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Discuss how the advocacy efforts employed during the civil rights movement was
mirrored by those advocating for persons with special needs (and students with special

During the Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) case, the Supreme Court ruled that it is
unlawful to discriminate against a student for reasons that are not justified. This ruling applies to
students with special needs and the rights of those individuals to be included in public schools. This
action was a symbol of the beginning of the advocacy movement. Including students with special
needs during the civil rights movement also introduced the idea of such individuals and their
involvement in American society.

2. How did P.L. 94142, and later IDEA, expand during the 35-year history?

Public Law 94-142 in 1975 was the first legislation that specifically mandated a free and
appropriate public education for all students with special needs. Although Public Law 94-142 still
remains a controversial piece of legislation, an integral part of the text includes the involvement of
music in education. In 1986, the age range of this legislation was expanded as the law began to
include early intervention and early childhood regulation. In 1990, Public Law 94-142 was amended
to be the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. In 1997, IDEA became a law. Reauthorizations
to IDEA continued in 2002 and 2004 including No Child Left behind and reduction of IEP paperwork.

3. What are the six principles of IDEA and how does each apply in the music classroom?

The six principles of IDEA include: Zero Reject, Non-discriminatory Evaluations, free
appropriate public education, least restrictive environment, procedural due process, and parental

Zero Reject- A student cannot be excluded from a classroom or educational setting because of a
disability. Students must be included in all ensembles and performances.

Non-discriminatory Evaluations- Students must be evaluated and observed by professionals if

implications of a disability are suspected. We are not specifically qualified to presuppose disability
categories or cite specific labels we think are appropriate for students as Music Educators.

Free appropriate public education- During this portion of the process, specific educational placement
of a student with special needs is determined. As a Music Educator, one must identify and study all
students with special needs who will be a part of music classes and ensembles. This is an important
step when creating a curriculum.

least restrictive environment- Create an environment where a student can learn to the best of their
ability. Although the access of music education would never be denied to a child, changes to the
classroom setting may greatly increase the educational appropriateness for a student with special
procedural due process and parent involvement- If the placement of a child is considered
inappropriate, they may request a review of placement, services, and personnel. If the process
continues to a formal review, it is known as Procedural Due Process.

4. Describe least restrictive environment and state how this may be achieved in the music
classroom (at least three examples).

As stated in IDEA: to the maximum extent appropriate, students with disabilities will be educated
with students who are not disabled. An example of this definition through the perspective of music
education can be seen as perhaps creating smaller ensembles so that students may feel more
comfortable. It might be best to hold these ensembles at different times of day. Another idea may be
to make the student to teacher ration smaller in these ensembles.

5. How would you respond to a teacher who wants to keep a student from attending your
class to take part in remediation to meet AYP under NCLB? What data demonstrating
the effectiveness and applicability of your instruction would you be able to cite?

A teacher should not prevent a student from participating in my class, because they have a disability.
This goes against zero reject, singling individuals out to leave my class for remediation prevents
students with disabilities to be included in the classroom activities of their classmates.

6. What are some ways you, as the music teacher, could participate as part of the RTI
system at your school?

As music educators, we need to be capable of presenting and communicating research. We need to

participate in the school wide effort. It is important to realize that students need help early, before
they fail.

7. What are the advantages or disadvantages of fieldwork in a special needs setting?

It is a constant challenge to try and include all students in the curriculum. It can be a could
experience for the other students in the classroom, to see that everyone has a duty and right to
create something important in the classroom. There may be times where not all students are
engaged in the same thing; however, it is the intent of the instructor to create an environment where
everyone will have the opportunity to participate.

8. Discuss the steps mentioned in this chapter and how you plan to implement each step in
your future fieldwork.

I will carefully read all of the IEPs for each of my students in my class before school becomes in
session. I will think carefully of the curriculum I wish to set of up for my classes so that I can create
an inclusive experience. As I get to know my students I will keep in mind that sometimes I should
ask for help if I have any suspicions of a student needing extra attention.
9. Discuss your experiences (if you have had them) in each type of special education

There was a student with special needs in my choir and theatre classes all through high school. This
student was really passionate about the arts and my teachers made it really important to include this
student in all activities. Even if the student was doing a different task than the rest of us, the job was
considered to be important to whatever project we were working on. There were times when it was
difficult for the teacher to always be paying attention to the student and let him play on his phone
when the rest of the group was rehearsing. I wasnt sure if this was ethical or if the student honestly
needed a break.

10. Pose 3 questions informed by your reading that you could ask Dr. Hammel and/or the
class to encourage discussion.
Coming from someone who lacks teaching in a public school setting, is it always difficult to
create a curriculum that is all inclusive?

How do I find a balance in curriculum that is beneficial to the development of all of my students
of different levels?

What if students do not always seem willing to be included, how do you keep everyone