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# h-x diagram

(psychrometric chart)
Determination of physical and thermodynamic properties
of gas-vapour mixtures

## Department for Building Service and Process Engineering

Balzs Bokor, PhD student
Building D, Room 124 a
Tel: 463-2535; e-mail: bokor@epgep.bme.hu
INTRODUCTION
BUDAPEST TIHANY

## Source: www.index.hu Source: balaton.network.hu

PCS ESZTERGOM

Source: www.panoramio.com 2
Source: www.panoramio.com
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Source: www.egykisfoldrajz.freeiz.com
INTRODUCTION

Source: www.teachingengineering.org
Source: www.myallergo.de

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Source: www.bontott-tetoablak.hu Source: www.szelloztetes.hu
DEFINITIONS

Source: www.britannica.com
Atmospheric air consists of:
Gaseous components Contaminants (e.g. smoke, pollen
and gaseous pollutants)
Water vapour 5
DEFINITIONS
Dry air
All water vapour and
Oxygen 21% other gases 1% contaminants removed
Its composition is relatively
constant
Moist air
A two-component-mixture of
dry air and water vapour
The amount of water vapour in
moist air can vary from 0 (dry
air) to a maximum value
Nitrogen 78% (saturation)
Saturation depends on
The components of dry air
temperature and pressure 6
HUMIDITY PARAMETERS
Humidity ratio (x)
The quantity of water vapour present in air
Moisture content (or mixing ratio) of a given moist air sample is the
ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry air in the sample

=

wv: water vapour
da: dry air

## Assuming ideal gas behaviour

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HUMIDITY PARAMETERS
Specific enthalpy
The specific enthalpy of a humid air sample (1+ ) containing 1 kg dry
air and x kg water vapour at a temperature of t equals the enthalpy of
the dry air and the enthalpy of x kg water vapour.
The specific enthalpy of dry air: = ,

, : specific heat capacity of dry air

## The specific enthalpy of x kg water vapour: = + ,

: enthalpy of the waters vaporisation

, : specific heat capacity of water vapour

+ = , + ( + , )

## sensible heat + latent heat

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HUMIDITY PARAMETERS
With exact values

= 0 1+ = 0

The specific heat capacity of dry air: , = 1

The specific heat capacity of water vapour: , = 1.86

The enthalpy of the waters vaporisation: 0 = 2501

+ = + ( + . )

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STRUCTURE OF THE h-x DIAGRAM
+ = + ( + . )
Lines of constant temperature in 1 diagram
1+
Rise of lines: = 2501 + 1.86
=.
Lines of constant temperature diverge with rising temperature

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

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STRUCTURE OF THE h-x DIAGRAM
+ = + ( + . )

## 0 , divergence of lines is minimal

Rise of line = 0: 2501

## Rise of line = 100: 2687

Richard Mollier (1863-1935) German professor of Applied Physics

Transformation of coordinates

Source: en.wikipedia.org
Rotation of axis x by axis x
h=const. lines || axis x

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STRUCTURE OF THE h-x DIAGRAM
Transformation of
coordinates
Rotation of axis x by
axis x
h=const. lines || axis x

Still no information

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika 12

To see the connection between pressure, humidity and partial vapour
pressure, lets see the fraction of the ideal gas laws of both components:

=

29
= = = 1.61
18

= 1+
0.622 +

## ; Whats the maximum value of x at a certain temperature?

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At a certain temperature , =

= 0.622
1+

From this point humidity mixed into the compound can be only in liquid state of
matter. Liquid water droplets suspended in the air are commonly known as fog.

+ = , + + , + ,

## DRY AIR WATER VAPOUR FOG

Substituting , = 4.17 we determine the rise of constant

temperature lines when > :
1+
= 4.17
=
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h-x DIAGRAM OF HUMID AIR

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

With rising x until saturation curve constant temperature lines are slightly
steeper than horizontal; reaching the saturation curve, the rise falls
Curve connecting breaking points is called saturation curve (=1 or 100%)
Position of the saturation curve depends on the ptotal
If ptotal xs saturation curve 15
h-x DIAGRAM OF HUMID AIR

## Relative humidity () is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour

(pwv) in a given moist air sample to the partial pressure of water vapour in an
air sample saturated at the same temperature and pressure (ps(T))

= %
()
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RELATIVE HUMIDITY () IN DAILY LIFE
Everyday devices Breath becomes visible

Source: www.amazon.com
Weather forecast

Source: www.memo.hu

Source: www.saratoga.com 17
RELATIVE HUMIDITY () IN DAILY LIFE

## Finnish sauna: tin = 90-95C; = 10%

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THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ()
Medicine
Source: www.fabian-plasztika.hu

Source: www.erdekedvilag.hu
Operation theatres Rehabilitation treatment
Relative humidity () must be kept Lake cave in Tapolca
on an exact value Used for curing respiratory diseases
If too low, wounds would dry out t = 20C; = ~100%
If too high, patient and personnel High Ca content
would sweat 19
THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ()

Source: www.provitamin.hu
Source: enfo.agt.bme.hu
Drying technologies
Extremely complex air conditioning needed
Relative humidity () defines the intensity drying process
If drying too intensive, product gets crusty
If drying too weak, product gets mouldy
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THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ()

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

Source: en.wikipedia.org

## Flight altitude: up to 12,000 m

toutside = -50C
Source: www.boeing.com

## Thin outside air gets pressurised

(gets very hot) and cooled
Mixing with cabin air (50-50%)
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What happens when humid air contacts a large surface of water adiabatically?

## xair ; tair ; air h1 = h 2

twater because of evaporation t1 > t2 and 1 < 2
If = twater = tair = twb wet bulb temperature
=
Outgoing air is saturated (=100%) 22

Source: www.weldingcode.com
Source: Bihari:Termodinamika
Dry bulb temperature is the temperature of the air-water vapour mixture
measured in the normal way with a thermometer.
tdb [C]

## Wet bulb temperature is the temperature shown by a thermometer with a

wetted bulb exposed to a current of air to cause evaporation of its moisture.
twb [C]
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HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT DEVICES

Source: webaruhaz.abako.hu
The elastic modulus of certain organic (hair or sheep
Source: www.bgrg.hu

## gut) materials can depend on their humidity content.

Stressed with constant force their length can change
depending on the humidity of the surrounding air. 24
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing two different qualities of humid air

Accounting equations
1 1 + 2 2
1 1 + 2 2 = =
1 + 2
1 1 + 2 2 =
1 1 + 2 2
1 + 2 = =
1 + 2 25
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing two different qualities of humid air

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

Mixing two different qualities of humid air the condition of the mixture is to be
found on the line connecting the two initial conditions. The position is to be
defined by the law of the lever. 26
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

Source: www.clh.hu

If water is added to air without any heat supply, the air condition changes
adiabatically along a constant enthalpy line.
2=95% (complete saturation cannot be reached)
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MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water

Accounting equations
1 + = 2
1 + = 2

1 +
2 =

1 +
2 =

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Source: Bihari: Termodinamika
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

tair ; twater ; xair ; air
Water hygiene extremely important 29
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water: WATER HYGENE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
Source: www.randrwaterhygieneservices.co.uk

## Legionella bacteria present in water Legionellosis

Legionellosis is transmitted by the inhalation of aerosolised water
contaminated with the bacteria.
Prevention: THERMAL DESINFECTATION 30
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with steam

= = 0 + ,

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

1 +
Accounting equations 2 =

1 + = 2
1 + = 2 1 +
2 =
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COOLING AND HUMIDITY LOAD IN CLOSED SPACES
People
Lighting
Machinery

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

Hot surfaces
Surfaces of water
(summer)
Heat loss (winter)

People
Surfaces of water
=
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HEATING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM

## When heating moist air

Specific moisture (x) remains
constant
Relative humidity ()
Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

decreases

## Design parameter of outdoor air in Hungary (winter)

=
= % 33
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING
Design parameter of outdoor air in Hungary (summer)
=
= %

## Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

Fall of temperature: x=const.
Dew-point (tdew) is the temperature at which an air-water vapour mixture
will become saturated and begin to yield drops of condensed water.
Cooling humid air from t1 to t2 results in x amount of condensate. 34
AVOIDING CONDENSATION

## Insulating heating pipelines Insulating cooling pipelines

Foil-laminated mineral rock wool A built in vapour barrier prevents
insulation condensation
Air among fasers For cold water services, chilled water
lines, air conditioning ductwork and
Economical solution refrigerated pipework

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DRYING AGENT SILICA GEL

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/silica_gel
Source: www.desiccantpacks.net

## Granular, porous form of silicon dioxide made synthetically from sodium

silicate. High surface area: ~800 m2/g
It has a strong affinity for water molecules (desiccant or drying agent).
In WW1 used for the adsorption of vapours and gases in gas mask
canisters. In WW2 used for keeping penicillin dry and protecting military
equipment from moisture damage.
Humidity indicator: changes colour. 36
Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/silica_gel
AIR HANDLING UNITS (AHU)

Source: www.epitinfo.hu
Air heating
Mixing two different qualities of humid air
Air cooling
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Source: www.gopixpic.com

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FROM h-x DIAGRAM TO PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

Source: www.fao.org
THANK YOU
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