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Amplitude Modulation

Transmitters and Receivers

Mae Erika R. Teodoro


Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering
maeerikateodoro@gmail.com Francis Paul Benito D. Ambulo
Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering
Inah Salvador H. Cabili paopao_ambulo@yahoo.com
Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering
inah_cabili@yahoo.com

Abstract The aim of this paper is to show the operation of AM invention of radio. The technology was based on the already
transmitters and receivers by means of Multisim and present existing inventions of the telegraph and the telephone.
their respective output waveforms. Transmitters perform the According to some researchers, the amplitude modulation
amplitude modulation by multiplying the carrier signal and technique originated from the experimental and theoretical
modulating signal then the product is transmitted through an
work of Leblanc, back in 1886, Mayer (1875) and Rayleigh
antenna. In this paper, the AM transmitter is composed of two
parts. First is the oscillator circuit, the purpose of this circuit is to (1894). In 1900s, the development of the technique is attributed
produce the carrier wave. A comparator is used due to the reason to Lee de Forest where commercial radio stations begin
that it produces a stable oscillating signal. The second part of the broadcasting in Pittsburgh 1920. [1]
transmitter circuit is the audio amplifier circuit. This is where the
output if the oscillating circuit is fed into. The base of the In amplitude modulation (AM), the message signal is
transistor is the input of the audio amplifier circuit and this is impressed on the amplitude of the carrier signal. This results in
where the carrier signal is connected. In this circuit, the function a signal whose amplitude is a function of the message signal.
generator serves as the modulating signal, a 1 kHz sine wave. The The modulation is done because the audio signal being of low
output of the audio amplifier circuit is the amplitude modulated
frequency cannot be transmitted to longer distance so the audio
signal and it also serves as the input of the AM receiver circuit.
Receivers take in the transmitted signal from the channel and signal is amplitude modulated with RF signal and then
processes it to retrieve the information signal. When the transmitted into the air.
amplitude modulated signal passes through the receiver circuit,
the signal is demodulated in order the retrieve the original Because of these, the concept of AM is essential and worth
information and then amplified. The AM receiver used in this studying. This paper will explain the design of the operation of
paper has three parts. First is the tuned RF amplifier, the RF AM transmitters and receivers. The design has also been
section is composed of an inductor and capacitor which forms the simulated.
tank circuit. This tank circuit acts as a bandpass filter and filters
out all the unwanted radio frequencies. Second is the envelope
detector, it is composed of a diode and an RC circuit. Its purpose II. AM TRANSMITTER
is to recover the transmitted signal that rides on the carrier by
means of extracting the envelope of the received signal. Lastly the AM transmitter being an Amplitude Modulated transmitter
output of the envelop detector is fed into an amplifier. It amplifies where the amplitude of the Radio Frequency signal is
the recovered signal to a level where it is more understandable modulated, usually used in the lower frequency bands where
and better perceived by the output devices. the frequency is too low for Frequency Modulation (FM). [2]

The local oscillator generates the carrier signal, which lies in


Index Terms Amplitude Modulation, AM Transmitters, AM the RF range. The frequency of the carrier is always very high
Receivers.
because it is very difficult to generate high frequencies with
good frequency stability. A comparator is used since it
produces a stable oscillating signal. The audio signal is the
I. INTRODUCTION information to be transmitted. The audio driver amplifier
amplifies the voltage of this signal, this is necessary to drive
A radio signal is usually very weak and cannot travel long
the audio power amplifier. The modulator circuit is necessary
distances on its own. A method to deal with this problem use a
because it modulates the amplitude of the carrier signal.
technique called Amplitude Modulation (AM).

In the early history, the discovery that electromagnetic


waves are capable of transmitting information sparked the
A. Block Diagram The carrier oscillator circuit shows the noninverting Op-
amp comparator built around U1A where the R14 and R15
This transmitter works, because the AM Modulator raises form a voltage divider network across the comparator
the information, shown in light blue in Figure 1, to high providing negative feedback with part of the output voltage of
frequencies so that it can be broadcast along with the carries by the op-amp appearing in the inverting input which produces a
the antenna. The operation of the AM modulator consists of stable oscillating signal. The comparator is then tuned L3, L4,
two stages. First, the information signal and carrier, shown in and C15 that forms a Hartley Oscillator that produces a 795
blue in Figure 1, are passed through the AM Modulator, to KHz wave to use as a carrier signal. The equation results:
generate the required upper and lower sidebands along with
unnecessary sinusoids of many other frequencies. Second, a
bandpass filter removes the unnecessary sinusoids and passes
only those in the required AM-modulated carrier. The AM
Modulator automatically raises the frequency of the 795Khz sine wave:
information when encoding information by changing the
amplitude of the carries sinusoid. [4] Where C = C15, L = L3 + L4

2. AM Modulator

Fig. 1. Block diagram and operation of AM Transmitter

B. Schematic Diagram
1. Carrier Oscillator Circuit

Fig. 3. Schematic Diagram of AM Modulator

The next stage is the AM Modulator built around transistor


Q1. The capacitor C1 couples the output of the oscillator
circuit is then supplied to the audio amplifier. R1 and R2 are
the biasing variable resistor of Q1. R4 and R3 is the emitter
resistor of Q1 which fix the voltage when no signal is applied.
Inductor L1 and capacitor C5 forms a tank circuit which acts
as a Bandpass Filter. The modulated AM signal which
generates a half cycle is available at the collector of Q1 and is
coupled to the antenna using capacitor C13. The modulating
signal that contains a 1Khz sine wave coupled using C2 and
bypass capacitor using C3 is inputted at the emitter of the
transistor Q1 is input of the modulating signal that contains a
1kHz sine wave.
Fig. 2. Schematic Diagram of Carrier Oscillator Circuit
C. Results and Discussions

Fig. 4. Simulation Results of AM Transmitter

Figure 4 shows that carrier wave of 795kHz which is the


output of the oscillator circuit. It also shows the modulating
signal of 1kHz sine wave and the amplitude modulated signal.

III. AM RECEIVER
For the AM Receiver, it receives the amplitude modulated
signal and is able to demodulated and recover the original
information signal and then amplified. [3]

A. Block Diagram
Fig. 5. Block diagram and operation of AM Receiver

The main point of interest here is the structure of the AM


Detector. The basic structure of the AM detector and for the
Am modulator are the same: a nonlinear device followed by a
bandpass filter. In the detector, the nonlinear reproduces the
B. Schematic Diagram
original signal sinusoid from the AM-modulated carrier and
also produces many unnecessary sinusoids of other
frequencies; the filter removes their unnecessary sinusoids and 1. Tuned RF Amplifier
passes the original information signal. The main difference
between the AM modulator and the AM detector is the
frequency band passed by the filter: the modulator passes a
band at high radio frequencies; the detect passes a band at low
audio frequencies. [4]

Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of Tuned RF Amplifier


The inductor L1 and capacitor C9 forms the Tank Circuit The received signal from the Envelop Detector coupled to
which filters out all the unwanted radio frequencies and act as the Amplifier using capacitor C4. The Amplifier built around
a Bandpass Filter. The RF Section built around Q1 amplifies Q2 which amplifies the recovered signal that is understandable
the received signal from the Tank Circuit. The C11 and R11 and better perceive by the output devices. The collector to
are the collector capacitor and resistor of Q1. The C14 and R9 base biased amplifier stage where R6 sets the collector current
acts as a High Pass Filter. C10 is a power supply by-pass and R5 provided the necessary collector to base bias. The
capacitor that prevents unwanted signal between devices in capacitor C6 and C8 acts as a bypass filter which provides
sharing the same power source. some noise filtering. The recovered signal at the collector of
Q2 coupled to the R7 and C8 using capacitor C7.
2. Envelope Detector
C. Results and Discussions

Fig. 9. Simulation results of AM Receiver

The Figure 9 shows the AM signal and the received signal.


The recovered signal is the signal recovered from the diode
detector after modulating the AM signal.
Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of Envelop Detector

The envelope detector consists of diode D1 and an RC IV. CONCLUSION


circuit C12 and R10. It recovers the transmitted signal riding It is noteworthy that this paper is intended for the sole
on the carrier by extracting the envelop of the received signal. purpose to graphically explain in great detail the overall
operation of the simulated amplitude modulation circuit. The
3. Amplifier diagrams and information presented in this paper would
significantly increase the understanding of frequency and
amplitude modulation. The communication circuits are
diagrammed and simulated by using Multisim.

The process of amplitude modulation consists of a high


frequency carrier wave that is modulated by a low frequency
(audio range) wave that contains the actual signal to be
transmitted. Modulation is achieved by multiplying the carrier
and the modulator. This gives you a frequency spectrum
composed of the carrier frequency and two sidebands: the
carrier minus the modulator, and the carrier plus the modulator.
Each sideband contains the information for both frequencies,
so either one can be selected using a bandpass filter, and then
demodulated.

REFERENCES
[1] L. Der, Frequency Modulation (FM) Tutorial, Silicon
Laboratories, Inc.
[2] T. H. White, Reginald Fessenden
Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of Envelop Detector [3] Bersekerus, An Audio Radio signal Modulated by Amplitude
K. Markowitz, Operational Diagrams of Radio Transmitters &
Receivers