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a) What is augmented reality?

Augmented reality is a system where physical variables act as inputs to
provide an indirect view of the real world. This is done by the help of computer
generated sensors. For instance, augmented reality, is now used medical
imagery to show the inner view of the foetus.
b) Define the term transducer
A transducer acts as an ADC and DAC. It takes data from sensors, for
instance in the case of medical imagery, by detecting ultrasound( after it emits
it) and converting it to a computer-readable form.

a) CT scans use XRAY radiation to detect the internal system of the body by
using a DAS system. At the same time however, the body is being
exposed to radiation. This is one aspect that differentiates a CT Scan from
an MRI. MRI machines do not emit ionising radiation. MRI uses magnetic
resonance to detect radio frequency from hydrogen cells in the body,
thereby, also being able to detect the internal system of the body. CT scan
are usually cheaper than MRIs. Moreover, the time taken to complete the
procedures for a CT scan is just 5 minutes, and 30 minutes for MRIs.
However this is very well compensated by the risk of irradiation.

b) Explain how ultrasound works

Ultrasound is primarily used to detect foetus movement and health. It
does so by using a complex system. By the help of a transducer, sound
waves are emitted on the required region of the body. These waves are
reflected back, and are detected by the transducer, which is then converted to
digital signals(readable by the computer) projecting the image of the foetus.

c) Using CDDS system in Emergency Departments can prove beneficial in

many ways. This system has the ability to suggest treatments with a given
diagnoses. Firstly, because of the extremely volatile nature of medical
knowledge, processes without this system pose the risk of obsoletism.
Regular systems may be unable to find suitable diagnosis or treatments for a
disease, however, with CDDS systems, the knowledge base is up-to-date and
can suggest more treatments. At the same time, as compared to a doctor, the
response time of having this system to suggest a treatment is fairly less.
Moreover, with the ever-increasing efficiency of the inference engine, these
systems can be more accurate at doing the tasks as compared to a doctor.

On the other hand, however, this can replace many doctors and cause
unemployment in these sectors which can have profound impacts on the
economy. Furthermore, installing these systems can become costly and
inefficient for the medical association.

Q3) Discuss the ethical implication of EHR ( 6 marks)

To have an EHR system can create several implications for different parts of
the society. With an EHR system, records that were initially in paper based
form are converted to a computer based form. This, to an extent, can be a
reason to waste resources and can be considered unethical. Furthermore,
with an EHR system, data can be accessed by any health centre. Unless the
data protection act is not followed, data can be misused and the system can
provide inaccurate data which can pose serious health risks for the patient.
Given the complexities of this system, there can also be many clinical
mistakes. With the ever-increasing number of evasive practices, there can be
loopholes in the systems: hackers can gain access to the system, viruses can
spread across the system and corrupt data.

Q4)Evaluate the implications of human resources being completely replaced

by computer diagnostic systems with examples. {12 marks }