian Caragana arborescens 69 Mentha spicata Mint, Spear 63
Peach Prunus persica 71 Morus Alba Mulberry, White 65
Pear Pyrus communis 73 Oenothera speciosa Primrose, Mexican 79
Plum Prunus americana 75 Perovskia atriplicifolia Sage, Russian 85
Poppy, California Eschscholzia californica 77 Prunus americana Plum 75
Primrose, Mexican Oenothera speciosa 79 Prunus Avium Bing Cherry, Bing 35
Rhubarb Rheum rhabarbarum 81 Prunus persica Peach 71
Sage, Pinapple Salvia Elegans 83 Pyrus communis Pear 73
Sage, Russian Perovskia atriplicifolia 85 Rheum rhabarbarum Rhubarb 81
Serviceberry, Saskatoon Amelanchier alnifolia 87 Ribes aureum Currant, Golden 39
Strawberry Fragaria x ananassa 89 Ribes uva-crispa Gooseberry 49
Sweet William Dianthus barbatus 91 Rubus canadensis Blackberry 31
Viburnum, Nanyberry Viburnum lentago 93 Salvia Elegans Sage, Pinapple 83
Yarrow, Common Achillea millefolium 95 Viburnum lentago Viburnum, Nanyberry 93 24
Common name: Aronia, Chokeberry
Scientific name: Aronia melanocarpa
Family: Rosaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 3 feet - 6 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Listed in the Minnesota Horticul-
Spread: 3 feet - 6 feet Soil Moisture: Wet, Moderate, Dry turist, The Top Ten-Plus-One
Shrubs for Minnesota". Glabrous
Growth Rate: Slow Minimum Root Depth: 16 inches leaves and stems. Tends to suck-
Life Span: Short Root Type: Fibrous Shallow er profusely forming large colo-
nies. Only 'elata' readily available
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1 in nurseries."
Form: Rounded Fungal Types: Fruit Type: Pome
Texture: Medium Flower Color: White
Seasonal Interest: Spring
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3 - 7 Soil Compaction: Tolerant Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.0 - 6.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Mice, Rabbits
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Tolerant Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Spring - Late Spring Fruit Time: 25
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Berries used in fruit juices. The berry is reputed to strengthen the cardiovascular 1 www.efn.org
system. A good flavour but very astringent. The fruit should be fully ripe before
being eaten and is best after a frost or two. It makes a good jelly when sugar is
added and is also dried and used for making pemmican. The fruit is rich in pectin
and can be added to fruits that are low in this substance when making jams etc.
Pectin is also said to protect the body against radiation
Medicine An infusion of the berries has been used in the treatment of colds. 4 www.pfaf.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Wildlife Some birds use Chokeberries as a food source, including the Ruffed Grouse
Food (buds, fruit) and Cedar Waxwing (fruit). Because the mature fruit of Black
Chokeberry is black and soon falls to the ground, it is especially likely to be
eaten by various mammals, including the Black Bear, Red Fox, and Fox
Squirrel. These birds and mammals help to disperse the small seeds in the
fruit. Both the Cottontail Rabbit and White-Tailed Deer browse on the

Insectory The nectar and pollen of the flowers undoubtedly attract bees and other Yes www.illinoiswildflowers.
insects. Among the bees, Osmia spp. (Mason Bees) and Andrena spp. info
(Andrenid Bees) are common visitors of spring-blooming shrubs in the
Rose family. The caterpillars of the butterfly Satyrium titus (Coral Hair-
streak), the moth Catocala praeclara (Praeclara Underwing), and the moth
Lomographa semiclarata (Bluish Spring Moth) feed on the foliage of Aronia
spp. (Chokeberries).
Windbreak Yes USDA NRCS, 2003

Water Puri- No Hemenway, 2001


fier

26
Common name: Asparagus
Scientific name: Asparagus officinalis
Family: Asparagaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 36 inches - 54 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty Notes: Tiny, pale yellow, bell-shaped
Spread: 12 inches - 24 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry flower; green edible shoots ap-
pear in spring
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: 120 Inches
Fruit Type:
Life Span: Medium Root Type: Rhizome
Flower Color: Yellow
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture: Fine
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Summer
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 4.3 - 8.2 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage:
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool Bloom Time: Summer Fruit Time: Fall 27
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Young, tender shoots are delicious raw in salads or with a dip. Most aficionados 2 Creasy, 1982
favor the simple approach to cooking asparagus; they like the stalks steamed or
boiled until just tender and served with salt, pepper, and a touch of olive oil.
Leftovers can be served with vinaigrette the next night. Asparaguas can be frozen
or canned successfully. These processes alter the taste of the vegetable, but they
do bring green to the winter table.

Medicine Asparagus has been cultivated for over 2,000 years as a vegetable and medicinal www.pfaf.org
herb. Both the roots and the shoots can be used medicinally, they have a restor-
ative and cleansing effect on the bowels, kidneys and liver. The plant is antispas-
modic, aperient, cardiac, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative and tonic.
The freshly expressed juice is used. The root is diaphoretic, strongly diuretic and
laxative. An infusion is used in the treatment of jaundice and congestive torpor
of the liver. The strongly diuretic action of the roots make it useful in the treat-
ment of a variety of urinary problems including cystitis. It is also used in the
treatment of cancer. The roots are said to be able to lower blood pressure. The
roots are harvested in late spring, after the shoots have been cut as a food crop,
and are dried for later use. The seeds possess antibiotic activity. Another report
says that the plant contains asparagusic acid which is nematocidal and is used in
the treatment of schistosomiasis.
ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Insecticide The plant contains asparagusic acid, which has nematocidal properties. Yes www.pfaf.org

28
Common name: Clustered Bellflower
Scientific name: Campanula glomerata
Family: Campanulaceae Species: Dianthus barbatus
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 18 inches - 24 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy Notes: Thrives on calcareous soils. Minor
Spread: 12 inches - 18 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate insect concern - slugs, snails.
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: 12 inches Fruit Type: Capsule
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Root Type: Fibrous Deep Flower Color: Blue, Purple
Stand Persistence: Long Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.0 - 7.0 Mowing: Tolerant Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Tolerant Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Spring-Summer Fruit Time: 29
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
Use Note vest Reference
Food The leaves have a mild flavour with a pleasant sweetness, and may be eaten raw 1 www.pfaf.org
or cooked.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Soil Builder Long- lived perennial with fibrous roots No based on long-lived per-
ennial and fibrous root
system

Erosion Long-lived perennial with fibrous roots No Based on root type


Control

PLANT CONCERNS
Companion Validated Notes
Invasive Yes This is a very vigorous species and can be invasive when well suited to its site.

30
Common name: Blackberry
Scientific name: Rubus canadensis
Family: Rosaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 4 feet - 7 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Late harvest of berries
Spread: 1 feet - 2 feet Soil Moisture: Moderate Fruit Type: Drupe
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: Flower Color: White
Life Span: Short Root Type: Rhizome
Stand Persistence: Short Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture:
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.8 - 6.8 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Intolerant Fire Damage: Tolerant Animal Damage:
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Early Summer - Summer Fruit Time: 31
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Fruit can be eaten raw or cooked in pies, jams etc. Sweet, juicy and richly fla- 3 www.pfaf.org
voured, it is generally preferred to most other species of blackberries. The fruit
can be pressed into cakes and then dried for later use. The fruit can be up to
25mm long.
Medicine The stems and fruit and a decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment 3 www.pfaf.org
of dysentery.
Dye A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit. 3 www.pfaf.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Wildlife The brown thrasher, gray catbird, northern cardinal, northern mockingbird, Yes www.efn.org
Habitat and white-eyed vireo commonly nest in blackberry and raspberry thickets
Wildlife The fruit attracts birds and the flowers attract the western tiger swallowtail yES www.fs.fed.us/
Food butterfly. Thornless blackberry is an important food for wildlife. Game database/feis/plants
birds, songbirds, raccoons, chipmunks, and squirrels eat the fruits. Deer
and rabbits extensively browse the leaves and stems.

32
Common name: Marsh Blazingstar
Scientific name: Liatris spicata
Family: Asteraceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 48 inches - 53 inches Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Seasonal Interest: Summer-Fall
Spread: 12 inches - 18 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty Notes: Marsh Blazingstar is an attractive
Growth Rate: Slow Soil Moisture: Moderate plant while in bloom, resembling
Life Span: Medium Minimum Root Depth: 14 inches a magic wand.
Stand Persistence: Medium Root Type: Short Rhizome Fruit Type: Capsule
Form: Upright Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 1:1 Flower Color: Purple
Texture: Medium Fungal Types:
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-10 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.6 - 7.5 Mowing: Intolerant Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Tolerant Animal Damage:
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Sensitive Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent
BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Summer - Early Fall Fruit Time:

33
HUMAN USES Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Insect Re- The leaves and the roots are added to various insect-repellent herbal mixtures. 1 www.pfaf.org
pellent

Cut Flower Makes a good cut flower. 1 www.thisoldhouse.


com

Medicinal Antibacterial; Astringent; Carminative; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Ex- 1 www.pfaf.org


pectorant; Stimulant; Tonic; VD. The plant is said to be extremely efficacious
when used as a local application in the treatment of sore throats and gonor-
rhoea. It is also used in treating kidney diseases. The leaves are harvested in the
summer, the roots in the autumn. Both can be used fresh or dried.

Function Note ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION Validated Reference


Insectory The most common visitors of the flowers are long-tongued bees, butter- No www.illinoiswildflowers.
flies, and skippers, which seek nectar primarily. Other insect visitors in- info/wetland/plants
clude day-flying moths, bee flies, and short-tongued Halictid bees, the
latter collecting pollen. The flowers are a food source for the caterpillars of
the rare Schinia gloriosa (Glorious Flower Moth).
Wildlife Mammalian herbivores eat this and other Blazingstars readily; groundhogs No www.illinoiswildflowers.
Food and rabbits favor younger plants, while deer and livestock are more likely info/wetland/plants
to browse on mature plants. The corms are eaten by the Prairie Vole and
Meadow Vole.

34
Common name: Cherry, Bing
Scientific name: Prunus Avium Bing
Family: Rosaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Tree Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 25 feet - 50 feet Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Seasonal Interest: Spring-Summer
Spread: 25 feet - 45 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Early harvest; white prolific flowers;
Growth Rate: Moderate Soil Moisture: deep green leaves; attractive rust-
Life Span: Medium Minimum Root Depth: brown bark.
Stand Persistence: Root Type: Fruit Type: Drupe
Form: Rounded Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 5:1 to100:1 Flower Color: White
Texture: Medium Fungal Types:

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 5-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.5 - 8.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Medium
Drought: Intolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Moderate Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring - Early Summer Fruit Time: Mid Summer

35
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The lucious red, yellow, or black globes of the sweet cherry tree can be Creasy, 1982
canned, used in jams, in a chilled cherry soup, and of course flamed in cher- 5
ries jubilee.
Container Recently, semi dwarf and dwarf cherry trees have been developed; these Creasy, 1982
Garden grow to only 8-15 feet in height. They can be grown in containers, as infor- 5
mal hedges or screens, and as small accent plants. The fruits on these small
varieties are more easily accessible.
Medicinal Bing cherries are high in anti-oxidants. A study by the United States De- www.en.wikipedia.org/
partment of Agriculture suggests that fresh Bing cherries may help suffer- wiki/Bing_cherry
ers of arthritis and gout. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administra-
tion warns that these are yet unproven claims.
Wood The hard, reddish-brown wood (cherry wood) is valued as www.en.wikipedia.org/
a hardwood for woodturning, and making cabinets and musical instru- wiki/
ments. Cherry wood is also used for smoking foods, particularly meats, in Prunus_avium#Timber
North America, as it lends a distinct and pleasant flavor to the product .

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Wildlife The only fruit birds prefer to cherries is mulberries; since mulberries also Yes www.urbanext.uiuc.edu
Food bear prodigious amounts of fruit, you can divert birds from your cherries /treeselector

PLANT COMPATIBLES AND INCOMPATIBLES


Companion Compatible Notes
Red Mulberry Yes Birds prefer mulberries to cherries so plant mulberries to divert them.

PLANT CONCERNS
Issue Validated Notes
Animal Toxin Yes The kernels (pits) are cyanogenetic
Inhibitor No Sweet cherry trees have poor replant records due to autoallelopathy and the carry over of pests
and diseases.

36
Common name: Chives
Scientific name: Allium schoenoprasum
Family: Alliaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 15 inches - 18 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry Fruit Type:
Spread: 12 inches - 15 inches Minimum Root Depth: 6 inches Flower Color: Purple, Rose, White
Growth Rate: Moderate Root Type: Fibrous Shallow
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Stand Persistence: Fungal Types:
Form: Upright Seasonal Interest: Summer
Texture: Medium Notes: Pink and purple flower; round
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade flower cluster form in mid-
Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay summer
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.0 - 7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Rabbits
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Late Spring - Early Summer Fruit Time:
37
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Fresh-cut tender shoots are edible. High in calcium, vitamin A and C. The leaves 1 Carr, 1985;
can be eaten raw, cooked or dried for later use. Chives have a mild onion flavour www.pfaf.org
and are an excellent addition to mixed salads, they can also be used as a flavour-
ing in soups. A good source of sulphur and iron. The flowers are also edible and
have a strong onion flavor.
Medicine The whole plant has a beneficial effect on the digestive system and the blood 1 www.pfaf.org
circulation. It improves the appetite, is digestive, hypotensive and tonic. It has
similar properties to garlic (A. sativum), but in a much milder form.
Insect Re- The juice of the plant is used as an insect repellent, it also has fungicidal proper- 1 www.pfaf.org
pellent ties and is effective against scab and mildew. The growing plant is said to repel
insects and moles.
Container These herbaceous perennials are delightful in containers. 1 Creasy, 1982
Garden

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Insectory The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and Yes www.pfaf.org
are pollinated by Bees, flies and Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies).
Dynamic No Hemenway, 2001
Accumula-
tor
Aromatic Chives are found to deter Japanese beetles. A spray of chives is believed to No Carr, 1985;
Pest Con- cure apple scab and mildew on gooseberries. The growing plant is said to www.pfaf.org
fuser repel insects and moles.
Soil Builder Long-lived perennial with fibrous roots No based on long-lived per-
ennial and fibrous root

Erosion Long-lived perennial with fibrous roots No Based on root type


Control

38
Common name: Currant, Golden
Scientific name: Ribes aureum
Family: Grossulariaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 3 feet - 10 feet Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall
Spread: 6 feet - 6 feet Soil Type: Loamy, Silty Notes: Spring yellow flower; summer
Growth Rate: Moderate Soil Moisture: Moderate black berries; fall scarlet foliage
Life Span: Long Minimum Root Depth: 20 inches Fruit Type: Berry
Stand Persistence: Root Type: Rhizome Flower Color: Yellow
Form: Rounded Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1
Texture: Fine Fungal Types:

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 2-6 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.0 - 8.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Moderate Fire Damage: Moderate Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Spring - Early Fall Fruit Time:
39
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Fruit - raw or cooked. They make an acceptable dessert fruit and are also used in www.pfaf.org
jellies, sauces and pies. The fruit can also be dried for winter use.

Dried Flowers are deliciously clove scented. 1 www.pfaf.org


Flower
Medicinal The dried and pulverized inner bark has been sprinkled on sores. A decoction of www.pfaf.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Windbreak No Hemenway, 2001

Wildlife The fruit of Ribes spp. is a valuable food source for songbirds, chipmunks, Yes www.fs.fed.us/
Food ground squirrels, and other animals database/feis/plants

40
Common name: Daylily
Scientific name: Hemerocallis fulva
Family: Hemerocallidaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 12 inches - 48 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty Notes: Rabbits like new shoots. Minor
Spread: 18 inches - 36 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry insect concerns - Aphids. Com-
petes well with tree roots.
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth:
Fruit Type: Capsule
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Root Type: Rhizome
Flower Color: Orange
Stand Persistence: Long Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3 - 9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 4.8 - 8.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Moderate Animal Damage: Rabbits
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Tolerant Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Late Spring - Early Fall Fruit Time: 41
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
Use Note vest Reference
Food Leaves and young shoots can be eaten cooked. An asparagus or celery substitute. www.pfaf.org
An excellent sweet tasting vegetable, though some caution is recommended. The
leaves need to be eaten whilst still very young since they quickly become fibrous.
Flowers - raw or cooked. The petals are thick and crunchy, making very pleasant
eating raw, with a nice sweetness at the base because of the nectar. The flowers
can also be dried and used as a thickener in soups etc. In this case, they are
picked when somewhat withered and closed. A rich source of iron. Flower buds -
raw or cooked. A pea-like flavour. Can be dried and used as a relish. The dried
flower contains about 9.3% protein. 25% fat!?, 60% carbohydrate (rich in sugar),
0.9% ash. It is rich in vitamin A. Tubers - raw or cooked. A nutty flavour. Young
tubers are best, though the central portion of older tubers is also good.
Medicine The flowers are anodyne, antiemetic, antispasmodic, depurative, febrifuge and www.pfaf.org
sedative. In China they are used as an anodyne for women in childbirth. An ex-
tract of the flowers is used as a blood purifier. The juice of the roots is an effec-
tive antidote in cases of arsenic poisoning. The root also has a folk history of use
in the treatment of cancer - extracts from the roots have shown antitumour ac-
tivity. A tea made from the boiled roots is used as a diuretic.
Ornamen- The tough dried foliage is plaited into cord and used for making footwear. www.pfaf.org
tal

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Nurse Nurse plant for sites prone to drought No based on drought toler-
ance and fast growth
rate

42
Common name: Dogwood, Cornelian Cherry
Scientific name: Cornus mas
Family: Cornaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody Spring flowering

Summer Fruit

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 15 feet - 25 feet Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall
Spread: 15 feet - 25 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Small yellow or white flowers in
clusters appear in spring fol-
Growth Rate: Moderate Soil Moisture: Moderate lowed by bright red fruits in
Life Span: Medium Minimum Root Depth: 30 inches July
Stand Persistence: Root Type: Fruit Type: Drupe
Form: Oval Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1 Flower Color: Yellow
Texture: Medium Fungal Types:

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4 - 8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.0 - 8.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Moderate Fire Damage: Intolerant Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Sensitive Cold Injury:
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring Fruit Time: Mid Summer
43
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Fruit is used as a glaze for meats or in tangy sauces. Very high in vitamin C. 5 www.efn.org

Medicine The astringent fruit is a good treatment for bowel complaints and fevers, 5 www.pfaf.org
and is also used in the treatment of cholera.
Wood Extremely dense and, unlike the wood of most other woody plant species, www.en.wikipedia.org/
sinks in water and so is valuable for crafting into tool handles, parts for ma- wiki/Cornus_mas
chines, etc.
Dye The red dye used to make fezzes was produced from its bark, and tannin is www.en.wikipedia.org/
produced from its leaves. wiki/Cornus_mas

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Insectory Attracts bees and butterflies. Yes www.urbanext.uiuc.edu
/treeselector
Windbreak Cornelian Cherry is a large shrub that can handle strong winds and forms Yes Carr, 1985
an effective windbreak.
Wildlife Cornelian cherry dogwood is a heavy fruit producer. Fruit is very attractive Yes www.urbanext.uiuc.edu
Food to birds. /treeselector

PLANT COMPATIBLES AND INCOMPATIBLES


Companion Compati- Notes
Asparagus Yes Cornelian Cherry is a large shrub that forms an effective windbreak protecting lower story

44
Common name: Echinacea, Cone Flower, Purple
Scientific name: Echinacea purpurea
Family: Asteraceae Species: Echinacea purpurea
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 1 feet - 3 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Very adaptable, hardy plant. Cul-
Spread: 2 feet - 3 feet Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry tivars such as 'Magnus,' 'Ruby
Star,' and 'White Swan' are avail-
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: 24 inches able. Echinacea comes from the
Life Span: Long Root Type: Tap Greek word echinos meaning
hedgehog in reference to the
Stand Persistence: Long Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: flowers spiny center cone.
Form: Upright Fungal Types: Fruit Type:
Texture: Medium Flower Color: Pink, Purple
Seasonal Interest: SummerFall
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.5 - 7.2 Mowing: Moderate Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Moderate Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Sensitive Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Summer Fruit Time: 45
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Medicine "Widely used medicinal plant of the Plains Indians. It was used as a painkiller and 2 NRCS Plant Fact Sheet,
for a variety of ailments, including toothache, coughs, colds, sore throats, and USDA.
snake bite (Kindscher 1992). The Choctaw use purple coneflower as a cough
medicine and gastro-intestinal aid (Moerman 1986). The Delaware used an infu-
sion of coneflower root for gonorrhea and found it to be highly effective. The
purple coneflower was the only native prairie plant popularized as a medicine by
folk practitioners and doctors. It was used extensively as a folk remedy
(Kindscher 1992). Purple coneflower root was used by early settlers as an aid in
nearly every kind of sickness. If a cow or a horse did not eat well, people admin-
istered Echinacea in its feed...According to Richo Cech (1995), a mature two-year
old E. purpurea plant yields 2.25 pounds of fresh flowering aerial portions and
0.5 pounds of fresh root per plant. "
Medicine "Recent pharmacological studies indicate that a 10-mg/kg daily dose of the poly- 3 NRCS Plant Fact Sheet,
saccharide over a ten-day period is effective as an immuno-stimulant...Other re- USDA.
search has shown that the purple coneflower produces an antiinflammatory
effect and has therapeutic value in urology, gynecology, internal medicine, and
dermatology (Wagner and Proksch 1985)."

Essential Echinacea essential oil is commercially available and has fragrance and medicinal Gritman Essential Oils.
Oil uses.

Food Leaves and flower petals are edible. Especially useful in tea. Roberts, M. (2000).
Edible & Medicinal
Flowers.
Ornamen- "Excellent, long-blooming flower for massing in the border, meadow, native www.missouribotanic
tal plant garden, naturalized area, wildflower garden or part shade area of wood- algarden.org
land garden. Often massed with black-eyed Susans (rudbeckias)."
Cut Flower Good in cut flower arrangements. www.missouribotanic
algarden.org
Dried Can be used in dried flower arrangements. Cornell University Ex-
Flower tension.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Wildlife Gophers and moles will eat the roots, seeds are a favorite food of gold- Yes NRCS Plant Fact Sheet,
Food finches. USDA.
Insectory Attracts pollinators when in bloom. Yes NRCS Plant Fact Sheet,
USDA.

Erosion Roots bind soil and protect against erosion. Yes Missouri Department of
Control Conservation Field

Reclamator Can be used in reclamation seed mixes. Yes Xerces Society.


www.xerces.org

46
Common name: Goji Berry
Scientific name: Lycium barbarum
Family: Solanaceae Species: barbarum
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 6 feet - 8 feet Soil Moisture: dividual plants. Susceptible to
Spread: 10 feet - 12 feet Minimum Root Depth: 12 inches fungal diseases on poorly drained
soils. Full sun is recommended
Growth Rate: Root Type: for good flowering/fruiting. Natu-
Life Span: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1 ral growth is often procumbent;
staking, trellising or pruning are
Stand Persistence: Fungal Types: recommended for fruit cultiva-
Form: Rounded tion.
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall
Texture: Medium Fruit Type: Berry
Notes: Native to China. The number of
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade seeds per berry varies significant- Flower Color: Pink, Purple
Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay ly with different cultivars and in-

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.5-8.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Animal Damage:
Flood: Sensitive Cold Injury: Moderate
Salt: Tolerant Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring - Late Summer Fruit Time: Summer - Fall 47
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Ripe fruit can be eaten raw or cooked. The berries are a rich source of vitamins 2 Plants For a Future
and minerals, especially vitamin A, C, E, flavanoids, and other bio-active com- Database; Agroforest-
pounds. They are noted for being exceptionally high in antioxidants. They are ry Research Trust: Ag-
often dried because the fresh fruit can have an unpleasant bitter taste and are roforestry News Vol-
cooked in a variety of ways in both sweet and savory foods. They can be boiled ume 24 #1, 2015
as an herbal tea, on their own or mixed with other flavors, and made into wine.
Some people describe the flavor as sweet and licorice-like. The young shoots can
be used as a flavoring or cooked as a vegetable. They are cress-like or pepper-
mint-like. The leaves will wilt rapidly after harvesting.
Medicine In addition to its general nutritional health benefits, the plant has a long history 3 Plants For a Future
of medicinal use both as a general energy restoring tonic and also to cure a range Database; Agroforest-
of ailments from skin rashes and eyesight problem to diabetes. The fruit's ability ry Research Trust: Ag-
to improve vision is one of the more well-documented benefits. A sweet tonic is roforestry News Vol-
made from the fruits and used to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol ume 24 #1, 2015
levels. It acts mainly on the liver and kidneys. The bark is a bitter, cooling, anti-
bacterial herb. It is taken internally in the treatment of chronic fevers, internal
haemorrhages, nosebleeds, tuberculosis, coughs and asthma. Modern research
has found numerous benefits from the berries. Potentially harmful interactions
can occur with other medications.
Ornamen- The flowers are especially ornamental which led to early cultivation outside its 3 Agroforestry Research
tal native range. Trust: Agroforestry
News Volume 24 #1,
2015

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Erosion Plants have an extensive root system and can be planted to stabilize sandy Yes Agroforestry Research
Control banks. They are commonly used in the Ningxia province of China for this Trust: Agroforestry
purpose. News Volume 24 #1,
2015
Reclamator Goji berry plants have been used to reclaim irrigable soils from desertifica- Yes Agroforestry Research
tion in China. Trust: Agroforestry
News Volume 24 #1,
2015
Hedge Can be used as an informal hedge. No Agroforestry Research
Trust: Agroforestry
News Volume 24 #1,
2015
Insectory Good nectar plants for beneficial insects, particularly bees. No Agroforestry Research
Trust: Agroforestry
News Volume 24 #1,
2015

PLANT CONCERNS
Companion Validated Notes
Invasive Yes Some cultivars and populations are considered noxious weeds because they are able to sucker
freely and layer from prostrate stems. The seeds are easily spread by birds.

48
Common name: Gooseberry
Scientific name: Ribes uva-crispa
Family: Grossulariaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 3 feet - 4 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Flowering in spring; fruit in late
Spread: 2 feet - 3 feet Soil Moisture: Moderate summer
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: 16 Inches Fruit Type: Berry
Life Span: Medium Root Type: Fibrous Shallow Flower Color: White
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1
Form: Rounded Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 6.0 - 7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Intolerant Fire Damage: Tolerant Animal Damage: Deer, Rabbits
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage: Frequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Summer Fruit Time: 49
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Fruits are picked underripe and used in preserves or cooking. Leaves provide a 3 www.efn.org
slightly bitter element in salads.
Medicine The fruit is laxative. Stewed unripe gooseberries are used as a spring tonic to 3 www.pfaf.org
cleanse the system
Container Gooseberries do well in large containers. The bright red clusters of currant fruits 1 Creasy, 1982
Garden are a nice addition to a patio landscape.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Insectory Gooseberry plants are larval food for the grey comma butterfly. Yes www.efn.org

Hedge A barrier for deer and rabbits. Carr, 1985

50
Common name: Oregon Grape
Scientific name: Berberis aquifolium (Mahonia aquifolium)
Family: Berberidaceae Species: aquifolium
Plant Type: Evergreen Shrub Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 2 feet - 8 feet Soil Moisture: Wet, Moderate, Dry Best in moist well-drained soils
Spread: 3 feet - 6 feet Minimum Root Depth: 12 inches and part-sun (full sun okay with
consistent watering). Can be
Growth Rate: Moderate Root Type: Rhizome propagated by seeds or cuttings.
Life Span: Long Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: There are a number of cultivars
selected for gardens.
Stand Persistence: Fungal Types: Endomycorrhizal Fruit Type: Berry
Form: Spreading
Seasonal Interest: All year Flower Color: Yellow
Texture: Coarse
Notes: Other common names include
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade mountain grape, holly-leaved
Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Clay barberry, and Oregon holly grape.

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 5-9 Soil Compaction: Sensitive Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.4-7.2 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Medium
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Moderate Animal Damage:
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage: Moderate

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Fruit Time: Late Winter - Late Spring 51
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The berries are edible raw or cooked and can be used to make jam/preserves. www.pfaf.org
The flowers are edible raw, and can be made into a lemonade-like drink.

Medicine The berry, rhizome, and bark have all been used for their medicinal properties. UM-Dearborn Native
Used by Native American tribes and in modern herbalism. American Ethnobota-
ny Database
Ornamen- B. aquifolium is a commonly used ornamental shrub, with ornamental features Missouri Botanical
tal throughout the year. Garden Plant Finder

Dye B. aquifolium was used by Native Americans to make a valuable yellow dye, ob- UM-Dearborn Native
tained from the roots and bark/innerbark. Dark green, violet, and purple dyes American Ethnobota-
can be made from the fruit. ny Database; Plants
for a Future Database
Aromatics/ The flowers are "delicately scented". www.pfaf.org
Fragrance

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Wildlife The berries are relished by wildlife. No Lady Bird Johnson Wild-
Food flower Center, 2016

Ground- Could be used as a groundcover due to its suckering habit, but is slow to Yes www.pfaf.org
cover establish.

Hedge Use as a tall hedge or screen. Yes Native Plant Society of


Oregon. Fillhart and
Policha, 2006
Insectory The flowers are very attractive to honeybees and native bees (including The Xerces Society for
mason bees). Invertebrate Conserva-

PLANT CONCERNS
Companion Validated Notes
Animal Toxin No Oregon grape contains Berberis which can be toxic in large amounts and should be avoided by
some people.

52
Common name: Hollyhocks
Scientific name: Alcea rosea
Family: Malvaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 48 inches - 72 inches Soil Type: Loamy Notes: May need to be staked or planted
Spread: 12 inches - 36 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate along a fence or wall for support.
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: Biennial but self seeds readily.
Life Span: Biennial Root Type: Fibrous Shallow Half hardy biennial/perennial to
Stand Persistence: Short Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: zone 5. Subject to rust and defoli-
ation in wet seasons.
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture: Fruit Type:
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun Flower Color: Purple, Red, White, Yellow

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Major
Soil pH: Mowing: Intolerant Insect/Pest Damage: Major
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Intolerant Animal Damage:
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Summer - Early Fall Fruit Time:
53
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. A mild flavour, but the texture leaves 1 www.pfaf.org
something to be desired. They can be chopped up finely and added to salads.
The flower petals and flower buds can be added to salads and eaten raw. A re-
freshing tea is made from the flower petals.
Medicine The flowers are demulcent, diuretic and emollient. They are useful in the treat- 1 www.pfaf.org
ment of chest complaints, and a decoction is used to improve blood circulation,
for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhage etc. The flow-
ers are harvested when they are open and are dried for later use. The shoots are
used to ease a difficult labour. The root is astringent and demulcent. It is crushed
and applied as a poultice to ulcers. Internally, it is used in the treatment of dys-
entery.
Compost The flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost acti- 1 www.pfaf.org
vator. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added
to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the
time needed to make the compost.
Dye A brown dye is obtained from the petals. 1 www.pfaf.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Erosion Fibrous shallow roots No Based on root type
Control

54
Common name: Horseradish
Scientific name: Armoracia rusticana
Family: Brassicaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 24 inches - 30 inches Soil Type: Loamy, Silty Notes: Roots are harvested and eaten
Spread: 6 inches - 12 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate raw or cooked; has hot mustard-
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: 36 inches like flavor; may become invasive.
Life Span: Long Root Type: Tap Fruit Type:
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: Flower Color: White
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 5-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues:
Soil pH: 5.8 - 8.3 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage:
Drought: Intolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage:
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool-Warm Bloom Time: Late Spring - Early Summer Fruit Time:
55
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Young root and leaves can be eater raw or cooked. The grated root is used to 1 www.pfaf.org
make the condiment 'Horseradish sauce', that has a hot mustard-like flavour.
Seeds can be sprouted and eaten in salads.
Medicine Horseradish is a very pungent stimulant herb that controls bacterial infections 1 www.pfaf.org
and can be used both internally and externally. It should not be used internally

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Dynamic Deep taproot that pulls nutrients from deep in the soil into the leaves. No Based on root type
Accumula-
tor
Fungicide Some growers use horseradish tea as an antifungal spray on fruit trees. Yes Carr, 1985

PLANT CONCERNS
Issue Validated Notes
Invasive Yes This plant spreads quickly and requires strict control if grown in a vegetable or flower garden.

56
Common name: False Indigo
Scientific name: Amorpha fruticosa
Family: Fabaceae Species: Amorpha fruticosa
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 6 feet - 12 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: This plant fixes nitrogen therefore
Spread: 12 feet - 20 feet Soil Moisture: Wet, Moderate, Dry it has good potential as a com-
panion plant for other woodies.
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: 12-24 inches
Fruit Type: Pod
Life Span: Short Root Type: Fibrous Shallow
Flower Color: Blue, Orange, Purple
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1
Form: Globe Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Spring
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-9 Soil Compaction: Tolerant Disease Issues: Major
Soil pH: 5-8.5 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Gophers, Mice,
Rabbits
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury: Frequent
Salt: Sensitive Wind Storm Damage: Frequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Spring - Late Spring Fruit Time: 57
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
Use Note vest Reference
Insect Re- "Resinous pustules on the plant contain amorpha, a contact and stomachic insec- 3 NRCS Plant Fact Sheet,
pellent ticide that also acts as an insect repellant." USDA.

Medicine Leaves are use in traditional Chinese medicine for their hepatic-protective and 3 Medicinal Plant Images
anti-bacterial properties. Database, School of
Chinese Medicine.
http://
libproject.hkbu.edu.hk/

Dye Can be used to make blue dye. 3 NRCS Plant Fact Sheet,
USDA.
Ornamen- Tolerates wet soil, so can be part of a bog or pond garden or a water garden. Fast 3 Lady Bird Johnson
tal growing, attractive blooms. Wildflower Center.
http://
www.wildflower.org/
Coppice Can be coppiced. NRCS Plant Fact Sheet,
USDA.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Mulch Living mulches, or cover crops, prevent surface water runoff, thereby elimi- No www.cts.umn.edu
Maker nating soil erosion and nutrient and pesticide runoff from slopes.

Nitrogen Nitrogen fixation occurs in the roots of indigo. Bacteria known as rhizobia No www.cts.umn.edu
Fixer infect new root hairs of legumes, induce the formation of nodules on the
roots, then live in these nodules. Rhizobia convert nitrogen gas from the
atmosphere into nitrogen compounds which legumes can take in and use
as a nutrient.
Nurse Good nurse plant for sites that flood No based on flood toler-
ance and fast growth
rate
Insecticide Resinous pustules on the plant contain 'amorpha', a contact and stomachic Yes www.pfaf.org
insecticide that also acts as an insect repellent.

Windbreak Plants have an extensive root system and are also fairly wind tolerant, they Yes www.pfaf.org
can be planted as a windbreak.

Erosion Plants have an extensive root system and are used to prevent soil erosion. Yes www.pfaf.org
Control

Insectory Provides nectar for bees, butterflies and insects. Yes Lady Bird Johnson Wild-
flower Center. http://
www.wildflower.org/

PLANT CONCERNS
Companion Validated Notes
Invasive Yes Can become weedy/invasive, especially in the northeastern US.

58
Common name: English Lavender
Scientific name: Lavandula angustifolia
Family: Lamiaceae Species: Dianthus barbatus
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 12 inches - 18 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty Notes: Evergreen, silvery foliage; aro-
Spread: 18 inches - 24 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry matic plant; purple, violet and
white flower
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth:
Fruit Type:
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Root Type: Fibrous Shallow
Flower Color: Purple, White
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Form: Clump Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Summer-Fall
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 5-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.8 - 7.5 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Sensative Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool-Warm Bloom Time: Summer - Late Summer Fruit Time: 59
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
Use Note vest Reference
Food The leaves, petals and flowering tips can be eaten raw. Used as a condiment in www.pfaf.org
salads, soups, stews etc. They provide a very aromatic flavour and are too strong
to be used in any quantity. The fresh or dried flowers are used as a tea. The fresh
flowers are also crystallized or added to jams, ice-creams, vinegars etc as a fla-
vouring.
Medicine Besides being useful as a stomach remedy, lavender is also effective in treating www.sbherbals.com
headaches, especially from tension or stress. It has antispasmodic, analgesic and
sedative properties. It strengthens the nervous system and may help in cases of
nervous exhaustion and mild depression. Because of its strong antibacterial ac-
tion, the essential oil from the flowers can be used for treating burns,
cuts,psoriasis, acne and other skin problems. The dried flowers can also be
stuffed into sachets or herbal pillows to promote sleep. Lavender also promotes
bile flow and is a carminative which is helpful in cases of colic and indigestion.
The active principles vary in amounts between species but all include volatile oil,
tannins, coumarins, flavonoids and triterpenoids.
Essential Very good. The essential oil that is obtained from the flowers is exquisitely scent- www.pfaf.org
Oil ed and has a very wide range of applications, both in the home and commercial-
ly. It is commonly used in soap making, in making high quality perfumes (it is also
used in 'Eau de Cologne'), it is also used as a detergent and cleaning agent, a
food flavouring etc and as an insect repellent. When growing the plant for its
essential oil content, it is best to harvest the flowering stems as soon as the flow-
ers have faded. Yields of 0.8 - 1% of the oil are obtained.
Aromatics/ Fragrant flower good in rock gardens. The leaves can be used to make an insense www.gardenguides.co
Fragrance or in potpourri. m
Insect Re- The aromatic leaves and flowers are used as an insect repellent in the linen cup- www.pfaf.org
pellent board etc. They have been used in the past as a strewing herb in order to impart

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Insectory Attracts hoverfly. Also attracts anise and black swallowtail butterflies. No Hemenway, 2001
Blooms in summer.

Soil Builder Long- lived perennial with fibrous roots No based on long-lived per-
ennial and fibrous root
system

Erosion Long-lived perennial with fibrous roots No Based on root type


Control

Hedge Can be used as a hedge in a garden. No Mollison, 1988

60
Common name: Lupine
Scientific name: Lupinus
Family: Fabaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 36 inches - 48 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry again late summer if seed isn't
Spread: 18 inches - 30 inches Minimum Root Depth: 8 inches allowed to set. "Russell" hybrids
Growth Rate: Slow Root Type: Rhizome are very popular. Garden culti-
Life Span: Short-Lived Perennial Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: vars are short lived. Some culti-
Stand Persistence: Short Fungal Types: vars (usually the annual one
Form: Upright Seasonal Interest: Summer Fruit Type: Pod
Texture: Medium Notes: Grows best in acid soils (lime Flower Color: Blue, Green, Pink, Purple,
Red, Rust, Silver, White, Yel-
Sun: free). Plant community - "Oak low
Soil Type: barrens". Blooms early spring and
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-6 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 4.0 - 7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Moderate Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Rabbits
Flood: Sensative Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Moderate Wind Storm Damage:
BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool Bloom Time: Summer Fruit Time:
61
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The white lupin is sometimes cultivated, especially in S. Europe, for its edible www.pfaf.org
seed. There are some named varieties, many of which have bitter seeds that con- 1
tain toxic alkaloids and require leaching before they are eaten but some sweet
varieties have also been developed. These sweet varieties are perfectly whole-
some as food for humans and include the cultivar 'Kiev'.
Fiber A fiber obtained from the stems is used for making cloth. The plant can reach 1 www.pfaf.org
heights of 4' providing long stems for fiber use.
Soap The seed contains up to 12% oil. This is used in making soap. 1 www.pfaf.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Domestic Sweet white lupine is high in protein (3238%), low in oil (10%), TDN (75 Yes University of MN Exten-
Animal 80%), and does not contain trypsin inhibitors. The seed can be fed directly sion, University of Wis-
Forage without heat treatment and has been successfully fed to turkeys, calves, consin Extension; Alter-
lambs, swine and lactating dairy cattle. Methionine is a limiting amino acid native Field
and may be required in rations for poultry and swine. When animals graze
lupine stubble, a disease called lupinosis can develop. It is caused by a my-
cotoxin. Symptoms are loss of appetite and jaundice. Lupinosis has been a

Nitrogen Very good Yes www.pfaf.org


Fixer

PLANT CONCERNS
Companion Validated Notes
Animal Toxin No Some types of Lupine can be poisonous to livestock.

62
Common name: Spearmint
Scientific name: Mentha spicata
Family: Lamiaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 12 inches - 18 inches Sun: Full Sun Seasonal Interest: Summer
Spread: 36 inches - 48 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: May be invasive
Growth Rate: Fast Soil Moisture: Wet, Moderate
Fruit Type:
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Minimum Root Depth:
Flower Color: Purple
Stand Persistence: Root Type: Rhizome
Form: Spreading Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Texture: Medium Fungal Types:

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.6-7.9 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Rabbits
Flood: Sensitive Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Fruit Time:
63
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. A strong spearmint flavour, they are 1 www.pfaf.org
used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods. The leaves are often used in 'mint
sauce', which is used as a flavouring in meals. A herb tea is made from the fresh
or dried leaves. It has a very pleasant and refreshing taste of spearmint, leaving
the mouth and digestive system feeling clean. An essential oil from the leaves
and flowers is used as a flavouring in sweets, ice cream, drinks etc. A spearmint
flavour.
Medicine Spearmint is a commonly used domestic herbal remedy. A tea made from the 1 www.pfaf.org
leaves has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, diges-
tive disorders and various minor ailments. The herb is antiemetic, antispasmodic,
carminative, diuretic, restorative, stimulant and stomachic. The leaves should be
harvested when the plant is just coming into flower, and can be dried for later
use. The stems are macerated and used as a poultice on bruises. The essential oil
in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses. Both the essential oil
and the stems are used in folk remedies for cancer. A poultice prepared from the
leaves is said to remedy tumours.
Essential An essential oil is obtained from the whole plant, the yield is about 4K of oil from 1 www.pfaf.org
Oil 1 tonne of leaves. The oil is used commercially as a food flavouring and oral hy-
giene preparation.
Container Their underground stems spread-invasively-and therefore must be controlled in 1 Creasy, 1982
Garden containers.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Insectory Attracts hoverfly. Blooms in summer. No Hemenway, 2001

Dynamic No Hemenway, 2001


Accumula-
tor
Aromatic Members of the mint family contain several fungicides (salicylic acid) and Yes Carr, 1985;
Pest Con- repellents (menthol, citronella, camphor) whose extracts may repel Colora-
fuser do potato beetle and some aphids. The plant repels insects, rats etc. Rats
and mice intensely dislike the smell of mint. The plant was therefore used
in homes as a strewing herb and has also been spread in granaries to keep

64
Common name: White Mulberry
Scientific name: Morus alba
Family: Moraceae Species: Morus alba
Plant Type: Deciduous Tree Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 30 feet - 50 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Clay Notes: Resembling blackberries in shape,
Spread: 40 feet - 40 feet Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry cylindrical, 1 to 1 inch long,
fleshy multiple of drupes, pale
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: 24 inches pink to dark red, not as juicy as
Life Span: Medium Root Type: Tap, Fibrous Deep red mulberry, maturing in June to
August; unripe fruit is a known
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 5:1 to100:1 stomach irritant. Wind pollinated.
Form: Rounded Tolerates juglone.
Fungal Types: Endomycorrhizal
Texture: Medium Fruit Type: Drupe
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Summer
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Flower Color: White

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3 - 10 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues:
Soil pH: 5.0 - 7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage:
Drought: Moderate Fire Damage: Moderate Animal Damage:
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury:
Salt: Tolerant Wind Storm Damage: Moderate

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool-Warm Bloom Time: Spring - Late Spring Fruit Time: Spring - Summer 65
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
Use Note vest Reference
Food White mulberry fruits are edible to humans, though unripened fruit can cause http://www.fs.fed.us/
stomach irritation, nervous system stimulation, and hallucinations. Dried white database/feis/plants/
mulberry fruits may be ground up as flour and young shoots may be cooked as a tree/moralb/all.html,
vegetable. White mulberry powder has been used as a preservative for wheat Toensmeier, E. (2012)
flour. White mulberry leaves are cooked and eaten in at least several areas of PERENNIAL STAPLE
Latin America. They are very high in protein, and selected varieties have very CROPS OF THE
good flavor and texture. Fresh leaf yields can reach an astonishing 53 tons per WORLD, permacul-
hectare. turenews.org.
Medicine The juice of white mulberry berries is used in the treatment of jaundice and hep- http://www.fs.fed.us/
atitis in rural areas in Pakistan. It is valued for its antimicrobial properties, antiox- database/feis/plants/
idant potential, and in the prevention or treatment of diseases such as diabetes, tree/moralb/all.html
atherosclerosis, immunonutrition, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders including
Alzheimer's disease, and skin disorders. Native Americans used infusions made
from white mulberry bark as a laxative, a treatment for dysentery, and a purga-
tive.
Dye The leaves of white mulberry are used to make a yellow dye in Turkey. http://www.fs.fed.us/
database/feis/plants/
tree/moralb/all.html
Wood White mulberry wood is light to moderately heavy, hard, durable, fine and close- www.pfaf.org
grained, though it shows a tendency to warp. Due to its elasticity and flexibility
when steamed, it is valued for making sports equipment such as tennis rackets
and cricket bats, being considered as good as ash (Fraxinus excelsior). It is also
used for boat building, furniture, agricultural implements etc. It furnishes a medi-
um grade fuel wood.
Fiber A fiber is obtained from the bark of one-year old stems, it is used in weaving www.pfaf.org
clothes etc. The stem bark is fibrous and is used in China and Europe for paper
making. The twigs are used as binding material and for making baskets.
Coppice Can be coppiced for silkworm or livestock fodder, wood of various diameters for https://
crafts or firewood, etc. hort.purdue.edu/
newcrop/
duke_energy/
Morus_alba.html
Pollard Can be pollarded for silkworm or livestock fodder, wood of various diameters for https://
crafts or firewood, etc. hort.purdue.edu/
newcrop/
duke_energy/

Ornamen- Rounded canopy that turns an attractive yellow in fall. Fruitless varieties such as Kourik, R. (2000) The
tal 'Mapleleaf' or 'Stribla' are available. In winter, white mulberry provides roughly Tree & Shrub Finder:
42% shade. Choosing the Right
Plants for Your Yard.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Wildlife White mulberry fruits are eaten and dispersed by animals, including birds, Yes http://www.fs.fed.us/
Food red foxes, northern raccoons, Virginia opossums, squirrels, and other database/feis/plants/
mammals. Box turtles may disperse white mulberry seeds. tree/moralb/all.html
Erosion Morus alba is used in tree strips for windbreaks. They are planted and No http://plants.usda.gov/
Control managed to protect livestock, enhance production, and control soil ero- plantguide/pdf/
sion. pg_moal.pdf
Domestic Both the foliage and fruit of white mulberry are edible to livestock and Yes http://www.fs.fed.us/
Animal wildlife. White mulberry foliage contains high levels of protein, carbohy- database/feis/plants/
Forage drates, fats, fibers, vitamins and minerals, though a high tannin content tree/moralb/all.html
may limit its digestibility. White mulberry fruits from India were high in
Vitamin C, and dry samples contained 5.5% protein and 87.55% carbohy-
drates. White mulberry leaves provide the natural food for silkworms. Con-
sequently, white mulberry has been widely planted throughout the world

Wildlife White mulberry provides general cover, as well as foraging and nesting Yes http://www.fs.fed.us/
Habitat habitat, for many bird species. White mulberry is recommended as a shel- database/feis/plants/
terbelt tree to improve general wildlife habitat in the Great Plains and to tree/moralb/all.html
66
Common name: Egyptian Walking Onion
Scientific name: Allium cepa proliferum
Family: Alliaceae Species: aquifolium
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 18 inches - 24 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry produce perennially; harvest top-
Spread: 6 inches - 9 inches Minimum Root Depth: sets to prevent spread.
Growth Rate: Fast Root Type: Bulb Fruit Type:
Life Span: Medium Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: Flower Color: Purple
Stand Persistence: Fungal Types:
Form: Upright
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall
Texture: Medium
Notes: Produces bulblets on topsets and
Sun: Full Sun onions below ground. Spreads to
Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 5-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 4.5 - 8.3 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Medium
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Rabbits
Flood: Sensitive Cold Injury:
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool Bloom Time: Late Spring - Early Fall Fruit Time: 67
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The plant forms small bulbs at the top of the flowering stem, these can be eaten www.pfaf.org
raw or cooked. Bulbs and leaves are edible raw or cooked. A strong onion fla-
vour, it makes a nice flavouring in salads though it should not be harvested in
quantity because this would reduce the yield of bulbils. The leaves are produced
from late autumn, though we have found that harvesting them at this time will

Medicine The bulb, when used regularly in the diet offsets tendencies towards angina, ar- www.pfaf.org
teriosclerosis and heart attack. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and
tooth decay. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to remove pus from sores.
Fresh onion juice is a very useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings,
bites, grazes or fungal skin complaints. When warmed the juice can be dropped
into the ear to treat earache. It also aids the formation of scar tissue on wounds,
thus speeding up the healing process, and has been used as a cosmetic to re-

Dye A yellow-brown dye is obtained from the skins of the bulbs. 1 www.pfaf.org

Insect Re- The growing plant is said to repel insects and moles. A spray made by pouring 1 www.pfaf.org
pellent enough boiling water to cover 1kg of chopped unpeeled onions is said to in-
crease the resistance of other plants to diseases and parasites.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Aromatic The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent and can also be rubbed Yes www.pfaf.org
Pest Con- onto the skin to repel insects. The growing plant is said to repel insects and
fuser moles. A spray made by pouring enough boiling water to cover 1kg of
chopped unpeeled onions is said to increase the resistance of other plants

Dynamic Deep Taproot No Hemenway, 2001


Accumula-

Insectory Egyptian onion is pollinated by Bees and insects. Yes www.pfaf.org

PLANT CONCERNS
Companion Validated Notes
Animal Toxin Yes There have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some
mammals, of this plant. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

68
Common name: Peashrub, Siberian
Scientific name: Caragana arborescens
Family: Fabaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 10 feet - 15 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Use as a background shrub or an
Spread: 6 feet - 10 feet Soil Moisture: Wet, Moderate, Dry informal hedge. Good as a snow-
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: 16 inches fence along drives, shelterbelts,
Life Span: Short Root Type: Fibrous Shallow or where growing conditions are
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1 difficult. Legume, so fixes own
nitrogen. Good plant for road-
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
sides.
Texture: Medium Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 2-7 Soil Compaction: Tolerant Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.0 - 9.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Gophers, Mice,
Rabbits
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Tolerant Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent
BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring - Summer Fruit Time:
69
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Pods are edible. The flowers are also edible, and can be used in salads. www.pfaf.org
Fiber A fibre obtained from the bark is used for making cordage www.pfaf.org

Dye A blue dye is obtained from the leaves www.pfaf.org

Medicine The whole plant, known as ning tiao, is used in the treatment of cancer of the www.pfaf.org
breast, and the orifice to the womb, and for dysmenorrhea and other gynecolog-
ical problems
Fiber A fibre obtained from the bark is used for making cordage www.pfaf.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Windbreak It is quite wind-resistant and can also be planted in a shelterbelt No www.pfaf.org

Erosion The plant has an extensive root system and can be used for erosion con- Yes www.pfaf.org
Control trol, especially on marginal land
Nitrogen Because of its nitrogen-fixing capacity, it is valued as a soil-improving plant Yes www.pfaf.org
Fixer

70
Common name: Peach
Scientific name: Prunus persica
Family: Rosaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Tree Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 15 feet - 20 feet Sun: Full Sun Seasonal Interest: Spring-Summer
Spread: 15 feet - 20 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Clay Notes: Showy pink or white flowers; pink-
Growth Rate: Fast Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry ish-yellow fruit
Life Span: Medium Minimum Root Depth: Fruit Type: Drupe
Stand Persistence: Root Type: Fibrous Shallow Flower Color: Pink, White
Form: Rounded Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 5:1 to100:1
Texture: Medium Fungal Types:
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 5-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 6.0 - 7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage: Frequent
BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Spring - Late Spring Fruit Time:
71
HUMAN USES Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Fruit can be eaten raw, cooked or dried for later use. The fruit is often used in ice 3 www.pfaf.org
creams, pies, jams etc. When fully ripe, the fruit of the best forms are very juicy
with a rich delicious flavour. Wild trees in the Himalayas yield about 36.5kg of
fruit a year. The fruit of the wild form contains about 5.2% sugars, 2% protein,
1.6% ash. Vitamin C content is 2.3mg per 100g. The fruit is a good source of vita-
min A. Fruits of the wild peach are richer in nutrients than the cultivated forms.
The size of fruit varies widely between cultivars and the wild form, it can be up to
7cm in diameter and contains one seed. Flowers can be eaten raw or cooked.
Added to salads or used as a garnish. They can also be brewed into a tea. The
distilled flowers yield a white liquid which can be used to impart a flavour resem-
bling the seed.
Essential Oil A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. Although the report does not men- 3 www.pfaf.org
tion edibility it can be assumed that it is edible. The seed contains up to 45% oil.

Medicinal The leaves are astringent, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, laxative, www.pfaf.org
parasiticide and mildly sedative. They are used internally in the treatment of gas- 3
tritis, whooping cough, coughs and bronchitis. They also help to relieve vomiting
and morning sickness during pregnancy, though the dose must be carefully moni-
tored because of their diuretic action. The dried and powdered leaves have
sometimes been used to help heal sores and wounds. The leaves are harvested
in June and July then dried for later use. The flowers are diuretic, sedative and
vermifuge. They are used internally in the treatment of constipation and oede-
ma. A gum from the stems is alterative, astringent, demulcent and sedative. The
seed is antiasthmatic, antitussive, emollient, haemolytic, laxative and sedative. It
is used internally in the treatment of constipation in the elderly, coughs, asthma
and menstrual disorders. The bark is demulcent, diuretic, expectorant and seda-
tive. It is used internally in the treatment of gastritis, whooping cough, coughs
and bronchitis. The root bark is used in the treatment of dropsy and jaundice.
The bark is harvested from young trees in the spring and is dried for later use.

72
Common name: Common Pear
Scientific name: Pyrus communis
Family: Rosaceae Species: barbarum
Plant Type: Deciduous Tree Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 30-40 feet Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall
Spread: 20 feet - 25 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty Notes: White flowers in spring followed
Growth Rate: Fast Soil Moisture: Moderate by summer fruit
Life Span: Long Minimum Root Depth: 30 inches Fruit Type: Drupe
Stand Persistence: Root Type: Flower Color: White
Form: Pyramidal Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 5:1 to100:1
Texture: Fungal Types:

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-8 Soil Compaction: Intolerant Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.2-6.7 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage:
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage: Frequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring Fruit Time: Fall 73
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked. The flavor ranges from rather harsh and www.pfaf.org
astringent (cultivars used for making alcoholic drinks) through to soft, sweet and 3
very juicy. The best dessert fruits have an exquisite sweet flavour, usually with a
very soft flesh, whilst cooking varieties have harder less sweet flesh.
Wood The wood is heavy, tough, durable, fine-grained and hard. It is used by cabinet www.pfaf.org
and instrument makers. When covered with a black varnish it is an excellent eb- 3

Container Dwarf varieties do well in containers. 3 Creasy, 1982


Garden

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Windbreak Trees are sometimes used as part of a windbreak planting. No www.pfaf.org

74
Common name: American Plum
Scientific name: Prunus americana
Family: Rosaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Tree Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 15 feet - 20 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Native plant that forms thickets.
Spread: 10 feet - 15 feet Soil Moisture: Wet, Moderate, Dry Prized for making preserves. Use
for wildlife and naturalized
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: 24 inches plantings. Good roadside plant
Life Span: Medium Root Type: Fibrous Shallow where salt use is not heavy. Used
as a rootstock for cultivars.
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 5:1 to100:1
Fruit Type: Drupe
Form: Globe Fungal Types: Flower Color: White
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Fall
Sun: Full Sun

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-7 Soil Compaction: Intolerant Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.0 - 7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Gophers
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Sensitive Wind Storm Damage: Frequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring Fruit Time: 75
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food American plum is a commonly cultivated fruit plant thoughout its range. Fruits www.fs.fed.us/
are used in making pies, jams, jellies, and desert sauces. The flower is edible and 4 database/feis/
is mild like flower nectar. plants;
www.ext.colostat

Medicine Cultural Use: The Omahas scraped and boiled the bark from the roots of the wild 3 Kindscher, 1992
plum and applied it to abrasions. They also used the wild plum as a seasonal indi-
cator: when the plums came into bloom, they knew it was time to plant their
corn, beans, and squash. The Dakotas used the sprouts of the wild plum as an
offering for the sick. The Cheyennes mixed the crushed fruits of this wild plum
with salt to treat a mouth disease. They also crushed and boiled the small root-
lets and the bark of lower wild plums with the roots of the scarlet thorn. This
mixture served as a diarrhea remedy. The Mesquakies also used the root bark of
the wild plum to cure canker sores around the mouth. Medical History: B.B.
Smythe of the Kansas Medical College reported in 1901 that the various species
of wild plum were astringent and sedative, and that the bark was tonic. The roots
and bark contain a bitter substance as well as a substance called phloretin, which
is an active agent against gram positive and negative bacteria.
Ornamen- The tough, elastic twigs can be bound into bundles and used as brooms for www.pfaf.org
tal sweeping floors.

Dye A green dye is obtained from the leaves. A dark green to green dye can be ob- 1 www.pfaf.org
tained from the fruit. A red type can be obtained from the roots.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Wildlife American plum provides habitat for pronghorn deer, mule deer, white- Yes www.fs.fed.us/
Habitat tailed deer, small mammals and small game birds. database/feis/plants
Insectory Most cherries and plums are larval food plants for the pale swallowtail Yes www.pfaf.org
butterfly.
Windbreak Drought tolerant tree with medium lifespan and moderate growth rate . Yes USDA NRCS, 2003

Erosion American plum is utilized for and soil stabilization projects in the West. Yes www.fs.fed.us/
Control Trees often grow wild among streams and their roots prevent soil erosion. database/feis/plants

76
Common name: California Poppy
Scientific name: Eschscholzia californica
Family: Papaveraceae Species: californica
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 12 inches - 24 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry well in poor soils. Good drainage
Spread: 12 inches - 36 inches Minimum Root Depth: 10 inches is essential. Many environmental
Growth Rate: Moderate Root Type: Tap factors effect blooming time and
Life Span: Short-Lived Perennial Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 0:1-0.5:1 intensity. Self-seeds. Flowers are
Stand Persistence: Long only open in sun. Contains 2 rec-
Fungal Types: Endomycorrhizal
ognized subspecies. Does not tol-
Form: Single Stem
Seasonal Interest: Summer erate transplanting well.
Texture: Fine
Notes: Perennial or annual. Growth form Fruit Type: Capsule
Sun: Full Sun,
is low spreading or erect. Grows Flower Color: Orange, Yellow
Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-10 Soil Compaction: Moderate Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.8 - 8.0 Mowing: Tolerant Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Sensitive Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Sensitive Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Moderate Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Early Spring - Fall Fruit Time: Summer - ?
77
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The Nisenan of California boiled and ate young spring leaves. The flowers are Lady Bird Johnson
also supposed to be somewhat sweet and can be chewed as gum/candy. See Wildflower Cen-
notes on toxicity. ter, 2016; USDA
NRCS Plant Mate-
rials
Medicine Over 30 chemicals and secondary metabolites have been derived from California USDA NRCS Plant
poppy. It has a number of ethnobotanical uses. Dose-dependent toxicity. Materials

Ornamen- California poppy has been cultivated as an ornamental for centuries. It is easy to Cornell University
tal establish and can bloom for long periods of time. There are a number of orna- Growing Guides;
mental cultivars. Recommended for naturalized plantings. Missouri Botanical
Gardens
Container Can grow well in containers and beds. Missouri Botanical
Garden Garden Plant
Finder
Cut Flower www.pfaf.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Insectory The flowers attract a diversity of bees, including bumblebees, sweat bees, No USDA NRCS Plant Mate-
mining bees, and honeybees. It also has up to 5 specialist pollinators and rials
provides food and refuge to other insects.
Wildlife As a part of a larger diverse plant community California poppy is a floral Yes USDA NRCS Plant Mate-
Food resource that can be an important link in the food web. Direct use as food rials

Erosion California poppy is included in erosion control plant mixes and can grow Yes USDA NRCS Plant Mate-
Control well on slopes. rials
Reclamator Used in roadside plantings and restoration projects. Yes USDA NRCS Plant Mate-
rials
Groundcov- Yes USDA NRCS Plant Mate-
er rials

PLANT CONCERNS
Issue Validated Notes
Invasive Yes Can become very weedy and displace other plants in certain environments if not properly man-
aged.
Animal Toxin Yes The plant contains toxins that can harm humans and livestock. The toxicity varies under differ-
ent environmental conditions and in different parts of the plant. Sensitivity to the toxins varies

78
Common name: Showy Evening Primrose (Mexican)
Scientific name: Oenothera speciosa
Family: Rosaceae Species: speciosa
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 8 inches - 24 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Also called pinkladies. Can spread
Spread: 12 inches - 18 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry somewhat aggressively via rhi-
zomes and self seeding. Flowers
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: open in the evening and remain
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Root Type: Rhizome open to late morning (all day if
overcast).
Stand Persistence: Long Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Fruit Type: Capsule
Form: Spreading Fungal Types: Endomycorrhizal Flower Color: Lavender, Pink, Purple,
Texture: Fine White
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Summer
Sun: Full Sun

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.0 - 7.8 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Wind Storm Damage: Infrequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool Bloom Time: Summer Fruit Time: Fall 79
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Cook as greens or in salads, best flavor when collected before flowering. Lady Bird Johnson
Wildflower Center.
http://
www.wildflower.org/
Medicine Extracts have been shown to have antihyperglycaemic and antiflammatory prop- Lim, T.K. (2012). Edible
erties. Medicinal And Non-
Medicinal Plants: Vol-
ume 8, Flowers.
Ornamen- "Perhaps best grown in areas where plants can spread without intruding on oth- Missouri Botanical
tal er plantings. Meadows. Wildflower gardens. Roadsides. Informal naturalized are- Garden Plant Finder
as. Site carefully if planting in beds, borders or rock gardens.
Aromatics/ Fragrant flowers. 1 www.missouribotanic
Fragrance algarden.org

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Wildlife Seed capsules attract birds, especially finches, and various mammals. No Lady Bird Johnson Wild-
Food flower Center. http://

Insectory Nectar source for pollinators. Of "Special Value to Native Bees." Yes Lady Bird Johnson Wild-
flower Center. http://

Ground- Full sun groundcover with showy flowers. No Lady Bird Johnson Wild-
cover flower Center. http://
www.wildflower.org/
Erosion Recommended for slope stabilization in combination with grasses. No Lady Bird Johnson Wild-
Control flower Center. http://
www.wildflower.org/

80
Common name: Rhubarb
Scientific name: Rheum rhabarbarum
Family: Polygonaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 40 inches - 48 inches Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Seasonal Interest: Summer
Spread: 36 inches - 48 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: Small white flowers
Growth Rate: Fast Soil Moisture: Moderate
Fruit Type:
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Minimum Root Depth:
Flower Color: White
Stand Persistence: Root Type: Tap
Form: Rounded Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Texture: Fungal Types:

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-8 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.0 - 8.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Sensitive Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool Bloom Time: Fruit Time:
81
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The leaf stem can be eaten raw or cooked. An acid flavour, they are used as a www.pfaf.org
fruit substitute in tarts etc. The young flower pouch, harvested before the flow- 3
ers open, is said to form a dish of great delicacy.
Medicine Rhubarb has a long and proven history of herbal usage, its main effect being a www.pfaf.org
positive and balancing effect upon the whole digestive system. It is one of the
most widely used herbs in Chinese medicine. The main species used is R. palma-
tum. Though the chemistry varies slightly, this species is used interchangeably.
Another report says that this species contains only small quantities of the medici-
nally active compounds and so it is only used as a mild laxative. The root is anti-
cholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitumor, aperient, astringent, cho-
lagogue, demulcent, diuretic, laxative, purgative, stomachic and tonic. Small dos-
es act as an astringent tonic to the digestive system, whilst larger doses act as a
mild laxative. The root is taken internally in the treatment of chronic constipa-
tion, diarrhea, liver and gall bladder complaints, hemorrhoids, menstrual prob-
lems and skin eruptions due to an accumulation of toxins. This remedy is not pre-
scribed for pregnant or lactating women, nor for patients with intestinal obstruc-
tion. Externally, the root is used in the treatment of burns. The roots are harvest-
ed in October from plants that are at least six years old, they are then dried for
later use. A homeopathic remedy is prepared from the dried root. This is used
especially in the treatment of diarrhea in teething children.
Ornamen- California poppy has been cultivated as an ornamental for centuries. It is easy to Cornell University
tal establish and can bloom for long periods of time. There are a number of orna- Growing Guides;
mental cultivars. Recommended for naturalized plantings. Missouri Botanical
Gardens
Container Makes a nice accent to a container garden. 1 Creasy, 1982
Garden

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Mulch Soft-large leaves are good for mulch No Hemenway, 2001
Maker
Insecticide Kills aphids, leafminers, and spider mites. Contains oxalic acid and is very Yes Carr, 1985
toxic. Boil 1 pound of leaves and 1quart of water for 30 minutes. Cool and
strain. Spray on infested plants.

PLANT CONCERNS
Issue Validated Notes
Animal Toxin Yes The leaves contain high concentrations of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid can lock up certain minerals
(especially calcium) in the body, leading to nutritional deficiency. Cooking the plant will reduce
the concentration of oxalic acid. Another report says that the leaves have the same concentra-
tion of oxalic acid in the stems as they do in the leaves and it is not the oxalic acid that makes
them poisonous. It says that any toxic properties of the leaves is more likely to be due to the
presence of glycosides. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or
hyperacidity should take special caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate

PLANT COMPATIBLES AND INCOMPATIBLES


Companion Compatible Notes
Asparagus Yes
Dill Yes
Fennel Yes
Hollyhocks Yes
Horseradish Yes Plant in containers to contain spread.
Strawberry Yes

82
Common name: Sage, Pineapple
Scientific name: Salvia Elegans
Family: Lamiaceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 3 feet - 4 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy Notes:
Spread: 2 feet - 3 feet Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry Fruit Type:
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: Flower Color: Red, Pink
Life Span: Medium Root Type: Tap
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 5-10 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.6 - 7.8 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Moderate Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Early Summer - Late Sum- Fruit Time: 83
mer
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
Use Note vest Reference
Food Leaves and flowers - raw or cooked. A very common herb, the strongly aromatic 3 www.pfaf.org
leaves are used as a flavouring in cooked foods. They are an aid to digestion and
so are often used with heavy, oily foods. They impart a sausage-like flavour to
savoury dishes. The young leaves and flowers can be eaten raw, boiled, pickled
or used in sandwiches. The flowers can also be sprinkled on salads to add colour

Medicine Sage has a very long history of effective medicinal use and is an important do- 3 www.pfaf.org
mestic herbal remedy for disorders of the digestive system. Its antiseptic quali-
ties make it an effective gargle for the mouth where it can heal sore throats, ul-
cers etc. The leaves applied to an aching tooth will often relieve the pain. The
essential oil from the plant is used in small doses to remove heavy collections of
mucous from the respiratory organs and mixed in embrocations for treating

Essential An essential oil from the leaves is used in perfumery, hair shampoos (it is good 3 www.pfaf.org
Oil for dark hair) and as a food flavouring. It is a very effective 'fixer' in perfumes,

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference
Mulch Very good Yes www.pfaf.org
Maker
Aromatic The growing or dried plant is said to repel insects, it is especially useful Yes www.pfaf.org
Pest Con- when grown amongst cabbages and carrots. It was formerly used as a
fuser strewing herb and has been burnt in rooms to fumigate them.

84
Common name: Russian Sage
Scientific name: Perovskia atriplicifolia
Family: Lamiaceae Species: Echinacea purpurea
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 36 inches - 60 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy Notes: Semi-woody, dies back to the
Spread: 24 inches - 36 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry ground in zone 4. Attractive in
combination plantings with
Growth Rate: Slow Minimum Root Depth: Echinacea. Hardiness varies in soil
Life Span: Short-Lived Perennial Root Type: Tap type, needs a well drained soil to
succeed.
Stand Persistence: Medium Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Fruit Type:
Form: Upright Fungal Types: Flower Color: Blue, Purple
Texture: Fine
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-9 Soil Compaction: Moderate Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 4.6 - 6.5 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Tolerant Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: SummerLate Summer Fruit Time: 85
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The small lavender flowers have a sweet flavour and can be eaten in salads or 1 www.pfaf.org
used as a garnish.
Medicine The plant is used as a cooling medicine in the treatment of fevers. 1 www.pfaf.org
Aromatics/ The crushed leaves are very aromatic. 1 www.pfaf.org
Fragrance

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Dynamic Deep Taproot No based on deep taproot
Accumula-

86
Common name: Serviceberry, Saskatoon
Scientific name: Amelanchier alnifolia
Family: Rosaceae Species:
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 6 feet - 10 feet Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty Notes:
Spread: 6 feet - 10 feet Soil Moisture: Moderate Fruit Type:
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: 24 inches Flower Color: White
Life Span: Long Root Type:
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1
Form: Irregular Fungal Types:
Texture:
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3 - 7 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.5 - 8.3 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Moderate Fire Damage: Intolerant Animal Damage:
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury:
Salt: Intolerant Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring - Early Summer Fruit Time: 87
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Saskatoon serviceberry is planted as a commercial fruit crops. The fruits are add- 3 www.fs.fed.us/

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Wildlife Saskatoon serviceberry is a valuable wildlife plant. Wild ungulates browse Yes www.fs.fed.us/
Food twigs and foliage; fur and game mammals such as black bear, beaver, and database/feis/plants
hares consume twigs, foliage, fruits, and bark. Upland game birds consume
the fruits and buds, and many species of rodents and songbirds eat the
fruits. All big game species, including mountain goat and bighorn sheep,
utilized Saskatoon serviceberry. Elk would often browse all available twigs

Erosion Excellent Yes www.pfaf.org


Control

88
Common name: Strawberry
Scientific name: Fragaria x ananassa
Family: Rosaceae Species: . virginiana x F. chiloensis
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 6 inches - 12 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty, Clay Notes: White or pink flower; red berry
Spread: 12 inches - 18 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry
Fruit Type: Berry
Growth Rate: Fast Minimum Root Depth: 12 inches
Flower Color: Pink, White
Life Span: Medium Root Type: Stolon
Stand Persistence: Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Form: Spreading Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Spring-Summer
Sun: Full Sun
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 4-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Medium
Soil pH: 5.8 - 7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Medium
Drought: Moderate Fire Damage: Animal Damage:
Flood: Sensitive Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Cool-Warm Bloom Time: Late Spring Fruit Time: Spring-Summer 89
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Fruits of the best cultivars are sweet and succulent with an exquisite flavour. www.pfaf.org
Strawberries are a very popular fruit and are widely available in the summer. The 1
fruit of some cultivars is up to 3cm in diameter. The young leaves can be eaten

90
Common name: Sweet William
Scientific name: Dianthus barbatus 'Double Dwarf'
Family: Rubiaceae Species: Dianthus barbatus
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: No
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 12 inches - 24 inches Soil Type: Loamy Notes: Minor disease concern - rust. Bi-
Spread: 10 inches - 30 inches Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry ennial that re-seeds itself.
Growth Rate: Moderate Minimum Root Depth: 10 inches Fruit Type: Capsule
Life Span: Biennial Root Type: Fibrous Deep Flower Color: Pink, Red, White
Stand Persistence: Long Bacteria-Fungal Ratio:
Form: Upright Fungal Types:
Texture: Medium
Seasonal Interest: Summer
Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-9 Soil Compaction: Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.0 - 8.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Rabbits
Flood: Intolerant Cold Injury:
Salt: Moderate Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Early Summer - Summer Fruit Time: 91
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
Use Note vest Reference
Food The flowers can be eaten raw or added to salads. They have a spicy flavor like 1 www.ext.colostate.edu
cloves.
Cut Flower One of the best, longest lasting cut flowers available. 3 www.gardenguides.co
m

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Insectory A very ornamental plant, its flowers are very attractive to butterflies and No www.pfaf.org
moths. The flowers have a strong clove-like scent.

Soil Builder Short-lived perennial with fibrous roots. As the old roots die and decay No based on root type and
they release nutrients and produce organic matter. plant type.

Erosion Fibrous shallow roots No Based on root type


Control

92
Common name: Viburnum, Nanyberry
Scientific name: Viburnum lentago
Family: Caprifoliaceae Species: barbarum
Plant Type: Deciduous Shrub Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Woody

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 10 feet - 25 feet Soil Moisture: Wet, Moderate, Dry plantings, backgrounds or
Spread: 8 feet - 10 feet Minimum Root Depth: 14 inches screens, and naturalizing. Forms
thickets but can be trained as a
Growth Rate: Moderate Root Type: Fibrous Shallow small attractive tree. Shiny foli-
Life Span: Short Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: 2:1 to 5:1 age. Fruits have a sweet, datelike
flavor after a frost. Good winter
Stand Persistence: Fungal Types: food for birds.
Form: Upright Fruit Type: Drupe
Seasonal Interest: Spring
Texture: Medium
Notes: Also known as sheepberry, sweet Flower Color: White
Sun: Partial Shade viburnum, and wild raisin. Large
Soil Type: native shrub used for border

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 2-8 Soil Compaction: Intolerant Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 5.0-7.0 Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Animal Damage: Deer, Gophers, Mice,
Rabbits
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Sensative Wind Storm Damage: Frequent

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Late Spring Fruit Time: Fall 93
HUMAN USES
Initial
Har-
vest
Use Note Year Reference
Food Edible raw, pulp is tasty and sweet. Dried fruit can be rehydrated. Can be used to 2 Freitus, J. and Haber-
make jam, fruit leather, and sauces. man, S. (2005) Wild
Jams and Jellies.
Medicine Bark is antispasmodic, roots can be used to treat irregular menstruation. Leaves 3 www.pfaf.org
can be used to treat measles or dysuria.
Ornamen- Attractive, large shrub or small tree with 2-4" long leaves that emerge soft yellow 3 Dirr, M. (2011) Dirr's
tal -green, turn glossy dark green, and may change to purplish red in the fall. Agree- Encyclopedia of Trees
ably fragrant inflorescences are 3-4" wide and open in spring. and Shrubs.

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION

Function Note Validated Reference


Wildlife Source of food for many birds, including ruffed grouse, northern bobwhite, No DeGraaf, R.M. (2002)
Food pheasant, northern flicker, american robin, cedar waxwing, and rose- Trees, Shrubs and Vines
breasted grosbeak. for Attracting Birds.
Wildlife Many birds use nannyberry for cover and nesting. Yes DeGraaf, R.M. (2002)
Habitat Trees, Shrubs and Vines
for Attracting Birds.

Hedge Use as a tall hedge or screen. No www.missouribotanicalg


arden.org

94
Common name: Yarrow, Common
Scientific name: Achillea millefolium
Family: Asteraceae Species:
Plant Type: Perennial Native to North America?: Yes
Plant Category: Herbaceous

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: 12 inches - 36 inches Sun: Full Sun, Partial Shade Seasonal Interest: Summer
Spread: 12 inches - 24 inches Soil Type: Sandy, Loamy, Silty Notes: Readily self seeds. Cut roots can
Growth Rate: Fast Soil Moisture: Moderate, Dry cause short-term numbness. Soft,
Life Span: Long-Lived Perennial Minimum Root Depth: 12 inches blue-green, fern-like foliage.
Stand Persistence: Medium Root Type: Short Rhizome Fruit Type: Achene
Form: Upright Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: Flower Color: Pink, White, Yellow
Texture: Fine Fungal Types:
TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: 3-8 Soil Compaction: Tolerant Disease Issues: Minor
Soil pH: 6.0 - 8.0 Mowing: Tolerant Insect/Pest Damage: Minor
Drought: Tolerant Fire Damage: Tolerant Animal Damage: Deer
Flood: Moderate Cold Injury: Infrequent
Salt: Moderate Wind Storm Damage:
BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Warm Bloom Time: Early Summer - Late Sum- Fruit Time:
mer
PLANT CONCERNS
Companion Validated Notes
Allergen Yes Extended use of this plant, either medicinally or in the diet, can cause allergic skin rashes or lead
95
HUMAN USES Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference
Food The young leaves make a tasty addition to salads. In Sweden, yarrow was used in www.pfaf.org;
place of hops to make beer and considered the beer thus brewed to be more Kindscher, 1992
intoxicating.
Aromatics / When cut fresh and kept in water, yarrow flavors the air with an aromatic spici- 1 www.fs.fed.us/
Fragrance ness. database/feis/
plants
Medicinal Cultural Use: A tea has been made to treat coughing, throat irritations, and to Kindscher, 1992;
stop bleeding and also for colds and slight nausea. The tea stimulated sweating, Wood, 1997
to break a fever and alleviate cold symptoms, and was also drunk after a sweat
bath to encourage further sweating. A tea has also been made from the above
ground portions of the plant to treat respiratory diseases like tuberculosis and
for heart trouble and chest pains. In addition, the leaves have been chewed and
rubbed on the body to soothe unspecified afflictions, close up wounds, and keep
them from inflammation or fiery swellings. Scientific Research: Certain com-
pounds found in the volatile oils of yarrow exhibit antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and
anticancer activities. Menthol and camphor, tannins, sterols, and triterpenes
could account for the plant's apparent effectiveness in treating skin diseases.
Thujone is a known abortifacient and may account for yarrow's use in the treat-
ment of problems associated with the female reproductive system. Constituents
of the volatile oil extracted from the plant apparently have expectorant, analge-
sic, and diaphoretic properties that may provide relief from some cold and influ-
enza symptoms. Medical History: Whole plant used. Bitter, tonic, restringent,
and vulnerary, but subnarcotic, and inebriant. Used for hemorrhoids, dysentery,
hemoptysis, menstrual afflictions, wounds, hypochondria, and cancer. The infu-
sion and extract are employed. The American plant is stronger than the Europe-
an. The symptoms of fever calling for yarrow are suited to conditions where the
mind is sometimes dimmed or restless, the tongue is red, dry in the center but
moister towards the edges, and the pulse is rapid, nonresistent and full. It is
sometimes used for skin eruptions caused by fever clearing poisons from the
blood. Yarrow is especially called for when hemorrhage results from fever. Be-
cause yarrow has such a strong affinity to the blood and bleeding, it is an im-
portant remedy in female complaints. It works both ways, to staunch excessive
bleeding and to break up stagnant blood. In addition, it tones the mucus mem-
branes of the female tract and reins in heat and restlessness associated with hor-
monal episodes. Yarrow is a menstrual regulator of great worth. Although it does
not have a special affinity to women (unlike black cohosh, blue cohosh, lady's
mantle), it is so useful here because of the affinity to the blood.
Compost This plant is an essential ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator. 1 www.pfaf.org
This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a
compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time
needed to make the compost.
Essential Oil Very Good. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used medicinally. The www.pfaf.org
leaves contain from 0.6 to 0.85% essential oil.
Dye Yellow and green dyes are obtained from the flowers. 1 www.pfaf.org
Insect The plant has been burnt in order to ward off mosquitoes. www.pfaf.org
Repellent

Dried Flow- Yarrow is a nice large dried flower head used as dried flower accent. 1 www.driedflower
er sdirect.com
Cut Flower Maintain bright colors for a long time. 1 www.sustland.um
n.edu/plant

Function Note ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION Validated Reference


Insectory Attracts ladybug, hoverfly, parasitic wasps, and lacewing. Also attracts an- No Hemenway, 2001
ise and black swallowtail butterflies. Blooms summer to early fall.
Aromatic The growing plant repels beetles, ants and flies. Yes www.pfaf.org
Pest Con-
fuser
Mulch Very good living mulch Yes www.pfaf.org
Maker
Erosion Good for holding soil on steep banks. Due to its extensive system of rhi- Yes www.pfaf.org
Control zomes, yarrow is a good soil binder and has been used in erosion control

Nurse Nurse plant for sites prone to drought . No based on drought toler-
ance and fast growth

Dynamic Deep Taproot . No Hemenway, 2001


Accumula-
96
Common name: ___TEMPLATE__________
Scientific name: ________________________
Family: Species:
Plant Type: Native to North America?: YES / NO
Plant Category:

CHARACTERISTICS
Height: Sun: Seasonal Interest:
Spread: Soil Type: Notes:
Growth Rate: Fast Soil Moisture:
Life Span: Minimum Root Depth:
Stand Persistence: Root Type:
Form: Upright Bacteria-Fungal Ratio: Fruit Type:
Texture: Fine Fungal Types: Flower Color:

TOLERANCES
USDA Hardiness Zones: Soil Compaction: Disease Issues:
Soil pH: Mowing: Insect/Pest Damage:
Drought: Fire Damage: Animal Damage:
Flood: Cold Injury:
Salt: Wind Storm Damage:

BEHAVIORS
Growing Season: Bloom Time: Fruit Time:
97
HUMAN USES
Initial
Harvest
Use Note Year Reference

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Function Note Validated Reference

PLANT CONCERNS
Issue Validated Notes

PLANT COMPATIBLES AND INCOMPATIBLES


Companion Compatible Notes

98
# TEMPLATE Guild
Fence Line

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

99