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IX Science

Study cum Support

Material MCQ, VBQ and

This study material is a supplement material to the NCERT

textbook. It is neither a guide nor a refresher.

The teachers can prepare the master card by taking the

important topics/points/concepts /reactions/terms etc from this
study material for quick revision during the exams.

The material can also be used during the crash course or

remedial sessions depending upon the topics of the chapter.

Systematic revision material of the different topics according to

their level of difficulty & importance.

The content given in the table formats can be used as worksheets

or flash cards .


FIRST TERM Marks : 90
I. Food 13
Ch. 15 - Improvement in food resources
II. Matter - Its nature and behaviour 29
Ch.1- Matter in our surroundings
Ch.2- Is matter around us pure
III. Organisation in living world 18
Ch.5 - Fundamental unit of life
Ch.6 Tissues
IV. Motion, Force and Work 30
Ch.8 - Motion
Ch.9 - Force and Law of motion
Ch.10 Gravitation


I. Matter - Its nature and behavior 17
Ch.3 - Atom & Molecules
Ch.4 - Structure of atom
II. Organisation in the living world 25
Ch.7 - Diversity in living organisms
Ch.13 Why do we fall ill ?
III. Motion, Force and Work 36
Ch.10 - Gravitation (Floatation)
Ch.11- Work
Ch.12 Sound
IV Our Environment 12
Ch.14 - Natural Resources











CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings


KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]

1. Particle nature of Matter ***

2. States of Matter ****
3. Interchange in states of Matter *****
4. Evaporation & Boiling ****
5. Kelvin , Celsius scale ***

Pre requisites
Definition of matter.
Elementary idea of three physical states of matter .


Conceptual levels of comprehension on the basis of feedback taken from the students

1. Particle Nature of Matter

[ refer NCERT text book activities 1.1 to 1.8 ]

Anything that occupies space and has mass and is felt by senses is called matter.
Matter is the form of five basic elements the Panch tatva air , earth ,fire , sky and
Characteristics of particles of matter
Made of tiny particles.
Vacant spaces exist in particles.
Particles are in continuous motion.
Particles are held together by forces of attraction.
Q.1 Define matter.
Q.2 What happens if you put copper sulphate crystals in water?

2. States of Matter

[ refer NCERT text book activities 1.9 to 1.11 ]

Basis of Classification of Types

Based upon particle arrangement
Based upon energy of particles
Based upon distance between particles
Five states of matter


Liquid Plasma

Solid Matter Einstein

(i) SOLID (ii) LIQUID (iii) GAS

Fixed shape and Not fixed shape but fixed Neither fixed shape
definite volume . volume. nor fixed volume.

Inter particle distances Inter particle distances Inter particle distances

are smallest. are larger. are largest.

Incompressible. Almost incompressible. Highly compressible.

High density and do Density is lower than Density is least and

not diffuse. solids and diffuse. diffuse.

Inter particle forces of Inter particle forces of Inter particle forces of

attraction are attraction are weaker attraction are weakest.
strongest. than solids .

Constituent particles Constituent particles are Constituent particles

are very closely less closely packed. are free to move
packed. about.

(iv) Plasma (non evaluative)

A plasma is an ionized gas.
A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by
magnetic fields.
Plasma, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite
volume. Ex. Ionized gas

(v) Bose-Einstein condensate (non evaluative)

A BEC is a state of matter that can arise at very low

The scientists who worked with the Bose-Einstein

condensate received a Nobel Prize for their work in 1995.
The BEC is all about molecules that are really close to each
other (even closer than atoms in a solid).

Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Solids
Solids have a definite shape and a Solids do not flow easily because Solids are not easily compressible
definite volume because the the particles cannot move/slide because there is little free space
particles are locked into place past one another between particles

Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Liquids

Liquids are not easily compressible
Liquids have an indefinite shape Liquids flow easily because the
and have a definite volume because
because the particles can lide particles can move/slide past
there is little free space between
past one another. one another.

Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Gases

Gases have an indefinite shape
Gases are easily compressible Gases flow very easily because
and an indefinite volume because
because there is a great deal of the particles randomly move past
the particles can move past one
free space between particles one another.

(non evaluative)

Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Plasmas

Plasmas have an indefinite shape Plasmas are good conductors of
Plasmas are easily compressible
and an indefinite volume because electricity &are affected by
because there is a great deal of
the particles can move past one magnetic fields because they are
free space between particles.
another. composed of ions

Microscopic Explanation for Properties of BEC

Particles are less energetic than Particles are literally BEC shows superfluidity because
solids because Exist at very low indistinguishable because they Particles can flow without
temperature . are locked into same space . friction.

Q.1 A substance has a definite volume but no definite shape ? State whether this
substance is a solid , a liquid or a gas.
Q.2 Arrange the following substances in increasing order of force of attraction between the
particles. (a) Milk (b) Salt (c) Oxygen.
Q.3 A substance has neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume . State whether it is a solid ,
a liquid or a gas.
Q.4 The melting point of a substance is below the room temperature . Predict its physical

3.Interchange in states of matter
[ refer NCERT text book activities 1.12 to 1.14 ]
Matter Can Change its State
Water can exist in three states of matter
Solid, as ice ,
Liquid, as the familiar water, and
Gas, as water vapour.
Sublimation : The changing of solid directly into vapours on heating & vapours into solid on
cooling. Ex. Ammonium chloride , camphor & iodine.
a) Effect of change in temperature
The temperature effect on heating a solid varies depending on the nature of the solid
& the conditions required in bringing the change .
On increasing the temperature of solids, the kinetic energy of the particles increases
which overcomes the forces of attraction between the particles thereby solid melts
and is converted to a liquid.
The temperature at which a solid melts to become a liquid at the atmospheric
pressure is called its melting point.
The melting point of ice is 273.16 K.
The process of melting, that is, change of solid state into liquid state is also known as
b) Effect of Change of Pressure
Increasing or decreasing the pressure can change the state of matter. Applying
pressure and reducing temperature can liquefy gases.

Solid carbon dioxide (CO2) is stored under high pressure. Solid CO2 gets converted
directly to gaseous state on decrease of pressure to 1 atmosphere without coming
into liquid state. This is the reason that solid carbon dioxide is also known as dry ice.
Latent Heat :
The hidden heat which breaks the force of attraction between the molecules during
change of state.

Fusion Vaporisation
Heat energy required to change Heat energy required to change 1kg of
1kg of solid into liquid. liquid to gas at atmospheric pressure at
its boiling point.

Thus, we can say that pressure and temperature determine the state of a substance ,
whether it will be solid, liquid or gas.
[ refer fig. 1.9 NCERT Text Book , page-8 ]
Q.1 What is vapour ?
Q.2 Name the temperature at which the solid and liquid states of substance can exist
together .
Q.3 What is the effect of pressure on boiling point?
Q.4 Name any two substances which sublime.
Q.5 Define Condensation.
Q.6 For any substance, why does the temperature remain constant during the
change of state?

4. Evaporation & Boiling

Particles of matter are always moving and are never at rest.

At a given temperature in any gas, liquid or solid, there are particles with different
amounts of kinetic energy.
In the case of liquids, a small fraction of particles at the surface, having higher
kinetic energy, is able to break away from the forces of attraction of other
particles and gets converted into vapour .
This phenomenon of change of a liquid into vapours at any temperature below its
boiling point is called evaporation.
Factors Affecting Evaporation
The rate of evaporation increases with an increase of surface area.
With the increase of temperature, more number of particles get enough kinetic energy
to go into the vapour state.
Humidity is the amount of water vapour present in air. The air around us cannot hold
more than a definite amount of water vapour at a given temperature. If the amount
of water in air is already high, the rate of evaporation decreases.
Wind speed : the higher the wind speed , the more evaporation.

Evaporation cause cooling.
The particles of liquid absorb energy from the surrounding to regain the energy lost
during evaporation,

Evaporation Vs Boiling
Boiling is a bulk phenomenon. Particles from the bulk (whole) of the liquid change
into vapour state.
Evaporation is a surface phenomenon. Particles from the surface gain enough
energy to overcome the forces of attraction present in the liquid and change into the
vapour state.

Q.1 Which is the slow process , Evaporation or Boiling ?

Q.2 State the effect of surface area on rate of evaporation.
Q.3 Why are we able to sip hot tea faster from saucer rather than from a cup?

5. Kelvin & Celsius Scale

Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature, 00 C =273.16 K. we take 00 C = 273 K.

SI unit of temperature is Kelvin. T (K)= T (oC) +273
Kelvin scale of temperature has always positive sign , hence regarded as better scale
than Celsius.
Atmosphere (atm) is a unit of measuring pressure exerted by a gas. The SI unit of
pressure is Pascal (Pa):
1 atmosphere = 1.01 (10 to the power 5) Pa. The pressure of air in atmosphere is called
atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1 atmosphere, and is
taken as the normal atmospheric pressure.

Q.1 What is the SI unit of temperature?

Q.2 Kelvin scale of temperature is regarded as better scale than Celsius. Why?
Q.3 Convert 10oC into Kelvin scale.


1 Mark Questions:
1. Pressure on the surface of a gas is increased. What will happen to the inter particle
2. Name the three states of matter.
3. What happens when a liquid is heated ?

4. A gas can exert pressure on the walls of the container. Assign reason.
5. Convert the following temperature to Kelvin Scale (a) 100C (b) 37C
6. What is meant by density?
7. Give the characteristics of the particles of matter.
8. Water droplets seen on the outer surface of a glass containing ice-cold water is due
to _____________ .
9. Change of gaseous state directly to solid state without going through liquid sate is
called _____________________ .
10. __________________ is a surface phenomenon.

2 Marks Questions:
1. Define Latent heat of vaporisation.
2. Explain why temperature remain constant during the change of state of any
3. Define Sublimation with examples.
4. *Do we sweat more on a dry day or humid day ? Justify your reason.
5. Why do we see water droplets on the outer surface of a glass containing ice cold
6. Convert the following temperature to the Kelvin scale (a) 25C (b) 373C
7. List two properties that liquids have in common with solids.
8. List two properties that liquids have in common with gases.
9. *What will happen to the melting point temperature of ice if some common salt is
added to it? Justify your answer.
10. *How will you show that air has maximum compressibility?

3 Marks Questions:
1. Define the term (a) Latent heat of fusion (b) Latent heat of vaporization
2. *State the effect of (i) surface area (ii) nature of the liquid on the rate of evaporation.
3. *Liquids generally have lower density as compared to solids. But you must have
observed that ice floats on water. Why?
4. What is the physical state of water at 250C, 100C, 0C?
5. Give reasons :
i) A sponge can be pressed easily; still it is called a solid.
ii) Water vapours have more energy than water at same temperature.
6 . What are intermolecular forces ? How are these related to the three states of matter ?
7. Is it possible to liquify atmospheric gases? If yes, suggest a method.

5 marks Questions:
1. a) What is meant by evaporation? What are the factors on which the rate of
evaporation depend upon?
b) How does evaporation causes cooling?
2. State the properties of all the five states of matter.
3. Define : Melting point , Freezing point & Boiling point

You are expected to know

Particle nature of matter.

All five states of matter & their behaviour
Inter conversion of states of matter
Latent heat
Conversion between Kelvin scale & Celsius scale


CHAPTER 2 Is Matter Around Us Pure


KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept ]

1. Pure Substance & Mixture ***

2. Types of Mixtures ****
3. Methods of Separation of Mixtures ******
4. Concentration & Types of Solutions *****
5. Physical & Chemical Changes ***
6. Alloys **

Pre requisites

Basic knowledge of particle nature of matter

Different states of matter

Conceptual levels of comprehension on the basis of feedback taken from the students

40% Very Difficult

1. Pure Substance & mixture


Pure substance consists of a single Mixture consists of two or

type of substance . more pure substances.

Pure substance cannot be Mixture can be separated into

separated into other substances by its components by physical
physical methods. methods.
Pure substance has its own Mixture shows the
definite properties. properties of its components.

Elements are made up of one kind of atoms only. Compounds are made up of one kind of
molecules only.

Difference between Compound &Mixture

[ refer NCERT text Book Tab.2.2, page 26]

Q.1 Is air around us a compound or mixture?

Q.2 Water is a compound. Justify.
Q.3 Classify the following as element , compound and mixture: Iron , sea water , Milk
Q.4 Are the naturally occurring material in nature chemically pure substances?

2. Types of Mixtures
Mixtures can also be grouped
i) on the basis of their physical states:


SOLID Salt and sugar Salt and water Dust in air

LIQUID Mercury and copper Alcohol and water Clouds

GAS Hydrogen and palladium Oxygen and water Air

ii) on the basis of miscibility:

Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture

It consists of single phase. It consists of two or more phase.

Uniform composition. Does not have uniform composition.
Example: Sugar dissolved in water Example: Air, sand and common salt.

Q.1 Give one example for each of the following mixtures: i) Solid/solid (homogeneous)
ii) Solid/solid (heterogeneous) iii) Liquid/liquid (homogeneous) iv) Liquid/liquid
(heterogeneous) v) Gas/liquid (homogeneous)..
Q.2 Classify the following as homogeneous & heterogeneous mixture:
i) sodium chloride & water ii) glucose & water iii) sand & water iv) air

4. Separating the components of a mixture

The components of a heterogeneous mixture can be separated by

simple methods like -
hand picking , sieving , & Winnowing
special techniques like -
i) Evaporation : a mixture of salt and water or sugar and water.
ii) Centrifugation : Butter from curd, Fine mud particles suspended in water.
iii) Decantation (Using separating funnel) : Oil from water.
iv) Sublimation : Camphor from salt,
v) Chromatography : Different pigments from an extract of flower petals.
vi) Distillation and fractional distillation : Separating components of Petroleum
viii) Magnetic separation: Iron pins from sand.

Q.1 Name the process you would use to :
i) recover sugar from an aqueous sugar solution.
ii) separate mixture of salt solution and sand.
Q.2 How will you separate a mixture of sand , water and mustard oil ?

5. Concentration of Solution

The amount of solute present in a given amount (mass or volume) of solution.

Amount of solute Amount of solute
Concentration of a solution = _________________ OR ____________________
Amount of solvent Amount of solution

The concentration of a solution can be expressed as mass by mass percentage or as mass by

volume percentage.
Mass of solute
Mass by mass percentage of a solution = ------------------ x 100
Mass of solution
Mass of solute
Mass by volume percentage of a solution = ------------------ x 100
Volume of solution

Types of Solutions

a) on the basis of size of solute particles:

True solution Sol [ Colloid] Suspension

Homogeneous Heterogeneous Heterogeneous

Size of solute Size of solute particles Size of solute particles
particles is less than is between 1 nm to is more than 1000 nm.
1 n m or 10-9 m . 1000 nm.

Particles cannot pass Particles can pass Particles cannot pass

through filter paper. through filter paper. thorough filter paper.

Stable Stable and settle only Unstable and settle

on centrifugation. down on its own.

Solution of sodium Milk , Fog muddy water, chalk &

chloride in water,
smoke in the air.
sugar & water.

[ types of colloids : refer NCERT Text Book table 2.1 , page 18 ]

Colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture. It consists of two phases:-

(i) Dispersed phase : component present in small proportion
(ii) Dispersion medium : component present in large proportion
The particles of colloid are large enough to scatter a beam of light passing through it and
make its path visible. Thus, they show Tyndall effect.
The colloidal particles are moving at random in a zigzag motion in all directions.
This type of zig-zag motion of colloidal particles is called Brownian movement.

b) on the basis of amount of solute:

Unsaturated solution Saturated Solution Supersaturated solution
A solution which has lesser A solution which has A solution which can dissolve
amount of solute that it can maximum amount of solute amount of solute by increasing
dissolve at a given temperature that it can dissolve at a given temperature saturated solution
is known as unsaturated temperature is known as is known as supersaturated
solution. saturated solution. solution.

c) on the basis of nature of solvent

Aqueous solution Non-Aqueous solution
The solution in which the solvent is water is The solution in which the solvent is other
known as aqueous solution. than water (ether, alcohol or aceton) known
as non-aqueous solution.

Q.1 Classify the following substances into true solutions and colloidal solutions.
Milk , ink , starch dissolved in water.
Q.2 A solution has been prepared by dissolving 5g of urea in 95 g of water. What is the mass
percent of urea in the solution?
Q.3 Give an example of an aqueous solution in which gas is dissolved.

6.Physical & Chemical Changes

Physical changes - Changes that do not result in the production of a new substance.
If you melt a block of ice, you still have H2O at the end of the change.
If you break a bottle, you still have glass.
Examples : melting, freezing, condensing, breaking, crushing, cutting, and bending.

Chemical changes - Changes that result in the production of another substance.

As in the case of autumn leaves, a change in color is a clue to indicate a chemical
a half eaten apple that turns brown.

Q.1 Which of the following is an example of physical change?

a. Mixing baking soda and vinegar together, and this causes bubbles and foam.
b. A glass cup falls from the counter and shatters on the ground.
c. Lighting a piece of paper on fire and the paper burns up and leaves ashes.
d. Baking a birthday cake for your mother.
Q.2. Which of the following is an example of chemical change?
a. Filling up a balloon with hot air.
b. Taking a glass of water and freezing it by placing it in the freezer.
c. A plant collecting sunlight and turning it into food.
d. Your dog ripping up your homework.
3. Which change can be easily be reversed?
a. Chemical Change
b. Physical Change
c. Both a physical and chemical change
d. Neither a physical or chemical change


A material that has metallic properties and is composed of two or more chemical
elements of which at least one is a metal .
These cannot be separated into their components by physical methods.
However, these are considered as mixture because these show the properties of its
constituents and can have variable composition.
The benefit of alloys is that you can combine metals that have varying characteristics to
create an end product that is stronger, more flexible, or otherwise desirable to

Aluminium alloys are extensively used in the production of automotive engine

Copper alloys have excellent electrical and thermal performance, good corrosion
resistance, high ductility and relatively low cost.

Stainless steel alloys are used for many commercial applications such as watch
straps, cutlery etc.
Titanium alloys have high strength, toughness and stiffness & are used in
aerospace structures .

Q,1 Why should we use alloys instead of pure metals?

Q.2 State uses of Aluminium & Stainless steel alloys.


1 Mark Questions:
1. What is meant by pure substance?
2. What is meant by mass percentage of solution?
3. Name the process of separation of miscible liquids.
4. Arrange the following in decreasing order of size of the particles.
True Solution , Suspension , Colloid.
5. *Give an example of an aqueous solution in which gas is dissolved.
6. Name the dispersion medium and dispersed phase in the white material inside an egg.
7. What happens when hot saturated solution is cooled?
8. How would you separate a mixture of chalk and water?
9. *How much water should be added to 15 grams of salt to obtain 15 % salt solution?
10. What type of mixtures are separated by technique of crystallization ?

2 Marks Questions:
1. Which of the following materials fall in the category of a pure substance?
a) Ice b) Milk c) Iron d) Hydrochloric acid
e) Calcium oxide f) Mercury g) Brick h) Wood.
2. What do you understand by saturated solution and unsaturated solution?
3. *What do you observe when sunlight passes through a dense forest?
4. List two points of differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
5. State the difference between aqueous & non aqueous solution .
6. Which of the following will show Tyndal Effect & Why ?
a) Salt Solution b) Milk c) Copper Sulphate Solution d) Starch Solution

7. *How can we obtain pure copper sulphate from an impure sample?
8. Give two differences between compounds and mixtures.
9. Why is hydrogen considered as element ? Give two reasons.
10. Why water is a compound and not a mixture?

3 Marks Questions:
1. Classify the following into elements, compounds and mixtures:
a) Sodium b) Soil c) Sugar solution d) Silver e) Calcium carbonate f) Tin
g) Silicon h) Coal i) Air j) Soap k) Methane l) Carbon dioxide m) Blood.
2. Give any two applications of centrifugation.
3. Which of the following is chemical change?
a) Growth of a plant b) Rusting of iron c) Mixing of iron fillings and sand
d) Cooking of food e) Digestion of food f) Freezing of water g) Burning of a candle.
4. *State the difference between simple distillation & fractional distillation.
5. * A solution contains 40 ml of ethanol mixed with 100 ml of water. Calculate the
concentration in terms of volume by volume percentage of the solution.

5 Marks Questions:
1. *What is meant by Tyndall effect? What is its cause? Illustrate with example.
2. How would you separate the mixture containing sulphur and sand ?
3. What is crystallization? Give its two applications.
4. How are sol, solution and suspension different from each other?
5. How do we obtain coloured components, i.e. dye from Blue/Black ink ?

You are expected to know

Types of mixtures.
Method of Separation of mixtures.
Types of solutions.
Concentration terms of solution.
Physical and Chemical Change.
Significance of alloys.
CHAPTER - 3 Atoms and Molecules

KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]

1. Laws of Chemical Combination ***

2. John Daltons Atomic Theory **
3. Atoms, ions & Chemical Formula ****
4. Mole Concept *****
5. Molar Mass & Avogadro constant ****

Pre requisites
Basic knowledge all states of matter.
Difference in the different states of matter .


Conceptual levels of comprehension on the basis of feedback taken from the students

20% Very Difficult
0% Difficult

1.Laws of Chemical Combination

Law of Conservation of mass: Law of definite proportion:

proposed by the French chemist proposed by Louis Proust
Antoine Lavoisier (1774) (1799)

Mass can neither be 'A chemical compound

created nor destroyed in a always consists of the
chemical reaction. same elements combined
OR together in the same ratio,
For any chemical process in
a closed system, the mass irrespective of the method
of the reactants must be of preparation or the
equal the mass of the source from where it is
products. taken'.

C + O2 = CO2 One molecule of a compound

water always contains same ratio
12g +32g = 44g of Hydrogen and Oxygen by mass
H2O = 2 : 16 = 1 : 8

Verification of Law of Conservation of mass

A solution of sodium chloride and silver nitrate are taken separately in the two limbs
of an 'H' shaped tube. The tube is sealed and weighed precisely. The two reactants
are made to react by inverting the tube. The following reaction takes place.
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)
The whole tube is kept undisturbed for sometime so that the reaction is complete.
When the tube is weighed again it is observed that:
Weight before the reaction = Weight after the reaction
Limitation of Law of definite proportion
This law does not hold good when the compound is obtained by using different
isotopes of the combining elements .

Q.1 Why chemical reactions are in accordance with the Law of conservation of mass?
Q.2 Calculate the ratio of atoms present in 5 g of magnesium and 5 g of iron.
[Atomic mass of Mg=24 u, Fe=56 u]

2. John Daltons Atomic Theory

[ for postulates ,refer NCERT text book article 3.1.2 -page no.32 ]
Using his theory, Dalton rationalized the various laws of chemical combination which were in
existence at that time. However, he assumed that the simplest compound of two elements
must be binary.
Q.1 In what respect does Daltons Atomic theory hold good even today?
Q.2 Which of the following is not the postulate of Daltons Atomic theory of matter ?
a) Each element is made up of extremely small particles called atoms.
b) Atoms of a given element are identical in chemical properties but have different
physical properties.
c) Atoms cannot be created nor destroyed.
d) Compounds are formed by the chemical union of atoms of two or more elements in
fixed proportion .

3. Atoms ,Molecules, Ions & Chemical Formula

Atom Molecule
An atom is the smallest particle of
The smallest particle of matter
an element which can take part in a
(element or compound) which can
chemical reaction. It may or may
exist in a free state.
not exist freely.

Each atom of an element shows all The properties of a substance are

the properties of the element. the properties of its molecules.

MOLECULES OF ELEMENT : The molecules of an element are constituted by the same

type of atoms.
MOLECULES OF COMPOUND: Atoms of different elements join together in definite
proportions to form molecules of compounds.(hetero atomic molecules)

ATOMICITY : The number of atoms contained in a molecule of a substance (element or

compound) is called its atomicity.

Element Formula Atomicity

Ozone O3 3
Phosphorus P4 4
Sulphur S8 8
Oxygen O2 2
Based upon atomicity molecules can be classified as follows.
Monoatomic molecules: Noble gases helium, neon and argon exist as He Ne and Ar
Diatomic molecules: H2 , O2, N2,Cl2, CO , HCl .
Triatomic molecules: O3 ,CO2 , NO2.
The abbreviation used to represent an element is generally the first letter in
capital of the English name of element.
Oxygen O Nitrogen N
When the names of two or more elements begin with the same initial letter,
the initial letter followed by the letter appearing later in the name is used to
symbolize the element
Barium Ba Bismuth Bi
Symbols of some elements are derived from their Latin names


Sodium Natrium Na
Copper Cuprum Cu
Potassium Kalium K
Iron Ferrum Fe
Mercury Hydragyrum Hg
Tungsten Wolfram W

Q.1 Give one example each of molecule of element & molecule of compound.
Q.2 How does an atom differ from molecule ?
Q.3 Name a triatomic gas.
Q.4 Name the element represented by Hg , Pb, Au.
Q.5 What is the difference between an atom of hydrogen and a molecule of hydrogen?

Cation Anion
ION + Formed by __ Formed by
An ion is a charged particle
formed by loss or gain loss or loss of gain of
gain of electrons. electron electron

Polyatomic Ion : A group of atoms carrying a charge is as polyatomic ion.

eg: NH4+ - Ammonium Ion ; CO32- - Carbonate ion

Valency : The number of electrons which an atom can lose , gain or share to form a bond.
It is the combining capacity of an atom of the element.
[ for valency of various cations & anions ,refer NCERT text book table 3.6 , page no. 37 ]

Chemical Formula: A chemical formula is a short method of representing chemical

elements and compounds.

Writing a Chemical Formula -CRISS-CROSS rule

RULE 1 [a] write the correct symbols of two elements.
Ex : Aluminium & Oxygen Al O

[ b] above each symbol, write the correct valence

Al3+ O2-

[c] Criss-cross the valence and drop the algebraic sign.


RULE 2 > When the subscript is number 1, subscript is not written.

Ex. Sodium Chloride - Na1+ Cl1- --- NaCl

RULE 3> When the valence of both elements are numerically equal , the subscripts are
also not written.
Ex. Calcium Oxide- - Ca2+ O2- --- CaO

RULE 4 > When there are multiple numbers of an individual polyatomic ion ,
parentheses must be used to separate the polyatomic ion from the subscirpt.
Ex. Ammonium Sulphate- - NH41+ SO42 -....... (NH4)2 SO4

RULE 5 > All subscripts must be reduced to lowest term (except for molecular or
covalent copound).
Ex. Tin (IV) Chloride ~ Sn4+O2- ------ SnO2



Al 3+ SO42 Al2(SO4)3 Aluminium sulphate
Ca HCO3 Ca(HCO3)2 Calcium bicarbonate
NH4 + Cl NH4Cl Ammonium chloride
Na + CO32 Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate
Mg2+ OH Mg(OH)2 Magnesium hydroxide
Na+ PO43 Na3PO4 Sodium phosphate

Q.1 What is the difference between an anion & cation ?

Q.2 Write down chemical formula of
i) Hydrogen peroxide ii) Tin chloride
iii) Barium sulphate iv) Silver chloride
Q.3 Write chemical names of
i) Ni(NO3)2 ii) CdCO3 iii) NaOH iv) NH4NO2

4. Mole Concept

The mole (mol) is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities as
there are atoms in exactly 12.00 grams of 12C

The Avogadro constant is named after the early nineteenth century Italian scientist
Amedeo Avogadro.

I MOLE 6.O22 x 10 23 particles

Substance > Element Compound

Particles > Atom Molecule


I MOLE > 23 u / 23g / 6.O22 x 10 23 atoms of sodium


I MOLE > 18 u / 18 g / 6.O22 x 10 23 molecules of water

S.No. Symbol / Atomic / 1mole Avogadro no. Molar mass

formula of atom molecular mass ( in g) ( g mol -1)
/ molecule ( u)
1. O 16 u 16 g 6.022 x 1023 atoms 16 g mol -1
2. N2 28 u 28 g 6.022 x 1023 molecules 28 g mol -1
3. HCl 36.5 u 36.5 g 6.022 x 1023 molecules 36.5 g mol -1


Gram molecular mass is the mass in grams of one mole of a molecular substance.
Ex: The molecular mass of N2 is 28, so the gram molecular mass of N2 is 28 g.


An atomic mass unit or amu is one twelfth of the mass of an unbound atom of carbon-12. It
is a unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses.
Also Known As: Unified Atomic Mass Unit (u).

MOLECULAR MASS : A number equal to the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a
molecule. The molecular mass gives the mass of a molecule relative to that of the 12C atom,
which is taken to have a mass of 12.

Examples: The molecular mass of C2H6 is approximately 30 or [(2 x 12) + (6 x 1)] . Therefore
the molecule is about 2.5 times as heavy as the 12C atom or about the same mass as the NO
atom with a molecular mass of 30 or (14+16) .

Q.1 What term is used to represent the mass of 1 mole molecules of a substance?
Q.2 What is the gram atomic mass of i) Hydrogen ii) oxygen ?
Q.3 Calculate molar mass of C2H2 .

5.Molar Mass & Avogadro Constant

Ex: i) Convert 35 g of Al into mol.

A: Molar mass of Al= 27 g
27 g = 1mol
= 35 g x -------
Molarmass / 1mol 27 g
= 1.3 mol of Al

1mol / Molar mass ii) How many grams of SiO2 are

present in 0.8 mol ?

A: Molar mass of SiO2 = 60.1 g

1 mol = 60.1 g
60.1g of SiO2
MOLE = 0.8 mol of SiO2 x ----------
1mol of SiO2

= 48.1 g SiO2

MOLE Ex . How many mol of CO2 are
present in 55.5 L ?

A: 22.4 L = 1mol
1mol / 22.4 L
= 55.5 L x -----
22.4 L / 1mol 22.4 L
= 2.48 mol of CO2.


MOLE Ex Calculate number of molecules

in 200 g of N2O.
Molar mass of N2O = 44 g

i ) to find number of moles:-

1mol / 6.02 X 10 23 44 g = 1 mol
6.02 X 10 23 particles /
= 200 g x -------
44.0 g
= 4.55 mol of N2O

ii) to find number of molecules

Number of 1 mol =6.02 x 1023 molecules
representative paticles
6.02 x 1023 molecules N2O
= ----------------------
1/ 4.55

= 2.74 x 1024 molecules N2O

Ex. Calculate the number of aluminium ions present in 0.051 g of aluminium oxide.

Ans : Molar mass of Al2O3 = 102 g

Al2O3 2 Al3+ + 3 O2-

102 g of Al2O3 contains = 2 x 6.02 x 1023 Al3+ ions

2 x 6.02 x 1023 Al3+ ions

0.051 g of Al2O3 contains = ----------------- x 0.051
= 2 x 6.02 x 1020 Al3+ ions

Q.1 Calculate the mass of one atom of sodium?

Q.2 The atomic mass of calcium is 40 u. What will be the number of calcium
atoms in 0.4 u of calcium?
Q.3 How many atoms of oxygen are present in 120 g of nitric acid ?


1 Mark Questions:

1. Who gave law of conservation of mass ?

2. What term is used to represent the mass of 1 mole molecules of a substance?

3. What name is given to the number 6.023 x 10 23 ?

4. What is molecular mass?

5. Give Latin names for sodium & mercury.

6. *How many atoms are there in exactly 12 g of carbon ?

7. Define mole.

8. Calculate formula unit mass of CaCl2. [ At. Mass : Ca = 40 u , Cl = 35.5 u ]

9. Name a diatomic gas.

10. How many atoms are present in H2SO4.

2 Marks Questions:
1. Give the chemical symbols for the following elements: Gold, Copper , Potassium & Iron.
2. *What do the following symbols represent - i) 1 H & i) H2

3. Neon gas consists if single atoms , what mass of neon contain 6.022 x 10 23 atoms.
4. What elements do the following compounds contain ?
i) Water ii) Lead nitrate
5. State the differences between an atom or a molecule.
6. Molar Mass of water is 18 g mol-1 , what is the mass of 1 mole of water? .
7. *The number of atoms in 1 mole of hydrogen is twice the number of atoms in one mole
of helium. Why?
8. Write the chemical formulas for the following:
i) Silver oxide ii) Iron (III) sulphate
9. Calculate molar mass of H2O2 & HNO3.
10. What is the mass of 0.2 moles of oxygen molecules?

3 Marks Questions:
1. State the main postulates of John Daltons atomic theory.
2. What are polyatomic ions ? Give two examples.
3. State the following
i) Law of conservation of mass. ii) Law of constant proportion
4. What is the mass of :
i) 1 mol of N atoms. ii) 4 mol of Al atoms.
5. What is meant by the term atomicity ? State the atomicity of i) Phosphorous
ii) Sulphur

5 Marks Questions:
1. i) What is molecular formula ? State with example what information can be derived from a
molecular formula .
ii) Write the names of the compounds represented by the following formulas:
a) Mg(NO3)2 b) K2SO4 c )Ca3N2

2.* i) What is gram molecular mass?
ii) Write the formulas & names of the compounds formed between :
a) Ferrous and sulphide ions b) Aluminium and sulphate ions
c) Potassium and chlorate ions d) Barium and chloride ions
3. i) Calculate the number of moles for the following:
a) 52 g of He b) 17 g of H2O
ii) How many molecules are present in 34 g of ammonia ?
iii) Calculate the mass of 0.5 mole of sugar (C12H22O11).

You are expected to know

Laws of Chemical combination.

John Daltons imagination about atom & the limitation of his theory.

Difference between an atom & molecule.

Types of ions

Writing chemical formula of compounds.

Relationship between Mole , Molar Mass & Avogadro Constant




KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]

1. Daltons Atomic theory **

2. J J Thomson Experiments ***
3. Rutherfords Scattering Experiments ********
4. Sub atomic particles ******
5. Atomic number & Mass number *****
6. Neil Bohrs Atomic Model ***
7. Electronic Configuration & Valency *******
8. Isotopes & Isobars ****

Pre requisites:
Difference between an atom & molecule.
Gram atomic mass & Molar mass.
Daltons Atomic theory.


Conceptual levels of comprehension on the basis of feedback taken from the students

Contribution to the Atomic theory Timeline



Greek philosopher
(400 B.C)

More than 2400 years ago, he named the smallest piece of matter ATOMOS ,
meaning not to be cut.
To Democritus,
Atoms were small, hard particles that were all made of the same material but were
different shapes and sizes.
Atoms were infinite in number, always moving and capable of joining together

1. Daltons Atomic theory:


John Dalton

He proposed the Atomic theory of

English Chemist matter based on his experimental
[proposed atomic theory in 1803] observations.

First recorded evidence that atoms existed.
Using his theory, Dalton rationalized the various laws of chemical combination

Dalton's theory was based on the premise that the atoms of different elements could be
distinguished by differences in their weights.
o The indivisibility of an atom was proved wrong , for, an atom can be further
subdivided into protons, neutrons and electrons.
o The atoms of same element are similar in all respects , but isotopes of same
element have different mass.
o Dalton's theory was based on the premise that the atoms of different
elements could be distinguished by differences in their weights.

2. J J Thomson Experiments:


Joseph John Thomson

British Physicist and Nobel laureate PLUM PUDDING MODEL

Discovered electrons in 1897.

Showed us that the atom can be split into even smaller parts.
His discovery was the first step towards a detailed model of the atom .
An atom is a uniform sphere of positive charges (due to presence of protons) as well
as negative charges (due to presence of electrons).
Atom as a whole is electrically neutral because the negative and positive charges are
equal in magnitude.

An electron is a negatively charged component of an atom which exists outside the
nucleus. Each electron carries one unit of negative charge and has a very small
mass as compared with that of a neutron or proton.

JJ Thomson used cathode ray tubes to demonstrate that the cathode ray responds to both
magnetic and electric fields.
Since the ray was attracted to a positive electric plate placed over the cathode ray tube
(beam deflected toward the positive plate) he determined that the ray must be composed of
negatively charged particles.
He called these negative particles "electrons."
Limitation: Model failed to explain how protons and electrons were arranged in atom so
close to each other.

Eugene Goldstein:


Eugene Goldstein
a German physicist

E. Goldstein in 1886 discovered the presence of new radiations in a gas discharge and
called them canal rays. These rays were positively charged radiations which ultimately
led to the discovery of another sub-atomic particle.
Used a Cathode Ray Tube to study "canal rays" which had electrical and magnetic
properties opposite of an electron
Canal Rays: The positively charged radiation produced in the discharge tube at low
pressure and high voltage are called canal rays.
The canal rays have positively charged sub-atomic, particles known as protons (p).

Q.1 What was the model of an atom proposed by Thomson?

Q.2 What is the nature of charge on electrons?
Q.3 What are canal rays ?
Q.4 State the nature of the constituents of canal rays.

3. Rutherfords Scattering Experiments:


Sir Earnest Rutherford

Nobel prize 1908

Experiment: Rutherford took a thin gold foil and made alpha particles , [ He 2+ ] positively
charged Helium fall on it.


1. Most of the a-particles passed through Most of the space inside the atom is
the gold foil without getting deflected. empty.
2. Very few particles were deflected. Positive charge of the atom occupies
very little space.
3. A very few alpha particles, 1 in 100000 Nucleus of an atom is very small as
completely rebound on hitting the gold compared to the total size.

Alpha particle

Limitation: In Rutherfords atomic model , Nucleus & electrons are held together by
electrostatic force of attraction which would lead to the fusion between them. This
does not happen in the atom.
Atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m
Nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m


James Chadwick

English Physicist & Nobel


In 1932, James Chadwick proved that the atomic nucleus contained a neutral particle
which had been proposed more than a decade earlier by Ernest Rutherford officially
discovered the neutron in 1932,
Chadwick received the Nobel Prize in 1935.

A neutron is a subatomic particle contained in the atomic nucleus. It has no net electric
charge, unlike the proton's positive electric charge.

Q.1 Who discovered the nucleus of the atom?

Q.2 What is the charge on alpha particles ?
Q.3 Which observation of Rutherfords scattering experiment established the presence
large empty space in atom?
Q.4 What is the nature of charge on nucleus of atom?
Q.5 Who discovered neutron ?

4. Sub Atomic Particles:

Name Symbol Location in the atom Charge Relative Mass Actual Mass (g)
Electron E Around the nucleus 1- 1/1840 9.11 x 10 -28
Proton P In the nucleus 1+ 1 1.67 x 10 -24
Neutron n In the nucleus 0 1 1.67 x 10 -24

Protons & Neutrons collectively are known as NUCLEONS.

Q.1 Why is the relative mass of an electron is taken as negligible ?

Q.2 Give the actual masses of electron & proton in kg?
Q.3 What are nucleons?

5.Atomic Number & Mass Number:

Atomic number of an element is defined as the number of unit positive charges on the
nucleus (nuclear charge) of the atom of that element or as the number of protons present
in the nucleus.

Atomic number, Z = Number of unit positive charge on the nucleus

= Total number of unit positive charges carried by all protons present in the nucleus.
= Number of protons in the nucleus (p)
= Number of electrons revolving in the orbits (e)
Eg :- Hydrogen Atomic number = 1 (1 proton)
Helium - Atomic number = 2 (2 protons)

Mass number[ A] : It is defined as the sum of the number of protons & neutrons present in
the nucleus of an atom.
Mass Number = Mass of protons + Mass of neutrons
Eg :- Carbon Mass number = 12 (6 protons + 6 neutrons) Mass = 12u
Aluminium Mass number = 27 (13 protons + 14 neutrons) Mass = 27u

mass number
atomic number Symbol
Q.1 The mass number of an element is 18. It contains 7 electrons .What is the number of
protons and neutrons in it ?
Q.2 An atom contains 3 protons , 3 electrons and 4 neutrons .
i) What is its atomic number ? ii) What is its mass number?
Q.3 An element is represented by 15 P . Give the number of electrons and neutrons in it.

6. Niel Bohr Atomic Model:


Danish physicist

Main Postulates of the Bohr Model [refer NCERT Text Book article 4.3 ,page number-49]

Q.1 What happens when an electron jumps from lower to higher energy level?
Q.2 Which energy shell is nearest to the nucleus of an atom?
Q.3 Which energy shell has higher energy L or N ?

7. Electronic configuration & Valency:

Bohr and Bury Scheme - Important Rules
S.No Electron Shell Maximum Capacity
where n = shell number

1 K Shell 2 x (1) 2 2 electrons

2 L Shell 2 x (2) 8 electrons
3 M shell 2 x (3) 18 electrons
4 N shell 2 x (4) 32 electrons

The outermost shell of an atom cannot accommodate more than 8 electrons, even if it
has a capacity to accommodate more electrons. This is a very important rule and is also
called the OCTET RULE. The presence of 8 electrons in the outermost shell makes the
atom very stable.
Q.1 An atoms has atomic number 13. What would be its configuration.
Q.2 What is octet rule?
Q.3 How many electrons M shell can accommodate?
Q.4 If an atom has complete K and L shell, what would be its atomic number?

8. Isotopes & Isobars:

Chemically same , physically different Chemically different , physically same
Number of electrons is same Number of electrons is different .
Cannot be separated by chemical means Can be separated by chemical means
[ for application of isotopes refer NCERT Text Book article 4.6 ,page number-53]
Q.1 Why atoms of isotopes are chemically same?
Q.2 Give the representation of three isotopes of carbon which are C-12 , C-13 and C-14.


1 Mark Questions:
1. Write the names of three elementary particles which constitute an atom.
2. Name the scientist & his experiment to prove that nucleus of an atom is positively
3. Which is heavier , neutron or proton ?
4. *How many times a proton is heavier than an electron?
5. What was the model of an atom proposed by Thomson ?
6. How many electrons at the maximum can be present in the first shell ?
7. What type of charge is present on the nucleus of an atom?

8. Give the number of protons in 35Cl17

9. *What are iso bars ?
10. Name the particles which determine the mass of an atom.
2 Marks Questions:
1. Define the following terms: a) Atomic number b) Mass number
2. Write the charges on sub atomic particles.
3. Identify the isotopes out of A , B , C & D ? A17 , 40B20 , 37C17 , 38D19
4.* Give one Achievement and one limitation of J.J Thomsons model of atom?
5. What are valence electrons? Give example.
6. *Which kind of elements have tendency to lose electron ? Give example.
7. How many electrons are present in the valence shell of nitrogen & argon?
8. State the maximum capacity of various shells to accommodate electrons.
9. Give the symbol , relative charge & mass of the three sub atomic particles.
10. From the symbol 32 S16 state :
i) Atomic number of sulphur, ii) Mass number of sulphur
iii) Electronic configuration of sulphur.
3. Marks Questions:
1. Why do Helium has Zero valency?
2. An atom contains 3 protons , 3 electrons and 4 neutrons .What is its atomic number , mass
number & valency?
3. *How are the isotopes of hydrogen represented ?
4. Write the complete symbol for the atom with the given atomic number [Z] & mass
i) Z= 17 , A = 15 ; ii) Z=4 , A = 9; iii) Z= 92 ; A=233
5. *What would be the electronic configuration of Na+ , Al3+ , O2- , Cl -.
5 Marks Questions:
1.* a) Give the observations as well as inferences of Rutherfords Scattering experiment for
determining the structure of an atom.
b) On the basis of above experiment write the main features of atomic model.
2. Write the main postulates of Bohrs Model of Atom.

You are expected to know

The scientists who discovered subatomic particles.

Rutherford established the existence of nucleus.
Difference between Atomic number and Mass number
Electronic configuration & its relation with Valency.
Difference between Isotope and Isobar.

Fundamental particles in Atom
Name of Symbol Atomic Number of Number of No. of Atomic Electronic Configuration Valency
Elements Number Electrons Protons Neutrons Mass K L M N
Hydrogen H 1 1 1 - 1 1 - - - 1+,-
Helium He 2 2 2 2 4 2 - - - 0
Lithium Li 3 3 3 4 7 2 1 - - 1+
Beryllium Be 4 4 4 5 9 2 2 - - 2+
Boron B 5 5 5 6 11 2 3 - - 3+
Carbon C 6 6 6 6 12 2 4 - - 4+
Nitrogen N 7 7 7 7 14 2 5 - - 3-
Oxygen O 8 8 8 8 16 2 6 - - 2-
Heroine F 9 9 9 10 19 2 7 - - 1-
Neon Ne 10 10 10 10 20 2 8 - - 0
Sodium Na 11 11 11 12 23 2 8 1 - 1+
Magnesium Mg 12 12 12 12 24 2 8 2 - 2+
Aluminum Al 13 13 13 14 27 2 8 3 - 3+
Silicon Si 14 14 14 14 28 2 8 4 - 4
Phosphorus P 15 15 15 16 31 2 8 5 - 3-
Sulphur S 16 16 16 16 32 2 8 6 - 2-
Chlorine Cl 17 17 17 18 35.5 2 8 7 - 1-
Argon Ar 18 18 18 22 40 2 8 8 - 0
Potassium K 19 19 19 20 39 2 8 8 1 1+
Calcium Ca 20 20 20 20 40 2 8 8 2 2+

1. To prepare
a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
c) a colloidal of starch in water and egg albumin in water and distinguish between these on
the basis of i) transparency ii) filtration criterion iii) stability

1. Name the solute in common salt solution :

a) H2O b) NH4Cl
c) NaOH d) NaCl
2 Pick out a colloid from the following :

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Sugar Salt Muddy Milk
solution solution solution

3. Which of the following is property of true solution ?

a) Homogeneous b) Heterogeneous
c) Translucent d) None of these

4.The process of separation of insoluble solids from a liquid is called :

a) Filtration b) Decantation
c) Sedimentation d) Evaporation

5. Which of the following mixtures is stable?

a) Milk in water b) Sugar in water
c) Sand in water d) Wheat flour in cold water

6. Egg albumin in water forms :
a) True solution b) Colloidal solution
c) Suspension d) None of these
7. Which of the following represents a correct set of observations for a mixture of common
salt and water?
Transparency Stability Filtration
a) Transparent Unstable No residue
b) Transparent Stable No residue
c) Translucent Stable No residue
d) Opaque Unstable Residue

2. To prepare a) a mixture b) a compound

using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguish between these on the basis of:
i. appearance i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
ii. behaviour towards a magnet
iii. behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent.
iv. effect of heat.

1.The colour of sulphur is :
a) White b) Colourless
c) Green d) Yellow

2. FeS is not attracted by magnet because :

a) It has lost properties of its components. b) It is not made up of iron.
c) It is a mixture d) It is black in colour.

3. Sulphur is soluble in :
a) Water b) Carbon disulphide
c) Both (a) and (b) d) Neither (a) not (b)

4. In FeS , the particles of iron and sulphur are :
a) Visible b) Not visible
c) Visible under microscope d) None of these

5. Iron reacts with sulphur to form FeS at :

a) High temperature b) Low temperature
c) Moderate temperature d) Below 0oC

6. When a mixture of iron fillings and sulphur is heated , the colour of the mixture changes
from :
a) Black to yellow b) Yellow to black
c) Greyish yellow to black d) Black to brown

7. Which of the following has lowest melting point :

a) Iron b) Sulphur
c) Iron sulphide d) Carbon

3. To carry out the following reactions and classify them as physical or chemical changes.
a. Iron with copper sulphate solution in water.
b. Burning of magnesium in air.
c. Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
d. Heating of copper sulphate
e. Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water.

1. The colour of hydrated copper sulphate is :

a) Blue b) Colourless
c) Brown d) Yellow
2. What happens when Zn granules react with dilute sulphuric acid :
a) Bubbles due to colourless , odourless gas are formed and colourless solution is
obtained .
b) No reaction takes place. c) Pungent smelling gas comes out.
d) No gas evolved.

3. Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu is an example of :
a) Displacement reaction b) Decomposition reaction
c) Redox reaction d) Double decomposition

4. What happens when iron nails are added to copper sulphate solution :
a) The solution becomes pale green and reddish brown copper metal gets deposited.
b) The solution becomes colourless
c) There is no reaction d) Copper displaces iron

5. BaSO4 is :
a) White ppt b) Colourless
c) Blue solution d) Blue ppt.

6. Magnesium oxide , when placed on moist red litmus paper :

a) It remains red b) It turns blue
c) It becomes white d) It becomes black

7. What is the nature of SO2 :

a) Acidic b) Basic
c) Neutral d) All of these

4. To separate the components of a mixture of sand , common salt and ammonium

chloride (or camphor) by sublimation.

1. Sublimation is the process in which :

a) Liquid changes into gaseous state
b) Solid changes into liquid state
c) Solid directly changes into gaseous form
d) Solid first converts into liquid , then into vapour form.

2. Which of the following substances sublimes on heating :
a) Iodine b) Camphor
c) Naphthalene d) All of these

3. In a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium chloride , the substance that sublimes
a) Ammonium chloride b) Sand
c) Common salt d) All of these

4. Recovery of salt from salt solution in water can be done by :

a) Evaporation b) Distillation
c) Filtration d) None of these

5. What do you observe in the inner side of the funnel during sublimation of NH 4Cl
a) Particles of white solid b) Yellow fumes
b) Vapours of sodium chloride d) No fumes are deposited

6. Which of the following mixtures cannot be separated by sublimation :

a) Ammonium chloride & sodium chloride b) Ammonium chloride & sand
c) Ammonium chloride & iodine d) Ammonium chloride & copper sulphate

7. A mixture of common salt and ammonium chloride is heated in a china dish covered with
an inverted funnel with stem closed with a cotton plug. After the experiment the china
dish will contain :
a) Common salt b) Ammonium chloride
c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of these.

5. To determine the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water.

1. Which of the following will help in determining the melting point of ice accurately ?
a) Ice made from tap water b) Ice made from distilled water
c) Ice made mixed with salt d) None of these

2. In determination of melting point of ice , the ice is contaminated with some non-volatile
impurity, like common salt, melting point of ice will :
a) Increase b) Decrease
c) May increase or decrease d) Does not change

3. What is the melting point of ice?

a) 0oC b) 100oC
c) 273 K d) Both (a) and (c)

4. Which vessel is used to determine the melting point of ice ?

a) Beaker b) R B Flask
c) Conical Flask d) Measuring Flask

5. At what temperature ice and water both exist together under normal atmospheric
pressure ?
a) Below 273.16 K b) Above 273.16 K
c) At 273.16 K d) None of these

6. In determining the boiling point of water , correct reading is obtained when :

a) Temperature start rising b) Water starts boiling
c) Whole of water evaporates d) Temperature becomes constant

7.Water evaporates faster :

a) In still air b) In humid air
c) In dry air d) In windy & dry air

6. To verify the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.

1. What does the law of conservation of mass state?
a) It states that mass is neither created nor destroyed.
b) It states that mass can be created or destroyed.
c) It states that mass cannot be created but can be destroyed.
d) It states that mass can be created but cannot be destroyed.

2. If you melt 100 g of ice will you get the same mass of water ?
a) Yes b) No
c) May be d) Sometimes

3. State the chemical reaction between Barium Chloride (aqueous) & Sodium Sulphate
(aqueous) .
a) BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO4 (white ppt) + 2NaCl (aq)
b) BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO3 (red ppt) + 2NaCl (aq)
c) Both (a) & (b)
d) None of these

4. Which of the following reaction does not conform to law of conservation of mass ?
a) Burning of candle b) Melting of ice
c) Fusion reaction occurring in sun d) Combustion of fuel

5. In the reaction 2NaN2 2Na +3N2 , if 850 g of NaN2 is decomposed to give 265.20 g of
Na , how much N2 is produced ?
a) 584.80 g b) 265.20 g
c) 850 g d) 484.20 g

6. In chemical reactions how does law of conservation of mass contribute in writing

chemical equations ?
a) It does not help. b) Equations can be balanced by writing their correct co
c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of these

7. In accordance with the law of conservation of mass give the co-efficient of O2 in the
C5H12 + O2 5CO2 + 6H2O
a) 4 b) 6
c) 8 d) 2
References :
NCERT text book for class IX
Foundation science for class IX By- H C Verma
Self study in Science By-Evergreen Publications
surroundings/8/113/studymaterials.html (NCERT Text Book Activities Videos link)
1. States of Matter
2. States of Matter : SONG
3. Plasma a state of matter

4. Inter conversion : States of

5. Compound & Mixture
6. Sublimation
7. Latent heat
8. True solution , sol &
suspension [I]
9. True solution , sol &
suspension [II]
10. Earliest Models - ATOM

Section : biology

Chapter 5: The Fundamental Unit of Life
KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
Study of historical perceptive related to cell *****
Study of Microscope **
Study of Hypotonic/Isotonic/ ****
Hypertonic solutions relation to osmosis.
Cell wall ***
Nucleus *****
Cytoplasm ***
Cell organelles *****

1. All the living organisms are made up of fundamental unit of life called cell.
2. The cell is a Latin word for a little room.
3. The scientist Robert Hooke saw a little room in the cork (the bark of a tree)
resembled the structure of a honeycomb. The use of the word Cell to describe
these units is used till this day in Biology as Cell Biology.
4. The Compound Microscope consist eye piece,objective lens and condenser to
observe a cell after putting a drop of Safranin (for plant cell) and methylene blue (for
animal cell). ( Please refer to Fig. 5.1: Compound Microscope NCERT Book Page-57)
5. The scientist Leeuwenhoek saw free living cells in the pond water for the first time. (
father of microbiology)
6. The scientist Robert Brown discovered the nucleus in the cell.
7. The cell theory states that all the plants and animals are composed of cells, it was
proposed by Schleiden and Schwann.
8. The cell theory was further expanded by Virchow by suggesting that all cells arise
from the pre-existing cells.
9. The cells differ in size, shape, structure (Please refer to Fig. 5.2/5.3: Onion
peel/Various cells in Human body, NCERT Book Page-57/58):Types of cells: Onion
cells, Smooth muscle cell, Blood cells, Bone cell, Fat cell, Nerve cell, Ovum, Sperm
etc. Each kind of cell performs specific function.

10. A single cell may constitute a whole organism as in Amoeba, Chlamydomonas,
Paramecium and Bacteria; these are called as unicellular organisms. Whereas in
multi-cellular organisms (Human beings) division of labor is seen.
11. The feature in almost every cell is same: Plasma membrane, nucleus and
12. Plasma membrane: It is the outermost covering of the cell.
- It is called as selective permeable membrane (because it prevents
movement of some materials).
- It helps in diffusion and osmosis
- Diffusion: movement of substance from high concentration to low
Eg; exchange of carbon dioxide or oxygen with external environment.

osmosis: it is the passage of water from the region of high water concentration to a region
of low water concentration through a selective permeable membrane.

a) The cell gains water, if the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water
concentration (Hypotonic solution) than the cell.

b) The cell maintains the same water concentration as the cell (Isotonic solution),
water crosses the cell membrane in both directions.

c)The cell loses water, if the medium has lower water concentration (Hypertonic
solution) than the cell.

Note - The cell drinking is endosmosis;

- omission of water is called ex-osmosis.

13. The cell engulfs food is called endocytosis and ejects solid is called exocytosis.
Amoeba acquires food through endocytosis and excretion of solid is called
14. The cell wall is a rigid outer covering composed of cellulose. It provides structural
strength to plant cells. When a living cell loses water, there is shrinkage of contents
of a cell away from the cell wall. This phenomenon is called as plasmolysis. The cell
walls permit the cells of plants, fungi and bacteria to withstand very dilute
(Hypotonic) external media without bursting.
15. The Nucleus: It is a dark colored, spherical or oval, dot-like structure near the center
of a cell called Nucleus. The nucleus plays a central role in cellular activities/
reproduction. The chromatin material gets organized into chromosomes. The
chromosomes contain information for inheritance of features from parents to next
generations in the form of DNA( Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid ) and protein molecules. The
functional segments of DNA are called genes.
16. In some organisms like Bacteria nucleus is not covered by nuclear membrane. Hence
it is called as prokaryote. (Pro= primitive; karyote = karyon = nucleus.) The organisms
with cells having a nuclear membrane are called eukaryotes.
17. Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes( Please refer to Fig. 5.4:
Prokaryotic cell NCERT Book Page-62)

Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

Size: generally small (1-10 m) Size: generally large. (5-500 m)

Nuclear region: Not well defined Nuclear region: Well defined and
and not surrounded by a nuclear surrounded by a nuclear membrane
membrane & known as nucleoids.

Chromosome: Single Chromosome: More than one


Membrane-bound cell organelles Membrane-bound cell organelles

absent present

Eg- bacteria, blue green algae Eg fungi, plant cell and animal cell.

18. Cell organelles: Every cell has fluid matrix (other than nucleus) is called cytoplasm.
The nucleus and cytoplasm is together called as protoplasm. The protoplasm term
was coined by Purkinje. It has important cell organelles: Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER),
Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Plastids, and vacuoles.
19. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): It is a large network of membrane bound tubules and

- There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum

- Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) (It looks rough because Ribosomes are
attached to its surface. They are the sites of protein synthesis).
- Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) (It looks smooth because Ribosomes
are not attached to its surface. They are the sites of fat molecules synthesis).

1. SER ; help in the functioning of enzymes and hormones to carryout

biochemical activities.
2. SER detoxifies many poisons and drugs from the cell.
2. ER serves as channel for the transport of material between various regions of
the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
3. Proteins and fat molecules produced by ER helps in membrane biogenesis.
20. Golgi apparatus: It was first described by a scientist Camillo Golgi. It is a system of
membrane bound vesicles called cisterns. It functions include the storage,

modification and package of cell products. The complex sugars are made from simple
sugars in the Golgi apparatus. It is also involved in the formation of lysosomes.
21. Lysosomes: They contain membrane-bound sacs with powerful digestive enzymes
(enzymes are made by RER) to digest the worn-out cell organelles. When the cell
gets damaged, lysosomes may burst and the enzymes digest their own cell, hence
called as Suicidal bags of a cell. It is a waste disposal system of the cell.
22. Mitochondria: It is covered by a double membrane. Outer membrane is very porous
and the inner membrane is deeply folded. These folds create a large surface area for
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) molecule synthesis. ATP is the energy currency of a
cell; hence the Mitochondria are called as Power House of a Cell. Mitochondria have
their own DNA and Ribosomes; therefore they can make their own proteins.
23. Plastids: They are present only in plant cells. They are two types.
1. Chromoplasts (Colored Plastids: Chloroplasts Green pigmented and
useful in Photosynthesis and also contains various other pigments like
yellow or orange)
2. Leucoplasts (White or colorless plastids; stores materials such as oils,
proteins, fats etc. ) Plastids are also covered by a double membrane.
The matrix is called Stroma, seat for enzymatic actions. Plastids have
their own DNA and Ribosomes; therefore they can make their own
24. Vacuoles: Storage sacs for solid or liquid contents. They are small in size in animals
while plants have large, may occupy 50-90 % of the cell volume. Helps to provide
turgidity and rigidity to the cell. Many substances like amino acids, sugars, organic
acids and proteins are stored in vacuoles. In Amoeba food vacuole is specialized to
play an important role.
25. Cell: It is the fundamental structural unit of living organisms, helps in respiration,
obtaining nutrition and clearing waste material or forming a new protein.
Differences between Plant cell and Animal Cell
(Please refer to Fig. 5.5 Animal cell & 5.6: Plant cell NCERT Book Page-63&64)


Cell wall absent Cell wall present

Plasma membrane is the Cell wall is the outer layer which

outer layer which provides gives rigidity and turgidity to the
turgidity to the cell cell

Vacuoles are small in size Vacuoles are big in size

Plastids are absent Plastids are present

Nucleus lies in the centre. Nucleus lies on one side

Question Bank

1. All the living organisms are composed of fundamental unit called as. ( Cell)
2. Who discovered the nucleus in the cell.( Robert Brown)
3. Who saw the free living cells for the first time..( Leeuwenhoek)
4. Name two unicellular organisms .. ..( Amoeba, Chlamydomonas,)
5. Write two differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes..( Nuclear
region/ Chromosome)
6. What are the two types of ERs . ( RER/ SER)
7. What are the functions of Golgi Bodies? (It includes the storage, modification and
package of cell products. The complex sugars are made from simple sugars in the
Golgi apparatus).
8. What are the types of plastids (Chromoplasts& Leucoplasts)
9. Which are the substances stored in vacuoles? (Substances like amino acids, sugars,
organic acids and proteins are stored in vacuoles)
10. Draw and label Animal cell & Plant cell( Ref NCERT Book Page-63&64)

Marks- 40 Time: 90 minutes
* General Instructions
1. Questions 1-5 ( 1 Mark each) 2. Questions 6-10 ( 2 Mark each)
3. Questions 11-15 ( 3Mark each) 4. . Questions 16-17 ( 5Mark each)
Q.1 What is ATP, expand the term ..
Q.2 Cellulose is a Fat (Mention,True/False)
Q.3 Which cell organelle is synthesizing the enzymes for the Golgi Apparatus
Q.4 The flexibility of the cell membrane to engulf food and other material is called
Endocytosis (Mention, True / False)
Q.5 What is the main function of Leucoplasts?
Q.6 Draw the structure of Ovum.
Q.7 Why the Plasma membrane is called as Selective Permeable Membrane?
Q.8 Describe what is an isotonic solution
Q.9 What is Plasmolysis?
Q.10 Write any two parts of a Compound microscope.
Q.11 Distinguish between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell.
Q.12 Write about the three properties of Cytoplasm.
Q.13 What is the significance of Vacuoles
Q.14 Write a short notes on Mitochondria.
Q.15 Explain the concept of diffusion.
Q.16 Draw the structure of a plant Cell and label it.
Q.17 Write the differences between a plant and animal cell.


Chapter 6: Tissues

KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]

Meristems in plants **
Permanent tissues in plants ****
Animal tissues *****

1. Tissue is a group of cells having similar origin, structure& function. Study of tissues is
called Histology
2. In unicellular organism (Amoeba) single cell performs all basic functions, whereas in
multi-cellular organisms (Plants and Animals) shows division of labor as Plant tissue
& Animal tissues.
3. Plant tissues are two types: Meristems & Permanent tissues.
4. Meristems: The Meristems are the tissues having the power of cell division. It is
found on those region of the plant which grows.
5. Types of Meristems;

1. The Apical meristems It is present at the growing tip of the stem

and roots and increases the length.
2. The lateral meristems - present at the lateral side of stem anf root
(cambium) and increases the girth.
3. The intercalary meristems - present at internodes or base of the
leaves and increases the length between the nodes.

( Please refer to Fig. 6.2: location of meristems in plant body , NCERT Book Page- 69).

26. Permanent tissues: Two types such as Simple permanent tissues & Complex
permanent tissues.

a) Simple permanent tissues: subdivided as

(i): Parenchyma: Tissues provide the support to plants.They are loosly packed and has
large intracellular space.

- Parenchyma with chlorophyll which performs photosynthesis is
called as chlorenchyma.
- The parenchyma with large air spaces to give buoyancy is
called as aerenchyma .Parenchyma also stores food and water.
(ii) Collenchyma: Tissue provides mechanical support, thickened at the corners, have
very little intercellular space. It allows easy bending of various parts of a plants without
(iii) Sclerenchyma: Tissue makes the plant hard and stiff, thickened due to lignin and
no intercellular space. Cells of this tissue are dead and commonly seen in the husk of
(iv) Guard cells& Epidermal tissue: the tissue aids in protection and exchange of
gases. Guard cells kidney shaped in dicots, dumb bell shaped in monocots to guard the
stomata. The epidermal tissues of roots aid in absorption of water and minerals. The
epidermal tissues in desert plants have a thick waxy coating of Cutin with waterproof
quality. The epidermal tissues form the several layer thick Cork or the Bark of the tree.
(Please refer to Fig. 6.3- 6.6, NCERT Book Page-70-73).

b) Complex permanent tissues: The complex tissues are made of more than one type
of cells. All these cells coordinate to perform a common function.
They are subdivided as;
Xylem: It consists of tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma and xylem fibers. The cells have
thick walls,
Function - aids in conduction of water and minerals.
Phloem: It consists of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma, and phloem fibers.
Function - Phloem transports food material to other parts of the plants.
(Please refer to Fig. 6.7, NCERT Book Page-73).

6. Animal tissues: Sub divided as epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue
and nervous tissue.

i. Epithelial tissue: It is a protective covering forming a continuous sheet. Simple

epithelium is the one which is extremely thin in one layer, whereas stratified
epithelium are arranged in pattern of layers.

Depending on shape and function they are classified as:

a) Squamous epithelium in the lining of mouth and esophagus.

b) Cuboidal epithelium in the lining of kidney tubules and salivary glands.
c) Columnar epithelium in the intestine &Columnar epithelium with cilia in the
lining of respiratory tract.
d) Glandular epithelium in the Glands aids in a special function as gland cells,
which can secrete at the epithelial surface.
(Please refer to Fig. 6.9, NCERT Book Page-75).
ii) Connective Tissue: Five Types, such as;
a) Blood: The Blood is a fluid connective tissue. Blood plasma has RBCs (Red Blood
Cells) WBCs (White Blood Cells) and platelets. Blood plasma contains proteins, salts and
hormones. Blood flows and transports gases, digested food, hormones and waste materials.
b) Bone: The bone is a connective tissue with hard matrix, composed of calcium
and phosphorus. A bone is connected by another bone with another connective tissue called
ligaments. A bone is connected by muscle with another connective tissue called tendon.
c) Cartilage: The cartilage is a connective tissue with solid matrix composed of
proteins and sugars. It is commonly seen in nose, ear, trachea, and larynx.
d) Areolar Connective Tissue: It is found between the skin and muscles, around
the blood vessels. It supports internal organs and aids in repair of tissues.
e)Adipose Connective Tissue: It is filled with fat globules for the storage of fat.
It acts as insulator. (Please refer to Fig. 6.10, NCERT Book Page-76).
Muscular tissues: They have special contractile proteins responsible for movements. Three
types, such as;
Striated muscles/skeletal muscles/voluntary muscles :
They are cylindrical, un-branched and multinucleated.They have dark bands and light bands.
Unstriated muscles/smooth muscles/involuntary muscles:
They are commonly called as Smooth muscles, having no striations (dark bands/ light bands
are absent). Commonly found alimentary canal, uterus, Iris of an Eye. They are spindle
shaped. Involuntary in nature
Cardiac Muscles: They are commonly called as Heart muscles, cylindrical,

branched and uni-nucleate. Involuntary in nature.(Please refer to Fig. 6.11, NCERT Book
Nervous Tissue: The tissue responds to stimuli. The brain, spinal cord and nerves are
composed of nervous tissue or neurons. A neuron consists of Cell Body, cytoplasm, Nucleus,
Dendrite, Axon, nerve ending. The neuron impulse allow us to move our muscles when we
want to respond to stimuli. (Please refer to Fig. 6.12, NCERT Book Page-78).

Question Bank

1. Define the term tissue. ( A group of cells forms tissue)

2. What is Histology? ( Study of different tissues)
3. How many types of meristems are present in plants? (3 : Apical meristems, Lateral
meristem, Intercalary meristem )
4. Name the Parenchyma with chlorophyll which performs photosynthesis
5. Which plant tissue makes the plant hard and stiff and thickened due to lignin with no
intercellular spaces .( Sclerenchyma)
6. Give the details of epidermal tissue in Plants. (For protection and exchange of gases.
Guard cells kidney shaped in dicots, dumb bell shaped in monocots to guard the
stomata. The epidermal tissues of roots aid in absorption of water and minerals.)
7. Which elements constitute the Phloem? (Sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem
parenchyma, and phloem fibers.)
8. Distinguish between ligament and tendon (A bone to bone connective tissue called
ligament. A bone to muscle connective tissue called tendon.)
9. Name the three muscular tissues in the animals..(Striated muscles ,Un- Striated
muscles, Cardiac Muscles)
10. Draw the neuron and label it (Please refer to Fig. 6.12, NCERT Book Page-78).

Marks- 40 Time: 90 minutes
* General Instructions
1. Questions 1-5 (1 Mark each) 2. Questions 6-10 ( 2 Mark each)
3. Questions 11-15 (3Mark each) 4. . Questions 16-17 (5Mark each)
Q.1 What is a group of cells that are similar in structure and work called?
Q.2 Which is the hardest connective tissue?
Q.3 What is the name of Blood matrix?
Q.4 By what process permanent tissues are formed?
Q.5 Two bones are connected with ligaments. Mention True/ False.
Q.6 What are the two main types of tissues found in plants?
Q.7 Draw the structure of Stomata and label it.
Q.8 Write the main functions of parenchyma
Q.9 What are the fluid connective tissues?
Q.10 What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles?
Q.11 Write a short notes on Cardiac muscles.
Q.12 Draw a labeled diagram of areolar tissue.
Q.13 Mention the three elements of Xylem tissue.
Q.14. Write a short notes on Glandular Epithelium.
Q.15. Write three significant points about Sclerenchyma
Q.16 With the help of suitable diagram, describe the Phloem.
Q.17 Draw and label the Nerve Cell.Explain in brief.


Chapter 7: Diversity in Living Organisms

KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]

Basis of classification ***
Hierarchy of classification ****
Kingdom Plantae *****
Kingdom Animalia *****

1. Each organism is different from all other organisms.

2. In this activity, we decide which characteristics (we can run, but the Banyan tree
cant run is a characteristic) are important in forming the desired category.
3. Greek thinker Aristotle classified animals according to whether they lived on land,
in water or in air. This classification is a landmark in ideology, but has limitations. For
example, animals that live in the sea include Corals, Whales, Octopus, Starfish, and
Shark. In fact they are different from each other.
4. Classification and Evolution: organisms are classified based on body design,
hierarchy in developing, relation to evolution. Charles Darwin first described the
idea of evolution in 1859 in his book The Origin of Species
5. The Biologists, such as Haeckel, Whittaker & Carl Woese tried to classify all living
organisms into broad Kingdoms. The Whittaker proposed five kingdoms: Monera,
Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Carl Woese introduced by dividing Monera
into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.

6. Hierarchy of Classification :

7. Monera: They have unicellular, Prokaryotic organisms (do not have defined nucleus
or organelles). The cell wall may or may not present. The mode of nutrition is
autotrophic (synthesizing food on their own) (or)heterotrophic (getting food from
environment). Ex. Bacteria, Anabaena. ( (Please refer to Fig. 7.1 Monera NCERT Book
8. Protista: They have unicellular eukaryotic organisms (do have well defined nucleus
or organelles). The body is covered by cilia, flagella for locomotion. The mode of
nutrition is autotrophicorheterotrophic. Ex. Diatoms, protozoans.(Please refer to
Fig. 7.2 NCERT Book Page-84)

9. Fungi: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms with cell wall, made up of
Chitin. They do not perform Photosynthesis (heterotrophic), Saprophytic (derive
nutrition from decaying material). Ex. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mushroom, Rhizopus.
The fungi living with algae forms Lichen (Symbiotic Association) .(Please refer to Fig.
7.3 NCERT Book Page-84).
10. Plantae: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms with cell wall, made up of
Cellulose. Able to perform photosynthesis (autotrophic). Ex. Rice, wheat.
11. Animalia: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms without cell wall. They are
not able to perform photosynthesis (heterotrophic). Ex Human beings, Peacock.

(Please refer to Fig. 7.4 NCERT Book Page-85).


1. The kingdom Plantae is further classified as Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta,

Gymnosperms, Angiosperms .

2.Thallophyta: The plants do not have well defined body design, commonly called as
Algae, mostly aquatic. Ex. Spirogyra, Ulothrix. (Please refer to Fig. 7.5 NCERT Book Page-

3. Bryophyta: These are commonly called as the Amphibians of Kingdom. The plant body
is differentiated into roots like, stem like and leaf like structures. No specialized tissues for
the conduction of water and food.Ex. Marchantia, Funaria. (Please refer to Fig. 7.6 NCERT
Book Page-86).

4.Pteridophyta: These are commonly called as the First vascular land plants . The plant
body is differentiated into root, stem and leaf. Specialized tissues for the conduction of
water and food are developed in these plants. The reproductive organs are inconspicuous.
Ex. Marsilea, Fern. (Please refer to Fig. 7.7 NCERT Book Page-87).

Special Note: The reproductive organs are inconspicuous in Thallophyta, Bryophyta,

Pteridophyta are cant develop seeds. They are together called as Cryptogamae (Non-
Flowering Plants). The plants with well differentiated reproductive organs and that

ultimately make seeds are called Phanerogams (Flowering Plants). This group is further
classified Gymnosperms (Bear naked Seeds) &Angiosperms (Bears seeds inside Fruit).

5. Gymnosperms: These are commonly called as Naked seed bearing plants. They
areusually perennial, evergreen and woody. Ex. Pinus, Cycas (Please refer to Fig. 7.8 NCERT
Book Page-87).

6. Angiosperms: These are commonly called as Enclosed seed bearing plants. Plants with
seeds having a single cotyledon are called as Monocotyledons or Monocots. Plants with
seeds having two cotyledons are called as Dicots. Ex. Ipomoea, Paphiopedium.
(Please refer to Fig 7.9 &. 7.10 NCERT Book Page-87 ;Fig. 7.11 Page-88).


These are Eukaryote, multicultural and hetero-tropic.

They are further classified as Non- Chordates( Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes ,

Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata) and Chordates {
Protochordata, Vertebrata ( Pisces, Amphibians, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia)} .

I.Non- Chordates

1. Porifera: The word Porifera means organisms with holes. The canal system helps in
circulating water, food, oxygen. They are non-motile with cellular level of organization and
mainly marine organisms with hard outer coat called as Skeleton. They are commonly called
as Sponges. Ex. Spongilla, Sycon( Please refer Fig. 7.12, NCERT Text Book Page- 89)

2. Coelenterata: The wordCoelenterata means organisms with body cavity

calledCoelenteron . They are radially symmetrical, Diploblastic ( two layers of cells),
commonly called as Cnidarians ( Stinging cells for protection are present in the body). Ex.
Hydra, Sea Anemone (Please refer Fig. 7.13, NCERT Text Book Page- 89).

3. Platyhelminthes: The word Platyhelminthes means organisms with flatworms (

dorsocentrally flattened).They are bilaterally symmetrical Triploblastic ( three layers of

cells ), either free-living or parasitic. No true Coelom is present - Acoelomates. Ex. Planaria(
Free living) , Tape worm( Parasitic)( Please refer Fig. 7.14, NCERT Text Book Page- 90).

4. Nematoda: The word Nematoda means organisms with roundworms. They are
bilaterally symmetrical Triploblastic ( three layers of cells ), familiar with parasitic worms.
The false Coelom is called as Pseudocoelome. Ex. Ascaris, Wuchereria (Filarial worm
causes elephantiasis).)( Please refer Fig. 7.15, NCERT Text Book Page- 90).

5.Annelida: The word Annelida means organisms with metameric-segmented. They are
bilaterally symmetrical Triploblastic(three layers of cells) with closed circulatory system,
familiar with earth worms. The Coelom is called as true Coelom. Ex. Neris, Earth worm,
Leech (Please refer Fig. 7.16, NCERT Text Book Page- 90).

6. Arthropoda: The word Arthropoda means organisms with jointed legs They are
bilaterally symmetrical Triploblastic(three layers of cells ), familiar with cockroaches. The
Coelom is blood filled called as Haemo Coelom. Ex. Prawn, Scorpion, Housefly (Please
refer Fig. 7.17, NCERT Text Book Page- 91).

7. Mollusca: The word Mollusca means organisms with soft body They are bilaterally
symmetrical, Triploblastic(three layers of cells), familiar with Octopus, Pila. Foot is for
moving, kidney like organ for excretion, with open circulatory system. Ex. Unio, chiton(
Please refer Fig. 7.18, NCERT Text Book Page- 91).

8. Echinodermata: The word Echinodermata means organisms with spiny skinned.

Exoskeleton is with calcium carbonate. They are radially symmetrical Triploblastic ( three
layers of cells ) with coelomic cavity, familiar with Star fish. They are exclusively free-living
marine animals. Ex. Sea Cucumber, Feather Star (Please refer Fig. 7.19, NCERT Text Book
Page- 91).

II.Chordates: They are further classified as two major groups such as Protochordata&

(A).Protochordata: Notochord present in at least larval forms, but very rudimentary. It is a

rod like supporting structure, runs along with nervous tissue from the gut of animal. They

are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastc(three layers of cells) with a Coelom, familiar with
Amphioxus. Ex. Balanoglossus(Please refer Fig. 7.20, NCERT Text Book Page- 92).

(B).Vertebrata: Notochord is replaced by vertebral column and internal skeleton. They are
bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomic and segmented having paired gill pouches.
Vertebrates are grouped into five classes.

1. Pisces: These are commonly called as fishes, exclusively aquatic. Body is streamlined
and a tail for locomotion. Gills for respiration, heart is two chambered, cold blooded, skin
is covered with scales, plates. They are cold-blooded animals. Skeleton of bone ( Rohu) /
cartilage( Shark). They lay eggs. Ex. Lion Fish, Dog Fish (Please refer Fig. 7.21, NCERT Text
Book Page- 92).

2. Amphibians: These are commonly called as Amphibians because they can live on land
and in water. Body is streamlined and a webbed foot/ foot for locomotion. Gills or lungs
or skin for respiration, heart is three chambered, cold blooded, skin is lack of scales,
plates. They are cold-blooded animals. They lay eggs. Ex. Rana, Hyla (Please refer Fig. 7.22,
NCERT Text Book Page- 93).

3. Reptilia: These are commonly called as Reptilians. A lung for respiration, heart is three
chambered (Crocodile heart is four chambered), skin have scales. They are cold-blooded
animals. They lay eggs. Ex. Snakes, Turtles (Please refer Fig. 7.23, NCERT Text Book Page-

4. Aves :These are commonly called as Birds. A lung for respiration, heart is four
chambered, fore limbs are modified for flight, skin has feathers. They are warm-blooded
animals. They lay eggs. Ex. Ostrich (Flightless Bird), Pigeon, Sparrow (Please refer Fig. 7.24,
NCERT Text Book Page- 94).

5. Mammalia: These are commonly called as animals with mammary glands for producing
milk to nourish their young ones. A lung for respiration, heart is four chambered, skin has
hairs, sweat or oil glands. They are warm-blooded animals. They lay eggs (Platypus,
Echidna), give birth to young ones poorly developed (Kangaroo) & give birth to developed

young ones (Human beings). Ex. Lion, Whale, Bat (Please refer Fig. 7.25, NCERT Text Book
Page- 94& Fig.7.26, classification of Animals, Page- 95).


NOMENCLATURE: The system of scientific naming or nomenclature was introduced by

Carolus Linnaeus. It is unique to identify in the world. We limit ourselves to writing the
names of the Genus and Species of that particular organism. The world over, it has been
agreed that both these names will be used in Latin forms.When printed is given in italics
and when written by hand, the Genus and Species name have to be underlined separately.
Ex. Ostrich (Common name): Struthiocamelus(scientific name with two parts namely the
Genus and Species).


1. What is the book written by Charles Darwin?...................... (The Origin of Species)

2. Who proposed the five kingdoms such as, Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia?

3.Monera members areunicellular, Prokaryotic organisms, mention TRUE/ FALSE .. (TRUE)

4. The Diatoms belongs to the kingdom................. ( Protista)

5. TheAnabaena belongs to the kingdom (Monera)

6. are commonly called as theAmphibians of Plant Kingdom.( Bryophyta)

7. The warm-blooded animals with fore limbs modified for flight, skin has feathers are called
as.. (Aves/Birds)

8. Write the four salient features of Reptiles.

9.Compare the Pisces and Amphibians.

10..Write the five salient features of Mammalia, give two examples.


Marks- 40 Time: 90 minutes
* General Instructions
1. Questions 1-5 (1 Mark each) 2. Questions 6-10 ( 2 Mark each)
3. Questions 11-15 (3Mark each) 4. . Questions 16-17 (5Mark each)
Q.1 Anabaena is member of the Phylum
Q.2 Aspergillum is a member of the Phylum..
Q.3 Define the term Autotrophic mode of nutrition.
Q.4 The fungus living with algae is called as ..
Q.5 Name the scientist who has divided the Monera into two sub-groups..
Q.6 Draw and label Paramecium.
Q.7 Distinguish the meaning of terms Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
Q.8 What is Pseudocoelome? Give one example of it.
Q.9 What is Haemocoelome? Give one example of it.
Q.10 Write two salient features of mammalian group.
Q.11 What is the basis of nomenclature of organisms, give the scientific name of Ostrich.
Q.12 Give three salient features of Amphibia.
Q.13 Mention three features of Chordates.
Q.14. Draw and label Balanoglossus.
Q.15 Give two salient features of Aves and mention one example of a flightless bird.
Q.16 Write about the Hierarchy of Classification- Groups and mention basic unit of
Q.17 Give the salient features of Bryophytes and draw the diagram of Funaria.


Chapter 13: Why do we fall ill?
KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
Significance of Health **
Disease and Its causes ***
Infectious diseases *****
Principles of prevention of diseases ****

1.Health is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally, and socially.

2.Disease( disturbed ease) means being uncomfortable. One or more systems of the body
will change, give rise to Symptoms ( Cough, loose motions, pus formation, headache,
fever, breathlessness, vomiting, fits, unconsciousness, inflammation , swelling and general
effects - a Doctor look for the basis of symptoms). Diseases are basically two types- Acute
Disease & Chronic Disease

3. Acute Disease: The disease which lasts for only a short period of time is called Acute
Disease Ex. Common Cold.

4.Chronic Disease: The disease which lasts for long period of time is called Chronic Disease
Ex. Tuberculosis.
Acute Disease Chronic Disease
They are short duration disease They are long lasting disease
Patient recovers completely after the cure Patient does not recover completely
There is no loss of weight or feeling of tiredness There is often loss of weight of feeling of
afterward tiredness
There is short duration loss of work and There is a prolonged loss of work and efficiency

5. Causes of Diseases : Most of the diseases have many causes, rather than one single
cause, like unclean water, nourishment, genetic differences, genetic abnormalities e.g.
Based on the causes diseases are of two types: Non-Infectious Diseases and Infectious

6. Non-Infectious Diseases: Not caused by infectious agents, mostly internal and non-
infectious cause. Ex. Cancer

7. Infectious Diseases: Caused by infectious agents.

SN Type Of Disease Example

1 Bacterial diseases - Typhoid, Cholera, Tuberculosis, Acne, Anthrax,

2 Viral diseases - Common Cold, Influenza, Dengue fever, AIDS, Japanese

encephalitis or brain fever

3 Fungal diseases Skin diseases

4 Protozoan diseases -Malaria ( Plasmodium), Kalaazar (Leishmania), Sleeping

sickness( Trypanosomes)

5 Worm diseases - Ascariosis ( Round worm), Elephantiasis(Wuchereria )

(Please refer Fig. 13.1 (a-e), NCERT Text Book Page- 181).

a)The infectious diseases spread by agents are called as Communicable Diseases.

SN Type of Disease Example

1 Air born Diseases - Pneumonia, common cold, Tuberculosis;

2 Water born diseases - Cholera, hepatitis

3 Sexual Diseases - HIV, Syphilis.

4 Animal born Disease - Rabbis.

*(Vector- the animal carrying infectious agent from a sick
person to another potential host without getting affected Ex.
Mosquito carrying Malaria Parasite).
(Please refer Fig. 13.2 & 13.3, NCERT Text Book Page- 183).

9. Principles of Treatment:

1. Antibiotics- many bacteria make a cell wall to protect themselves, the antibiotic
(Penicillin) blocks the bacterial process that builds cell wall and blocks the
biochemical pathways. Antibiotics do not work against viral infections. Antiviral
medicine is harder than making Antibacterial medicine because Virus has only few
biochemical mechanisms of their own. Other medicines bring down fever, reduce
pain or loose motions. We can take bed rest to conserve energy.

10 Principles of Prevention : Following three limitation are normally confronted while
treating an infectious disease:
Once someone has disease, their body functions are damaged and may never
recover completely.
Treatment will take time, which means that someone suffering from a disease is
likely to be bedridden for some time even if we can give proper treatment.
The person suffering from an infectious disease can serve as the source from where
the infection may spread to other people.

General ways of preventing infectious disease :

Air-borne We can prevent exposure by providing living condition that are not
Water-borne prevent by providing safe drinking water. This is done by treating the
water to kill any microbial contamination.
Vector-borne We can provide clean environment, which would not allow mosquito

11. Immunity: Even in cells there is repair mechanism called Immunity. Immune cells
manage to kill off the infectious agents. Smallpox disease is eliminated by developing
memory cells for particular infection by mimics the microbes, called Vaccine. The basis of
Immunization- if you had smallpox once, there was no chance of suffering from it again.
Proper nutrition is essential to maintain body immunity. There are vaccines against tetanus,
diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, polio and many other diseases.

12. Prevention of disease is better than cure. Hygiene is the basic key to maintain good

1. Define Health. (It is astate of being well enough to function well physically, mentally,
and socially)
2. Name any two Symptoms of diseases. (Cough& loose motions)
3. The disease which last for only a short period of time is called.( Acute Disease)
4. State whether Tuberculosis is aChronic Disease or Acute Disease (Chronic Disease)
5. Mention the causal organism for Sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma)
6.Cholera is a waterborne disease, mention TRUE/ FALSE .. (TRUE)
7. Antibiotics do not work against viral infections, mention TRUE/ FALSE .. (TRUE)
8. Write short notes on Immunity

(Even in cells there is repair mechanism called Immunity. Immune cells manage to kill off
the infectious agents.)
9. Explain with an example the term Vaccine. ( Smallpox disease is eliminated by developing
memory cells for particular infection by mimics the microbes, called Vaccine).
10. State reasons to support Prevention of disease is better than cure.


Marks- 40 Time: 90 minutes
* General Instructions
1. Questions 1-5 (1 Mark each) 2. Questions 6-10 ( 2 Mark each)
3. Questions 11-15 (3Mark each) 4. . Questions 16-17 (5Mark each)
Q.1 Define Health
Q.2 Mention any two symptoms of diseases.
Q.3 Typhoid is a bacterial disease. Mention True/ False.
Q.4 Sleeping sickness is caused by
Q.5 Elephantiasis is caused by.
Q.6. Mention two Air born diseases1..2.
Q.7 Mention two Sexually Transmitted Diseaes1..2.
Q.8 Mention two Viral Diseaes1..2.
Q.9 What is called vector. Give one example.
Q.10 Give two examples of Chronic diseases.
Q.11 Distinguish between Infectious and Non-infectious diseases.
Q.12 Write a short notes on Small Pox.
Q.13 What is immunity? Write short notes on it.
Q.14 What is Vaccination? Give the details, how it works in human body.
Q.15 Write three reasons for Cancers.
Q.16 What are the basic five principles of treatment for diseases.
Q.17 How Hygiene could help you to maintain good health and mention five situations to
take care about health.


Chapter 14: Natural resources
KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
Breath of air **
A wonder liquid ***
Biogeochemical cycles *****

1. The Biosphere is the life supporting zone of the earthwith three sub-zones called as
lithosphere (rock part), atmosphere (air part)and hydrosphere (water part).

Breath of air
2. Composition of Air

3.The interactions between different components of the Biosphere to maintain the balance
between the biotic and a biotic component makes Biogeochemical cycle. Ex. Water
Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon cycle, Oxygen Cycle,

4. Role of atmosphere in climate control : atmosphere act as protective blanket for the
earth. Since atmosphere is a bad conductor of heat, it keeps the average temperature of the
earth constant. At night, it slows down the escape of heat into outer space.

5. The movement of air : the atmosphere gets heated from the radiation that is reflected
back by the land or water bodies. As a result of heating, convection currents are set up in
the air. Since land gets heated faster than water, the air over land gets heated faster than
air above water bodies.

6. In coastal regions, during the day, the air above the land gets heated faster and starts
rising. So a region of low pressure is created and air over sea moves into this area of low
pressure. The movement of air from one region to the other region causes Wind.

7. During the day, the direction of wind would be from the sea to the land and at night, both
land and sea starts to cool. Since water cools down slower than the land, the air above
water would be warmer than air above land, thus the direction of wind would be from the
land to the sea.

8. Air pollution : it is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological

characteristics. It is caused due to an increase in the content of harmful substances
(pollutant) such as oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, etc.

9. Harmful effect of air pollution :

It affects the respiratory system causing breathing difficulties eg; bronchitis, asthma,
lung cancer, tuberculosis, etc.
Burning of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum releases oxides of nitrogen and
sulphur. Inhalation of these gases is dangerous.
Combustion of fossil fuel also increases the amount of suspended particles in air. The
presence of high levels of all these pollutants, reduce visibility in cold weather where
water also condenses out of air forming smog.
Acid rain formed from the gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides present in
polluted air. It causes damage to living and non- living thing.

3. The Water Cycle:

a) The process in which water evaporates and falls on the land as rain and later flows back
into the sea via rivers is known as the Water Cycle. Water flows through rocks containing
soluble minerals, some of them get dissolved in the water. Thus the rivers carry many
nutrients from the land to sea and these are used by the marine organisms.

b) When the water vapors condense as water droplets and grow big and heavy, they fall
down in the form of rain. It ranges from 5 cm to 200 cm of rain fall in a year in our

country. In large parts of India, rains are mostly brought by the south-west or north-east
monsoons. Depressions in the Bay of Bengal may also cause rains in some areas.

c) Water is a wonder liquid because all cellular processes take place in a water medium;
substances are transported in a dissolved form; terrestrial forms require fresh water to
maintain the equilibrium of salts; major resource to determine the life on the earth.

d) The dissolved fertilizers (NPK fertilizers), pesticides (DDT), sewage (Disease causing
Organisms), waste from factories (Mercury) and water released from the dams can affect
the life forms on the earth. The dissolved Oxygen is being used by the animals and plants
that live in water, would adversely affect the aquatic organisms. The change in temperature
would be dangerous for the eggs and larvae of the various animals particularly susceptible
to temperature changes. It leads to water pollution.

(Please refer Fig. 14.5, NCERT Text Book Page- 197).

4. Nitrogen Cycle:

a) The nitrogen gas makes up 78% of our atmosphere. It is essential for the synthesis of
proteins, DNA, RNA, urea, alkaloids and Vitamins.

b) The simple molecular nitrogen from the atmosphere is converted into more complex
molecules in the living beings and back again to atmosphere is called Nitrogen Cycle.

i) Nitrogen fixation by Lightening: During lightning, the molecular nitrogen is converted into
oxides of nitrogen and dissolves in water to give nitric and nitrous acids and fall on lands
along with rains. These are then utilized by various life forms.

ii) Nitrogen fixation by Bacteria: The molecular nitrogen is converted into nitrates and
nitrites, by free living bacteria or the bacteria present in the root nodules of legumes.

iii) The conversion of molecular nitrogen into nitrates and nitrites is called as Nitrification.
Plants generally covert them into amino acids. The conversion of nitrates and nitrates into
Ammonia is called as Ammonification. The conversion of Ammonia into molecular
Nitrogen is called as Denitrification. Thereby nitrates and nitrites are converted into

molecular or elemental nitrogen in the nature. (Please refer Fig. 14.6, NCERT Text Book
Page- 198).

5. The Carbon cycle:

i) The Carbon dioxide gas makes up 0.039 % of our atmosphere. Carbon occurs in the
elemental form as diamonds and graphite in earth. Carbon is essential for the synthesis of
proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids and Vitamins in living organisms.

ii) The Carbon dioxide Fixation: Green plants convert Carbon dioxide into glucose in the
presence of sunlight through Photosynthesis. The glucose molecules are converted into
other biologically important molecules. And many marine animals use carbonates dissolved
in sea water to make shells, exoskeletons.

iii) The combustion: The Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is added by the process of
combustion, where fuels are burnt to provide energy for various needs like heating, cooking,
transportation, and industrial process.

iv) The Greenhouse Effect: The percentage of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is said to
have doubled since the industrial revolution when human beings stated burning fossil fuels
on a very large scale. The Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. The increase in the Carbon
dioxide content would cause more heat to be retained by the atmosphere and lead to
Global Warming. It is called Greenhouse Effect

v) The carbon cycle is repeated through different physical and biological activities. (Please
refer Fig. 14.7, NCERT Text Book Page- 199).

6 .Oxygen Cycle:

i) The Oxygen gas makes up 21 % of our atmosphere. Oxygen is essential component of

proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids in living organisms.

ii) Oxygen from our atmosphere is used up in three processes, namely combustion,
respiration and in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Oxygen is returned to the
atmosphere in only one major process, that is, Photosynthesis, it is called as Oxygen Cycle.

iii) The air is heated faster than water; the air over land would also be heated faster than
the air over water bodies. The movement of air from one region to the other creates winds,
during the day the direction of the wind would be from the sea to land. At night, both land
and sea start to cool.

iv) The oxides of nitrogen and sulphur gases dissolve in rain to gives rise to Acid rains. The
smog is a visible indication of Air Pollution. The pollutants bring respiratory, cardiac
problems and allergies. The organisms called Lichens are found on the bark of trees, they
are indicators of pollution free environment. Three atoms of Oxygen ( O3) is called as Ozone.
The Ozone is poisonous but absorbs harmful radiations from the Sun. The Ozone layer
around the earth, if, dwindles further may cause Health hazards including Cancers . Recently
discovered the Ozone hole; in the region of Antarctica. (Please refer Fig. 14.8 & 14.9,
NCERT Text Book Page- 200).


1. What are the three sub-zones in the Biosphere? {Lithosphere (rock part),
atmosphere (air part)and hydrosphere (water part)}.
2. The process in which water evaporates and falls on the land as rain and later flows
back into the sea via rivers is known ..(Water Cycle).
3. In large parts of India, rains are mostly brought by monsoons.( the south-
west or north-east monsoons).
4. Why water is a wonder liquid? Justify ( A major resource to determine life on the
5. What are the four major water Pollutants?{ (NPK fertilizers, pesticides (DDT), sewage
(Disease causing Organisms), waste from factories (Mercury)}
6. Write a short notes on Nitrogen fixation by Bacteria.{The molecular nitrogen is
converted into nitrates and nitrites, by free living bacteria or the bacteria present in
the root nodules of legumes}.
7. What is Greenhouse Effect? {The Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. The increase in
the Carbon dioxide content would cause more heat to be retained by the
atmosphere and lead to Global Warming. It is called Greenhouse Effect}
8. What is the percentage of Oxygen gas in our atmosphere? {21 %}

9. Which organisms are found on the bark of trees as indicators of pollution free
environment? { Lichens}
10. Write about the Ozone hole in the Antarctica. {The Ozone layer around the earth is
dwindling further to damage and cause Health hazards including Cancers. Recently
discovered Ozone hole in the Antarctica.}
Marks- 40 Time: 90 minutes
* General Instructions
1. Questions 1-5 (1 Mark each) 2. Questions 6-10 ( 2 Mark each)
3. Questions 11-15 (3Mark each) 4. . Questions 16-17 (5Mark each)
Q.1 What is called Lithosphere, define it.
Q.2 Water covers 75% of the Earths surface. Mention True/ false.
Q.3 What is the percentage of Carbon dioxide on Venus.
Q.4 What is the range of temperature on the Moon..
Q.5 Define the term Pollutant.
Q.6 What are the two ways to fix Carbon dioxide on earth.
Q.7 Mention any two important features of Water.
Q.8 How the Depressions effect our environment?
Q.9 Define the term Soil Pollution. Give one reason for it.
Q.10 How changes of temperature effect living organisms in water?
Q.11 What is Humus? Mention its importance in two points.
Q12 What is deforestation? Give two reasons for it.
Q.13. Define Global Warming, mention two causes for it.
Q.14 What is Ozone Depletion? Give two reasons for it.
Q.15 Draw the schematic diagram of Water Cycle in the nature.
Q.16. Write any five salient features of Nitrogen Cycle with a suitable diagram.
Q.17 Write about Industrial Pollution and mention five effects in the environment.


Chapter 15: Improvement in food resources
KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
Improvement in crop yield ***
Crop variety improvement ****
Crop production management *****
Crop protection management ***
Animal Husbandry ****

1. Food Resources: Cereals (Wheat, rice, maize, millets and sorghum) provide us
carbohydrates; Pulses (Grams, pea and lentil) provide us proteins; Oil seeds (Soya bean,
ground nut, sesame, and castor) provide us fats; Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us a
range of minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins. In addition to these food crops, fodder crops
like berseem, oats or sudan grass are raised as food for the livestock are called as fodder

2. The Kharif crops: The crops grown in rainy season are called as Kharif crops (Paddy, Soya
bean, pigeon pea and maize). They are grown from June to October.

3. The Rabi crops: The crops grown in winter season are called Rabi crops (Wheat, gram,
peas, and mustard). They are grown November to April.

Compare Kharif crops and Rabi crops:

SN Crop Season Example

1 Kharif crops June to October ( Rainy Season) Paddy, Soya bean, and maize

2 Rabi crops November to April ( winter Wheat, gram, peas, and

season) mustard

4. The Green Revolution: Food supplies are generally as proteins, carbohydrates, fats,
minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins in all living organisms. Indian population is growing
enormously. Green Revolution is the need of the hour to increase food-grain production.

5. Sustainable Practices: For sustained livelihood, one should undertake mixed farming,
intercropping, and integrated farming practices, for example, combining agriculture with
livestock/ poultry/ fisheries/bee-keeping. The major group of activities for improving crop
yield can be classified as: Crop varietal improvement, Crop production improvement, Crop
protection improvement

6. The Crop varietal improvement:

a) Hybridization: It refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants;It is all to get

higher yield, improved quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, change in maturity duration,
wider adaptability and desirable agronomic characteristics.

SN Type Context

1 Intervarietal Hybridization between different varieties

2 Interspecific Hybridization between different species

3 Intergeneric Hybridization between different genera

4 Genetically Modified Crops (GMC). Another way of improving the crop is by

introducing a gene that would provide the
desired characteristic.

7. The Crop production improvement: They include no cost production, low cost
production or high cost production practices.

a) Nutrients( Sixteen elements are required for growth are called as essential elements
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen+ Macronutrients & Micronutrients. They increase the yield):

SN Macronutrient Micronutrient

1 Six elements are required in larger Other seven elements are required
quantity in small quantity

2 Ex.Nitrogen, phosphorus, Ex. Iron, manganese, boron, zink,

calsium,Postasium, magnisium, sulphur copper, molybdinum, chlorine

b)Manure & Fertilizers:

SN Manure Fertilizers

1 Manure is prepared by the Fertilizers are commercially produced

decomposition of animal excreta and plant nutrients.
plant waste is called as Humus. It
decides the texture of the soil. Excess fertilizers destroy the soil fertility.
Compost: Farm waste, cow dung etc. Organic farming: No use of chemicals
Vermi compost: Compost prepared fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides etc.(
by using earthworms. Culturing blue green algae, neem leaves,
healthy cropping systems.

2 It is cheap and prepared in rural It is costly and is prepared in factories

homes and fields

3 It is voluminous and bulky It is compact and concentrated

4 It is inconvenient to store, transport, It is easy to store, transport, handle.


5. It is not nutrient specific. It is nuteient specific and can provide

specifically nitrogen, phosphorus etc.

Add great humus to the soil Does not add humus to the soil.

3. Irrigation: India has variety of water resources: Wells, canals, river lift system, tanks,
rainwater harvesting, water shedding management to increase in ground water
levels and to check the water flowing away to the sea. Planning to reduce soil
4. Cropping patterns:

SN Mixed cropping Inter-cropping Crop rotation

1 Two or more crops Two or more crops grown Growing different

grown simultaneously simultaneously on the same piece crops on a piece of
on the same piece of of land in a definite pattern land in a pre-
land planned succession

2 Ex. Wheat+ Gram; Soyabean + maize/bajra+Cowpea Two or three crops

Wheat+ Mustard; ((Please refer Fig. 15.2, NCERT Text can be grown in a
Wheat+ gram; Book Page- 208). year depending
Groundnut+ upon the duration.

3 A type of insurance A few rows of one crop alternate The availability of
against failure of one with a few rows of a second crop. moisture and
of the crops. Crops are selected such that their irrigation facilities
nutrient requirements are decides the choice
different. This ensures the of the crop to be
maximum utilization of the cultivated.
nutrients supplied and prevents
pests and diseases spreading in the
crop field.

8. Crop protection improvement/ management: Field crops are infested by large number
of weeds, insects pests, diseases & storage of grains

SN Weeds Insect pests Diseases Storage of grains

1 Weeds are Insect pest is Disease is caused Different factors are

unwanted plants in nuisance in the crop by pathogens in responsible.
the crop field field the field

2 Weeds take up Insect pest affect Diseases alter the Different factors
nutrients and the health of crop physiology of reduce the quality of
reduce the growth and reduce the crops and reduce stored grains
yield. the yield

3 Ex. Xanthium, Ex. Caterpillars, Ex. Bacteria, Virus Biotic factors:

Parthenium dragonfly insects, rodents,
Abiotic factors:
moisture &

4 Removal of weeds Spread of chemicals Spread of Systematic

at an early stage is such as pesticides chemicals to kill management of
recommended. pathogens ware house.
Spray weedicides

9. Animal Husbandry: It is a scientific management of animal livestock, includes feeding,

breeding and diseases control. Animal-based farming includes cattle farming, Poultry
farming, fish farming, and bee Keeping.

SN Content Cattle Poultry Fish farming Bee Keeping.

farming farming

1 Purpose Milk (milch Meat, Cheep source of Honey, wax,

animals) and chicken, egg animal protein. medicinal

draught labor production Fish production is preparations.
(draught aquaculture. Additional
animals) in Growing of income to the
agriculture. marine fishes is farmer.

2 Cross Exotic- Exotic & Both Exotic & Exotic- high

breeding: To quality of Indigenous Indigenous fishes honey collection
get desired lactation breeds are used capacity
qualities Indigenous &stingless.
breeds- Indigenous bees-
quality of are used

3 Desirable Good Good Fish farming/ Value or quality

maintenance ventilation in ventilation in locating large depends upon
sheds sheds schools of fish/ the pasturage or
Roughage/ Roughage/ use of satellites the flowers
concentrates concentrates and echo-sounds available for the
Protection Protection In Composite fish taste of honey.
from from culture seed is
parasites & parasites & wild, mixed with
skin diseases skin diseases other species.
Vaccination Vaccination Hormonal
stimulation to
bring desired
quality in fish

4 Example Exotic or Exotic- Fresh water ( Apisceranaindica

foreign Leghorn Macrobrachium) dorsata
breeds ( Indigenous & Marine( A.florae
Jercy, brown breeds- Aseel Peneaus) prawns
Swiss) Fresh water
Local breeds fishes
(Red sindhi, Marine fishes(
Sahiwal) Bombay duck,


1. Give two examples of Cereals (Wheat, rice)

2. Define the Kharif crop and give two examples (The crops grown in rainy season are
called as Kharif crops Ex. Paddy, Soya bean).
3. Write about the importance of Green Revolution (Indian population is growing
enormously. Green Revolution is the need of the hour to increase food-grain
4. Define the term Hybridization(Crossing between genetically dissimilar plants)
5. What is the importance of Genetically Modified Crops? (It is another way of
improving the crop is by introducing a gene that would provide the desired
6. Define the term mixed cropping and give two examples. (Two or more crops grown
simultaneously on the same piece of landEx. Wheat+ Gram; Wheat+ Mustard)
7. Distinguish between weeds, insects pests(Weeds are unwanted plants in the crop
field Insect pest is nuisance in the crop field)
8. What is Animal Husbandry? It is a scientific management of animal livestock,
includes feeding, breeding and diseases control. Animal-based farming includes
cattle farming, Poultry farming, fish farming, and bee keeping.
9. Distinguish between aquaculture and mariculture. (Fish production is aquaculture.
Growing of marine fishes is called mariculture.)
10. What is the importance of Bee Culture? (It is useful for honey, wax, medicinal
preparations. And also for additional income to the farmer.)


Marks- 40 Time: 90 minutes

* General Instructions

1. Questions 1-5 (1 Mark each) 2. Questions 6-10 (2 Mark each)

3. Questions 11-15 (3Mark each) 4. . Questions 16-17 (5Mark each)

Q.1 Maize and Millets are Pulses. Mention True/False

Q.2 What is the Scientific name of Honey Bee.

Q.2 What led us to improve food grain production?

Q.3 Which revolution led to the availability of milk for efficient use?

Q.4 What is the process of injecting semen of desired bull into the vagina of cows is called?

Q.5 Name any one exotic breed usually used for variety of improvement programmes.

Q.6 What is the significance of GMC

Q.7 Mention the significance of Irrigation in developing agriculture.

Q.8. What is Pest and give one example.

Q.9 What is Weed and give one example.

Q.10 Give two examples for Inter-cropping.

Q.11 Distinguish between Kharif and Rabi Crops

Q.12 What is called Sustainable Practice in improvement in food resources.

Q.13. Mention three techniques of Hybridization used to achieve desirable agronomic


Q.14.Distinguish between Macro Nutrients and Micro Nutrients

Q.15 Distinguish between Compost and Vermi Compost.

Q.16 Distinguish between Cattle farming and Poultry farming.

Q.17 Distinguish between Fish farming and Bee keeping.


Section : physics

Chapter 8 : Motion
KEY CONCEPTS [ *rating as per the significance of concept ]
1 Motion ****
2 Graphical Representation of Motion ***
& Graphs
3 Equation of motion ****
4 Uniform Circular Motion **

1 Motion (Uniform Motion And Non Uniform Motion, Acceleration and Velocity)
A particle is a point-like object, has mass but infinitesimal size
The objects position is its location with respect to a chosen reference point, In
the diagram, the road sign the reference point
Motion occurs when an object changes its position.
Both Distance and Time are important in describing motion.
Sometimes you know motion has occurred even if you didnt see it happen.
(mail truck)
Relative motion: when two objects are moving in a plane (either in same
direction or opposite) each have relative motion with respect to second. e.g. a
person sitting in a train and watching a tree, in this case tree is stable but is
assumed to be moving but with respect to train.
Distance vs. Displacement
Distance: How far an object has moved. It has only magnitude without
direction. (total)
Displacement: How far and in what direction an object has moved from its
start position. i.e. the direct distance between two points.
Speed = the distance an object travels in a given amount of time

Speed =

sI unit of speed is m/s

Types of Speed
Constant speed: speed doesnt change (set your car on cruise control)
Changing speed: Riding a bike for 5 km. Take off and increase speed, slow
down up hill, speed up down hill, stop for stop sign. The trip took you 15 min
(.25 h)

Average speed:

Instantaneous speed: speed at any given time.

Velocity: includes speed and DIRECTION
Storm is moving at 20km/hr.
Should you be seeking shelter?
Suppose two trains are going with the same speed in opposite direction so
they are having different velocities.
Race car going around an oval track might have constant speed, but
different velocities at each point.
Any change in velocity over a period of time is called acceleration.
The sign (+ or -) of indicates its direction. + sign shows the acceleration and
sign shows de-acceleration.
Uniform (constant) acceleration equation
a = v/t

Images of car are equally spaced.
The car is moving with constant positive velocity (shown by red arrows
maintaining the same size) .
The acceleration equals to zero

Images of car become farther apart as time increases

Velocity and acceleration are in the same direction
Acceleration is uniform (Arrows below the car maintain the same length)
Velocity is increasing (Arrows above the car are getting longer)
This shows positive acceleration and positive velocity

The instant speed at points of equal elevations is the same.

The velocities are different because they are in opposite
Free Fall & Air Resistance

Galileo Galilei Italian physicist and astronomer

Formulated laws of motion for objects in free fall

A freely falling object is any object moving freely under the influence of gravity
It does not depend upon the initial motion of the object
Dropped released from rest
Thrown downward
Thrown upward
The acceleration of an object in free fall is directed downward, regardless of the
initial motion
The magnitude of free fall acceleration (gravitational acceleration) is g = 9.80
g decreases with increasing altitude
g varies with latitude, height and depth from earth surface.
9.80 m/s2 is the average at the Earths surface
The italicized g will be used for the acceleration due to gravity
Not to be confused with g for grams

With negligible air resistance, falling objects can be considered freely falling.
objects of different shapes accelerate differently (stone vs feather)
Speed both upward and downward

The path is symmetrical.
Acceleration is constant.
The magnitude of the velocities is the same at equal heights.
Images become closer together as time increases
Acceleration and velocity are in opposite directions when ball goes upward.
Acceleration is uniform (violet arrows maintain the same length)
Velocity is decreasing in upward motion (red arrows are getting shorter)
Positive velocity and negative acceleration
Velocity becomes zero at maximum height.
Time duration flight in going upward and coming back is always same.
Test Yourself :
1. What is SI Unit of displacement?
2. Name the quantity which represents rate of change of velocity.
3. A particle describes a semicircle of radius l 14m. What are its distance and
displacement covered?
2 Graphical Representation Of Motion & Graphs (Refer to article 8.4 of NCERT text
Test Yourself :
1. What does slope of Position Time graph represent?
2. If velocity time graph is parallel to time axis, what type of motion does it represent?

3 Equation of motion
(1) When object is moving in straight line-
v = vo + at
x = xo + vot + at2
v2 = vo2 + 2a(x)
Average acceleration describes how fast the velocity is changing with respect to
time. x

v t
t t

aave = average acceleration
v = change in velocity
x = displacement
t = elapsed time
(2) when object is coming vertically downward-
v = vo + gt
h = vot + gt2
v2 = vo2 + 2ah
(3) when object is coming vertically upward-
v = vo - gt
h = vot - gt2
v2 = vo2 - 2gh
The SI unit of velocity is the m/s.
Average accleration is + or depending on direction.
Instantaneous Acceleration

a lim
t 0
Instantaneous acceleration is the limit of v/t as t approaches zero.
Instantaneous acceleration is zero where slope is constant
Instantaneous acceleration is positive where curve is concave up
Instantaneous acceleration is negative where curve is concave down

Test Yourself :
1. Give the equation for uniform motion.
2. When a car stops after applying brakes, what is the final velocity?
4 Uniform Circular Motion
In this kind of motion the object moves on circle with fix speed but the direction is
changed by the time so the velocity of the change so its called acceleration motion. This
acceleration is called centrifugal acceleration. It is directed toward the centre.
Test Yourself:
1. What remains constant in uniform circular motion?
2. What changes continuously in uniform circular motion?


One Mark questions

1. Can displacement be zero even when distance is not zero?
2. Can the distance travelled by an object be smaller than magnitude of its displacement?
3. A particle is moving with uniform velocity. What is its acceleration?
4. How can you get speed of an object from its distance time graph?
5. How can you get distance of an object from its speed time graph?
6. A brick & an elephant are in free fall. What is common in their motion?
7. When an object is thrown vertically upwards. What is its velocity at the highest point?
8. Can velocity & acceleration point in opposite directions?
9. Define acceleration.
10. What is non uniform motion?

Two Marks questions

1. Differentiate scalars & vectors?
2. What is retardation? How does it affect the speed?
3. Can speed of a body vary with its velocity constant? Explain.
4. Why is circular motion with constant speed called accelerated motion?
5. State the difference between distance & displacement.

6. What is the difference between speed & velocity?
7. What does a speedometer & odometer indicate?

Three Marks questions

1. If an object is thrown vertically upwards with speed 49 ms-1. How long does it take to
complete upward journey? What maximum height does it achieve?
2. An object starting from rest covers 20 metres in first 2 seconds & 160 metres in next 4
seconds. What is its velocity after 7 seconds from the start?

Five Marks questions

1. Derive all the three equations of motion for uniform acceleration using graphical method.
2. A car a moving at rate of 72km/h and applies brakes which provide a retardation of 5ms-2.
(i) How much time does the car takes to stop.
(ii) How much distance does the car cover before coming to rest?
(iii) What would be the stopping distance needed if speed of the car is doubled?


CHAPTER -9 Force & Laws Of Motion
KEY CONCEPTS [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
1 Balanced and Unbalanced Forces ***

2 Laws of Motion *****

3 Inertia and Mass *****

4 Conservation of Momentum ****

1 Balanced and Unbalanced Forces

Balanced Forces The net force is when two or more forces are applied on
the same object and at the same time. The applied forces combined are
called the net force. = 0 25 N 25 N
Balanced Forces The force I apply in one direction plus the force you apply
in the opposite direction are added together. 25 N -25 N = 0 Because the
forces are equal and balancedjust like a balanced scalethis is an
example of balanced forces. Unbalanced Forces What does it mean to
have something unbalanced? Unequal, not the same, different How could
we have unbalanced forces?

Unbalanced Forces A force is applied in one direction and either another

smaller or larger force is applied in the opposite direction or no force is
applied at all in the opposite direction.
Unbalanced Forces If I have a chair and I push on one side of it with a force

of 50 N and you push on the other side, with a force of 25 N, will the chair
move? Which way will it move? The direction in which the most force is
applied. What is the net force? 50 N 25 N.
Unbalanced Forces 50N -25N = 25N These forces are unequal so the forces
are considered unbalanced forces. 50 N 25 N = 25 N
Unbalanced Forces If I push the chair in one direction with 25 N force and
you push the chair in same direction with 25 N force, will the chair move?
Why? Because the applied net force is UNBALANCED!
Unbalanced Forces 25 N 25 N = 50 N The result would be the chair moving
in the direction it was pushed with a combined force of 50 N.
Test Yourself
1. An object of 5 kg is acted upon by two forces, 70 N each in opposite
directions. What is its acceleration?
2. Why does an object accelerate during free fall?
2 Laws of Motion
Newton's First Law
1st Law An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will
stay in motion at constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced
An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in
motion at constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Newton's Second Law
"If the net force on an object is not zero, the object will accelerate. The
direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the net force.
The magnitude of the acceleration is directly proportional to the net force
applied, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object."
Mathematical symbols provide a convenient shorthand for all of this:

The Effect of Mass
A force applied to an automobile will not have the same effect as the same
force applied to a pencil. An automobile resists accelerating much more
than a pencil does, because it has more inertia, or mass.
The acceleration of an object depends not only on how hard you push on
it, but also on how much the object resists being pushed.
What is the effect of mass on acceleration? This, too, turns out to be quite
simple (I wonder why...). For the same force, an object with twice the mass
will have half the acceleration. If it had three times the mass, the same
force will produce one-third the acceleration. Four times the mass gives
one-fourth of the acceleration, and so on.
This type of relationship between quantities (double one, get half the
other) is called an inverse proportion or inverse variation. In other words,
Newtons Second Law of Motion The acceleration of an object is
dependent upon both force and mass. Thus, if the colliding objects have
unequal mass, they will have unequal accelerations as a result of the
contact force which results during the collision.
Newton's Third Law
Newton's Third Law is stated as:
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
"action...reaction" means that forces always occur in pairs. (Forces are
interactions between objects, like conversations are interactions between

Single, isolated forces never happen. The two forces involved are called
the "action force" and the "reaction force."
These names are unfortunate for a couple of reasons :
Either force in an interaction can be the "action" force or the "reaction"
The action and reaction forces exist at the same time.
"equal" means
Both forces are exactly the same size. They are equal in magnitude.
Both forces exist at exactly the same time. They both start at exactly the
same instant, and they both stop at exactly the same instant. They
are equal in time.
"opposite" means that the two forces always act in opposite directions -
exactly 180o apart.
Newton's third law of motion In every interaction, there is a pair of forces
acting on the two interacting objects. The size of the force on the first
object equals the size of the force on the second object. The direction of
the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the
second object. Forces always come in pairs - equal and opposite action-
reaction force pairs.
Newton's third law of motion applied to collisions between two objects. In
a collision between two objects, both objects experience forces which are
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Such forces cause one object
to speed up (gain momentum) and the other object to slow down (lose
momentum). According to Newton's third law, the forces on the two
objects are equal in magnitude.
Test Yourself
1. Can action reaction balance each other?
2. What does a force do?
3 Inertia and Mass
Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. An
object will continue to move at the same speed in the same direction

unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Inertia & Mass
Inertia & Mass of a bowling ball rolled down the road would eventually
come to a stop. Friction is an unbalanced force that causes the ball to stop
or slow down. Without friction, the ball would keep going.
Inertia & Mass of a bowling ball and a tennis ball have the same inertia.
Inertia & Mass If you had a tennis racket and I threw tennis ball at you,
what would happen? If you had a tennis racket and I threw a bowling ball
at you, what would happen? Why could you change the motion of the
tennis ball but not the motion of the bowling ball?
Mass is the amount of matter in an object. A bowling ball has more mass
than a tennis ball. The greater the mass of an object the greater its inertia.
Mass is the measurement of inertia.
Test Yourself
1. Why do we fall forward if we alight from a moving bus?
2. Why does an athlete run for some distance before long jump?
4 Conservation of Momentum
Law of Conservation of Momentum
In a closed system, the vector sum of the momenta before and after an
impact must be equal.
Before After
m1v1 +m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2
Internal and External Forces

One Mark questions
1. Define momentum.
2. State first law of motion.
3. What is inertia?
4. Can action and reaction balance each other?
5. How does one climb up a rope?
6. Why cannot we walk in space?

7. What does rate of change of momentum represent?
8. Why do we continuously paddle to keep the cycle moving?
9. Why does a scooter tend to skid while executing a sharp turn?
10. Which one would have more inertia : 10 kg mass & 5 kg mass?

Two Marks questions

1. Explain the functioning of shockers in cars.
2. How much force is needed to pull an object of mass 40 kg in vertically upward direction
with acceleration of 2.2 m / s2.
3. Why does a fan keep moving for sometime when switched off?
4. What do you mean by conservation of momentum?
5. Inflated balloon lying on the surface of a floor moves forward when pricked with a pin.

Three Marks questions

1. An iron sphere of mass 10 kg is dropped from a height of 80 cm, if g = 10 m / s2.
Calculate the momentum transferred to the ground by the body.
2. What would be the force required to stop a car of mass 1000 kg and a loaded truck of
mass 10,000 kg in 2 seconds each moving with velocity 5 m / s.
3. Deduce law of conservation of momentum using third law of motion.

Five Mark questions

1. Name and define three different types of inertia & give an example of each.


KEY CONCEPTS [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
1 Gravitation ***

2 Universal Law Of Gravitation ****

3 Free Fall **

4 To Calculate The Value Of G ****

5 Mass & Weight ***

6 Weight Of The Object On Moon ***

7 Thrust & Pressure ***

8 Pressure In Fluids ***

9 Buoyancy ****

10 Why Objects Float Or Sink When ***

Placed On The Surface Of Water?
11 Archimedess Principle *****

12 Relative Density ***

Gravity is one of the most basic forces in the universe. It plays a fundamental role not
only in the structure of our solar system but also in the way objects behave on Earth. In
this section, we will talk about gravity on a small scale. We will discuss topics such as
weight, free fall, and ballistics. We will learn the physics of phenomena we experience
daily and take for granted
Gravitation is the force of attraction between two objects in the universe.
Gravitation may be the attraction of objects by the earth.
This force is proportional to the product of masses of the objects and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance between them. It is independent of medium.

Gravitational force =

Eg :- If a body is dropped from a certain height, it falls downwards due to earths

If a body is thrown upwards, it reaches a certain height and then falls downwards
due to the earths gravity.
Gravitation may be the attraction between objects in outer space.
Eg :- Attraction between the earth and moon.
Attraction between the sun and planets.
A natural force that pulls all objects toward the center of the earth
keeps the moon orbiting
It holds stars together . . .
And binds galaxies together for billions of years .Prevents Planets from losing their

Test yourself:
1. When we move from the poles to the equator. Hence, the value of g
decreases. Why?
2. What is the difference between gravity and gravitation?

2.Universal law of gravitation: - Inverse square law- All bits of matter attract all
other bits of matter..
The universal law of gravitation states that, Every object in the universe attracts
every other object with a force which is directly proportional to product of the
masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

The SI unit of G is N m2 kg -2 and its value is 6.673 x 10-11 N m2 kg -2

The strength of the gravitational attraction between two objects depends on two

How big the objects are (how much mass they have) and
How far apart they are.

Test Yourself
1. What is the difference between gravity and gravitation?
2. What does it mean to say that the Force of gravity is proportional to the masses
of the bodies, and inversely proportional to the distance between them?

3. Free Fall
With negligible air resistance, falling objects can be considered freely falling.
objects of different shapes accelerate differently (stone vs feather)

Test Yourself
1. A coin and a feather are dropped from the roof of a building. Which one will fall to
the ground first

4 .To calculate the value of g (acceleration due to gravity)

The acceleration due to gravity is denoted by g.
The unit of g is same as the unit of acceleration ms -2
From the second law of motion, force is the product of mass and acceleration.

F = ma
For free fall, force is the product of mass and acceleration due to gravity.

F = mg or mg = =

or g =

where M is the mass of the

Earth and d is the distance between the object and the earth.
For objects near or on the surface of the earth d is equal to the radius of the earth R

F = mg or mg = =

or g =

Test Yourself
1. Calculate the value of g on the surface of earth.
2. What is the difference between "weight" and "mass?

5. Mass and Weight:

Mass is a fundamental, universal property. You have the same amount of mass no
matter where you are in the Universe.
Weight is not fundamental its value depends on circumstances in the Universe. Weight
is a force. It is the resultant gravitational force exerted on a body with mass m by all the
other bodies on the Universe.

Weight = Fg = G m Me / R2 = mg
where Me is the mass of the Earth and R is the radius of the Earth.
Test Yourself
1. An astronaut has 80 kg mass on earth (a)what is his weight on earth? (b) What
will be his mass and weight on mars where g=3.7 m/s2 .

2. When you put an object on a spring balance, do you get the mass of an object or
its weight?

6.Weight Of The Object On Moon

The mass of the moon is less than the mass of the earth. So the moon exerts lesser
force on the objects than the earth.

The weight of an object on the moon is one sixth (1/6 th) of its weight on the earth.
The weight of an object on the earth is the force with which the earth attracts the
object and the weight of an object on the moon is the force with which the moon
attracts the object.

Celestial body Mass (kg) Radius (m)

Earth 5.98 x 1024 6.37 x 106

Moon 7.36 x 1022 1.74 x 106

Test Yourself
1. What will be the weight of the body on the moon whose mass is12 kg?

7.Thrust & Pressure

Thrust is the force acting on an object perpendicular to the surface.

Pressure is the force acting on unit area of a surface

Pressure = ----------
The SI unit of thrust is N/m2 or N m-2 . It is called Pascal (Pa).

8. Pressure In Fluids
. Fluids exert pressure in all directions
Pressure exerted on fluids is transmitted equally in all directions.
9. Buoyancy
When an object is immersed in a fluid it experiences an upward force called buoyant
force. This property is called buoyancy or upthrust.

10. Why objects float or sink when placed on the surface of water?
Take some water in a beaker. Take a piece of cork and an iron nail of the same mass.
Place them on the water. The cork floats and the nail sinks.
If the density of an object is less than the density of a liquid, it will float on the liquid
and if the density of an object is more than the density of a liquid, it will sink in the
11. Archeimedes Principle
Archimedes principle states that, When a body is partially or fully immersed
in a fluid it experiences an upward force that is equal to the weight of the
fluid displaced by it.

12 .Relative density
The relative density of a substance is the ratio of the density of a substance
to the density of water. It is a ratio of similar quantities and has no unit.

One Mark questions
1. Explain what Centrifugal force is.
2. What do you mean by the weight of the body on moon.
3. Give the value of G with proper units.
4. Give the value of g with proper units.
5. What is measured by physical balance?

Two Marks questions

1. At what height above the earths surface would the value of acceleration due to gravity
be half of what it is on the surface? Take radius of earth to be R.
2 . A body of 90 kg f on the surface of earth. How much will it weigh on the surface of
moon whose mass is 1/9 and radius is of that of earth?
3. A piece of paper takes much longer to fall than a stone through the same distance.
Explain the reason.
4. Consider a heavenly body which has a mass twice that of the earth and radius thrice
that of the earth .What will be the weight of the book on this heavenly body, if its

weight on earth is 900 N?
Three Marks questions
1. Why gravitational force is usually unnoticeable?
2. Prove that acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass of the body.
3. How can the average density of the earth can be determined?
4. What is buoyancy and buoyant force? Upon what factors do they depend
Five Marks questions
1. Find the percentage change in the weight of a body when it is taken from equator to
poles. The polar radius is 6,357 Km and equatorial radius is 6,378 Km.
2. The density of ice is 918kgm-3 and that of sea water is 1,030kgm-3.An iceberg floats
with a portion 224 liters outside water. Find the volume of iceberg.
3. What are the laws of flotation? Give some illustrations.


CHAPTER 11 Work & Energy
KEY CONCEPTS [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
1 Work Done By A Constant Force ***

2 Energy And Its Forms(Kinetic Energy & *****

Potential Energy)
Are Various Energy Forms Inter convertible?
3 Potential Energy Of An Object At A Height *****

4 Law Of Conservation Of Energy ****

5 Rate Of Doing Work & Commercial Unit Of ****


1.Work Done By A Constant Force

Work is a scalar quantity equal to the product of the displacement x and the
component of the force Fx in the direction of the displacement..
Work is defined as a force acting upon an object to cause a displacement
Mathematically, work can be expressed by the following equation.
W= F x d cos q ( cos 00 = 1)
where F = force, d = displacement, and the angle (theta) is defined as the angle
between the force and the displacement vector
Three things are necessary for the performance of work:
There must be an applied force F.
There must be a displacement x.
The force must have a component along the displacement

Negative Work

The friction force f opposes the displacement
Positive Work

Force F contributes to displacement x.

Test Yourself:
1.Calculate Work when F= 40 N and x = 4 m.
2.Calculate Work when F = -10 N and x = 4 m.
3. A lawn mower is pushed a horizontal distance of 20 m by a force of 200 N directed at an
angle of 300 with the ground. What is the work of this force?
4. A student lifts a 50 pound (lb) ball 4 feet (ft) in 5 seconds (s). How many joules of work has
the student completed?
2.Energy And Its Forms

James Joule
The metric system unit of energy is the joule (J), after James Joule.
Mechanical energy is the energy which is possessed by an object due to its motion or
its stored energy of position

Forms of Energy
Kinetic energy : is the energy of motion

Energy which a body possesses because of its motion, which occurs anywhere
from an atomic level to that of a whole organism

Examples of Kinetic Energy: This is not an all-inclusive list.
Electrical The movement of atoms
Electromagnetic or Radiant The movement of waves
Thermal or Heat The movement of molecules
Motion The movement of objects
Sound The movement through waves

Engineers generally refer to thermal/heat energy as internal energy and use

kinetic energy strictly in reference to motion.
Potential Energy (Stored energy or gravitational energy)
The capacity to do work by virtue of position or configuration
an object can store energy as the result of its position or elastic source
Potential Energy is maximum at the maximum HEIGHT

Energy transformation involves the conversion of one form of energy into another form.
Examples of energy transformation include:

Chemical Food is consumed and converted into motion for playing sports or taking
a test.

Radiant Sunlight is consumed by plants and converted into energy for growth.

Electrical Energy transferred to an oven is converted to thermal energy for heating

our food.

Now you know the basic forms of energy. The next question is What are the energy
There are renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy. A renewable energy source
is a form of energy that is constantly and rapidly replenished by natural processes.
Examples of renewable energy sources include:
Biomass The use of a living or once living organism as fuel

Hydropower The energy produced from the movement of water

Geothermal The use of heat from within the Earth or from the atmosphere
near oceans to warm houses or other buildings

Wind The use of wind to generate electricity

Solar The use of the sun as a source of heat; for instance, to heat a room within a
house, etc.
Energy Conversion
Fossil fuels Chemical Heat Mechanical Electrical
Solar cells Sunlight Electrical
Wind turbines Kinetic Mechanical Electrical
Hydroelectric Gravitational potential Mechanical Electrical
Nuclear Nuclear Heat Mechanical Electrical
Vehicle System Conversion

Mechanical Heat

Test Yourself
1. How much potential energy is lost by a 5Kg object to kinetic energy due a decrease in
height of 4.5 m.
3. Potential energy of an object at a height
An object increases its energy when raised through a height.
The potential energy of an object at a height depends on the ground level or the zero level

4. Law Of Conservation Of Energy

The principle of Conservation of Mechanical Energy
The total mechanical energy (E=KE+PE) of an object remains constant as the object moves,
provided that the net work done by external non-conservative forces is zero, Wnc=0J
Total mechanical energy: the sum of kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy
E = KE + PE
Wnc = (KEf - KE0) + (PEf - PE0)
Wnc = (KEf + PEf) - (KE0 + PE0)
Wnc = Ef - E0
Ef = KEf + PEf) E0 = KE0 + PE0

5. Rate of Doing Work & Commercial Unit Of Energy
Rate at which work is performed or energy is expended

Watt is the base unit of Power
One watt is equal to 1 joule of work per second
Types of Power
Electrical Power
Uses electrical energy to do work
Mechanical Power
Uses mechanical energy to do work (linear, rotary)
Fluid Power
Uses energy transferred by liquids (hydraulic) and gases (pneumatic)
Power is the rate that we use energy.
Power = Work or Energy / Time
P = W/t = F x d/t = F v
The unit joule is too small .The bigger unit of energy called kilowatt hour (kW h)
1 kW h is the energy used in one hour
at the rate of 1000 J s1 (or 1 kW).
1 kW h = 1 kW *1 h
= 1000 W*3600 s
= 3600000 J
1 kW h = 3.6 x 106 J.

Test Yourself
1. A 5 Kg Cart is pushed by a 30 N force against friction for a distance of 10m in 5
seconds. Determine the Power needed to move the cart.
2. A student lifts a 50.0 pound (lb) ball 4.00 feet (ft) in 5 .00seconds (s). How many
watts of power are used to lift the ball?

Important Points for Work Problems:

Always draw a free-body diagram, choosing the positive x-axis in the same
direction as the displacement.
Work is negative if a component of the force is opposite displacement
Work done by any force that is at right angles with displacement will be zero
For resultant work, you can add the works of each force, or multiply the
resultant force times the net displacement.
Energy is the ability to move
Potential is stored energy (Statics)
Dependant on height
Kinetic is moving energy (Dynamics)
Dependant on velocity
Springs store energy dependant on distance and constant

One mark questions
1. Does work have a direction?
2. Does the kinetic energy of an object depend on its direction of motion?
3. Cam matter be converted into energy?
4. Give an example of conversion of chemical energy into heat energy.
Two marks questions

1. Two persons do the same amount of work. The first person does it in 10 s and
the second, in 20 s.Find the ratio of the power used by the person to that by the
second person.
2. A body of mass 25 g has a momentum of 0.40 kgm/s.Find its kinetic energy.
3. Define work and write its units.
4. By what factor does the kinetic energy of an object depend on its direction of
Three marks questions
1. How much time will it take to perform 440 j of work at a rate of 11 W.
2. A body of mass 3.0kg and a body B of mass 10 kg are dropped simultaneously
from a height of 14.9m.Calculate their Momenta, their Potential energies and
kinetic energies when they are 10m above the ground.
3. lA man does 200j ofl work in 10 seconds and a boy does 100j of work in 4
seconds. Who is delivering more power? Find the Ratio of power delivered by the
man to that by the boy.
Five marks questions
1. Show that the work done by a force is given by the product of the force
and the projection of the displacement along the force.
2. Find the expression for gravitational potential energy of a body of mass m
at height h.
3. Why does a person standing for a long time get tired when he does not
appear to do any work?
4. How can you justify that a body kept at a greater height has larger


CHAPTER 12 Sound
KEY CONCEPTS [ *rating as per the significance of concept]
1 Production of Sound ****

2 Propagation of Sound *****

3 Reflection of Sound *****

4 Echo ****

5 Uses Of Multiple Reflection ***

Of Sound
6 Range of Hearing ***

7 Applications of Ultrasound **

8 SONAR **

9 Structure of Human Ear ****

1. Production of Sound
Sound is produced due to the vibration of objects. Vibration is the rapid to and fro motion of an
Vibrating objects are the source of all sounds Irregular, chaotic vibrations produce noise Regular,
controlled vibration can produce music All sound is a combination of pure frequencies
A stretched rubber band when plucked vibrates and produces sound.

2. Propagation of Sound
When an object vibrates, the particles around the medium vibrate. The particle in contact with the
vibrating object is first displaced from its equilibrium position
The disturbance produced by the vibrating body travels through the medium but the particles do not
move forward themselves.
A wave is a disturbance which moves through a medium by the vibration of the particles of the
medium. So sound is considered as a wave.Sound waves Require medium for transmission.Sound
waves are called mechanical waves. When a vibrating object moves forward, it pushes and
compresses the air in front of it forming a region of high pressure called compression (C). When the
vibrating object moves backward, it forms a region of low pressure called rarefaction (R).

A vibrating object producing a series of compressions (C) and rarefaction (R)
In these waves the particles move back and forth parallel to the direction of propagation of the
disturbance. Such waves are called longitudinal waves.
There is another kind of waves called transverse waves. In these waves the particles oscillate up
and down perpendicular to the propagation of the direction of disturbance.
Sound propagates in a medium as a series of compressions (C) and rarefactions (R).
Compressions are the regions of high pressure and density where the particles are crowded and
are represented by the upper portion of the curve called crest.
Rarefactions are the regions of low pressure and density where the particles are spread out and
are represented by the lower portion of the curve called trough
Characteristics of a sound wave

Frequency of sound wave

The number of oscillations per unit time is called the frequency of the sound wave.
It is represented by the symbol (Greek letter nu). Its SI unit is hertz (Hz)

Time period of sound wave
Frequency and time are represented as follows:-
for one oscillation
1 1
T = ---- or = ----
Amplitude of sound wave
The amplitude of sound wave is the height of the crest or tough.
It is represented by the letter A.
The SI unit is the same as that of density or pressure.

Wavelength and Amplitude

The wavelength is the distance between the "crests" of two waves that are next to each other.
The amplitude is how high the crests are.
Pitch and loudness of sound
The pitch of sound (shrillness or flatness) depends on the frequency of vibration.
If the frequency is high, the sound has high pitch and if the frequency is low, the sound
has low pitch
Speed of sound
The speed of sound is more in solids, less in liquids and least in gases.
The speed of sound also depends on the temperature of the medium. If the temperature
of the medium is more, the speed of sound is more
3. Reflection of Sound
Sound gets reflected at the surface of a solid or liquid and follows the laws of reflection.
i) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

ii) The incident ray, the reflected ray and normal at the point of incidence all lie in the
same plane.

4. Echo
If we shout or clap near a reflecting surface like tall building or a mountain, we hear the
same sound again. This sound which we hear is called echo. It is caused due to the reflection
of sound.
To hear an echo clearly, the time interval between the original sound and the echo
must be at least 0.1 s.
Since the speed of sound in air is 344 m/s, the distance travelled by sound in 0.I s = 344
m/s x 0.1 s = 34.4 m
So to hear an echo clearly, the minimum distance of the reflecting surface should be
half this distance that is 17.2 m.
Echoes may be heard more than once due to repeated or multiple reflections of sound
from several reflecting surfaces. This causes persistence of sound called reverberation.
In big halls or auditoriums to reduce reverberation, the roofs and walls are covered by
sound absorbing materials like compressed fibre boards, rough plaster or draperies.
5. Uses Of Multiple Reflection Of Sound
Megaphones, horns, musical instruments like trumpets, etc. are deigned to send sound by
multiple reflection in a particular direction without spreading in all directions.
ii) Doctors listen to sounds from the human body through a stethoscope. The sound of
heartbeat reaches the doctors ears by multiple reflection.
iii) Generally the ceilings of cinema halls and auditoriums are curved so that sound after
multiple reflection reaches all parts of the hall.

Sometimes a curved sound board is placed behind the stage so that sound after multiple
reflection spreads evenly across the hall.
6. Range of Hearing
Human beings can hear sound frequencies between 20 Hz and 2000 Hz.
Sound whose frequency is less than 20 Hz is called infrasonic sound
Sound whose frequency is more than 2000 Hz is called ultrasonic sound
7. Uses of ultrasonic sound
Ultrasonic sound is used to clean objects like electronic Components, used to detect cracks
in metal blocks, used in ultra sound scanners for getting images of internal organs of the
human body used to break small stones formed in the kidneys into fine grains.
8 Sonar
It is a device which uses ultrasonic waves to measure distance, direction and speed of
underwater objects. The distance of the object can be calculated by knowing the speed of
sound in water and the time taken between the transmission and reception of ultrasound

9.Structure of the human ear

The sound waves passes through the ear canal to a thin membrane called eardrum. The
eardrum vibrates. The vibrations are amplified by the three bones of the middle ear called

hammer, anvil and stirrup. Middle ear then transmits the sound waves to the inner ear. The
brain then interprets the signals as sound.
One mark questions
1. What do you understand by sound waves?
2. Give an example to show that sound travels at a finite speed.
3. Is sound wave longitudinal or transfer.
4. Name two quantities that vary periodically at a place in air as a sound wave
travels through it .
5. An airplane produces a sound wave with frequency of 5 KHz and wavelength
30 m. In how much time would the sound wave cover the distance of 4 Km?

6. With the help of a diagram show how longitudinal waves like sound waves
travel in air.
7. With the help of a diagram show how longitudinal waves like sound waves
travel in air.

8. Can we hear the ringing of a mobile phone placed in a vacuum chamber?

9. Can two astronauts talk on moon a they does on the surface of the earth?

Two marks questions

1. Explain how echoes are used by bats to judge the distance of an obstacle?
2. State the special properties of ultrasound that make it useful to us .In
general, how these properties are utilized.
3. Why is soft furnishing avoided in concert halls?
4. Draw a diagram depicting low pitched sound and high pitched sound and
write main difference between the two?
5. Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves. Give one example
6. An explosion takes place at the moon. After what time would it be heard at
the earth?

Three marks questions
1. Two sources A and B vibrate with the same amplitude. They produce sounds
of frequencies 1 kHz and 30 kHz respectively. Which of the two waves will
have greater power?
2. Find the time period of the source of a sound wave whose frequency is
3. A sound wave travels at a speed of 340m/s. If its wavelength is 2 cm, what is
the frequency of the wave? Will it be in the audible range?
4. The grandparents and parents of a two year girl are playing with her in a
room. A sound source produces a 28kHzsound.who in the room is most
likely to hear the sound?

Five marks questions

1. Sound cannot travel in vacuum. Describe an experiment to demonstrate this.
2. With the help of a diagram describe how compression and rarefaction pulses
are produced in air near a source of sound.
3. Explain briefly how a flaw in a mental component can be detected using
4. Explain the working and application of SONAR.
5. A monkey drops a coconut from the top of a tree. He hears the sound of the
coconut hitting the ground 2.057 seconds after dropping it .If the monkey
was 19.6 metres above the ground, what is the speed of sound in air?(take g
= 9.8m/s2).
6. Draw a neat diagram of human ear. Explain the function of various parts.

What have you learnt

Longitudinal waves: Those in which the direction of vibration is the same as their direction
of propagation. So the movement of the particles of the medium is either in the same or in
the opposite direction to the motion of the wave. Exemple: sound waves, what changes in
this case is the pressure of the medium (air, water or whatever it be).

Transverse waves: The oscillations occur perpendicularly to the direction of energy transfer.
Exemple: a wave in a tense string. Here the varying magnitude is the distance from the
equilibrium horizontal position
A general property of waves is that their speed relative to medium depends on the
properties of medium but is independent of the motion of the source of waves. If the
observer is in motion with respect to the medium, the velocity of wave propagation relative
to the observer wil be different. A remarkable exception is encountered in the case of light
- Wavelength
- Period
- Amplitude
- Intensity
- Speed
- Direction
Perception of Sound
For humans, hearing is limited to frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20000 Hz, with the
upper limit generally decreasing with age.


Vibration - repetitive back and forth motion

Periodic motion - a motion that repeats itself
Mechanical waves require medium for propagation
Waves move through medium but medium remains in place
Longitudinal waves-Vibration direction parallel to wave propagation direction Particles in
medium move closer together/farther apart .Example: sound waves
Gases and liquids - support only longitudinal waves
Transverse waves-
Vibration direction perpendicular to wave propagation direction .Example: plucked string
Solids - support both longitudinal and transverse waves Sound waves Require medium for
1. Sound is a wave motion, produced by a vibrating source.
2. A medium is necessary for the propagation of sound waves.
3. Sound is a longitudinal wave in which the particles of medium move along the direction of
motion of wave.
4. The part or region of a longitudinal wave in which the density of the particles of the
medium is higher than the normal density is known as compression.
5. The part or region of a longitudinal wave in which the density of the particles of the
medium is lesser than the normal density is called a rarefaction.
6. The point of maximum positive displacement on a transverse wave is known as crest.
7. The point of maximum negative displacement on a transverse wave is known as through.
8. A wave or short duration which is confined to a small portion of a medium at any given
time is known as a pulse.
9. The maximum displacement of particles of the medium from their mean positions during
the propagation of a wave is known as amplitude of the wave.
10. The distance traveled by a wave in one second is called wave velocity. It depends upon
the nature of the medium through which it passes.
11. The speed of sound depends primarily on the nature and the temperature of the
transmitting medium.
12. Sound travels faster in solids than in air. The speed of sound in solids is much more than
the speed of sound in liquids or gases.
13. The distance between two consecutive compressions or two consecutive rarefactions is
called the wavelength.
14. Frequency is defined as the number of oscillations per second.
15. The time taken by the wave for one complete oscillation of the density or pressure of
the medium is called the time period, T.
16. How the brain interprets the frequency of an emitted sound is called the pitch of sound.
17. Loudness is the degree of sensation of sound produced.
18. Sound properties such as pitch, loudness and quality are determined by the
corresponding wave properties.
19. Sound gets reflected and follows the same law as the reflection of light.
20. The persistence of sound due to repeated reflection and its gradual fading away is called
reverberation of sound.
21. Echo is a repetition of sound due to the reflection of original sound by a large and hard
22. The audible range of hearing for average human beings is in the frequency range of 20
Hz 20 kHz.
23. The amount of sound energy passing each second through unit area is called the
intensity of sound.
24. Sound of frequency less than 20 Hz is known as infrasound and greater than 20 kHz is
known as ultrasound.
25. Ultrasound has many medical and industrial applications.
26. SONAR stands for Sound Navigation and Ranging and it works on the principle of
reflection of sound waves.
27. The SONAR technique is used to determine the depth of the sea and to locate under
water hills, valleys, submarines, icebergs sunken ships etc.


NCERT text book for class IX
Foundation science for class IX By- H C Verma
Self study in Science By-Evergreen Publications 10/story/hoi/ball.html
McGraw-Hill dictionary of engineering. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (1997). Daedalus.
Retrieved April 2, 2008, from
U.S. Department of Energy. (2008). Scientific forms of energy. Retrieved March
23, 2008, from


Summative Assessment I (SA 1 Term I)

Time: 3 hours M.M.: 90

S.N Form of questions MM VSA SA- I SA-II LA MCQ TOTAL

o Chapters
1. FOOD 13
a) Improvement in food resources ----- ----- 2(6) 1(5) 2(2) 5(13)
2. Matter - its Nature & Behaviour 29
a) Ch.1-Matter in our surroundings 1(1) ----- 1(3) 1(5) 5(5)
b) Ch.2-Is matter around us pure ----- 1(2) 1(3) 1(5) 5(5) 16(29)
3. Organisation in the living world 18
a) Ch.5 Fundamental unit of life 1(1) 1(2) 1(3) ------ 2(2)
b) Ch.6 Tissues ----- 1(2) 2(6) ------ 2(2) 10(18)
4. Motion , Force & Work 30
a) Ch.8- Motion ----- ----- 1(3) 1(5) 6(6)
b) Ch.9-Force and Law of motion 1(1) ----- 2(6) 1(5) 2(2) 11(30)
c) Ch.10- Gravitation ----- 1(2) 2(6) ----- -----
TOTAL 90 3(3) 4(8) 12(36) 5(25) 18(18) 42(90)

Summative Assessment I (SA 1 - Term I )

MAX. Marks: 90 TIMES: 3 Hrs.

General Instructions:
a. The question paper comprises of two sections A and B, you are to attempt both the
b. All questions are compulsory.
c. There is no overall choice. However internal choice has been provided in all the three
questions of five marks category. Only one option in each question is to be
d. Questions from 1 to 3 in section A are one mark questions these are to be answered
in one word or a sentence.
e. Questions from 4 to 7 in section A are Two marks questions. These are to be
answered in about 30 word each.
f. Questions from 8 to 19 in section A are Three marks questions These are to be
answered in about 50 word each.
g. Questions from 20 to 24 in section A carry five marks questions. These are to be
answered in 70 words each.
h. Questions from 25 to 42 in section B are multiple choice questions based on practical
skills. Each question is one mark question. You are to select one most appropriate
response out of the four provided to you.

1. A substance has a definite volume but no definite shape. State whether this 1
substance is a solid, liquid or a gas.

2. What is the resultant force of a number of balanced forces acting on body? 1
3. Name the plastids which have chlorophyll . 1
4. State the difference between homogeneous & heterogeneous mixture . Give one 2
example of each.
5. What is the relation between the mass and the weight of the body ? What are the 2
differences between the two ?
6. State two differences between a mitochondria and plastid. 2
7. Mention the significance of meristems in plants. 2
8. Give reasons : 3
a) A sponge can be pressed easily; still it is called a solid.
b) Water vapours have more energy than water at same temperature.
c) Naphthalene balls disappear with time without leaving any solid.
9. What is meant by concentration of a solution. Calculate the concentration of a 3
solution which contains 12 g of urea in 160 g of solution.
10. Consider the following details. Can you interpret the type of motion shown by car A 3
and car B? Show calculations.


11. Which of the following has more inertia & Why ? 3

a) A rubber ball and a stone of the same size .
b) A bicycle and a train.
12. Two similar trucks are moving with a same velocity on a road. One of them is loaded 3
while the other is empty. Which of the two will require a larger force to stop it?
13. Consider two bodies A and B. The body B is heavier than A. Which of the bodies is 3
attracted with a greater force by earth? Which of the two will fall with greater
acceleration? Explain.
14. Show that if a body is taken to a height H above the earths surface acceleration due 3

to gravity is decreased by the factor R2 /(R+H)2 ,Where R is the radius of the earth.
15. State the ways in which phloem is functionally different from Xylem. 3
16. Draw a neat diagram of a section of Phloem and label four parts. 3
17. Give one important functional difference amongst the muscle tissues and draw a 3
labeled diagram of the muscle tissue which never shows fatigue.
18. Which cell organelle would you associate with elimination of old and worn out cells 3
& Why?
19. Which two factors bring about loss of food grains during storage? Give one example 3
each. State any two control measures to be taken before grains are stored.
20. a) Account for the following: 5
i) Hydrogen is considered an element.
ii) Water is regarded as compound.
b) What is the physical state of water at i) 250C ii) 100C ?
a) What is meant by evaporation? What are the factors on which the rate of
evaporation depend upon?
b) How does evaporation cause cooling?
21. a) Name the process you would use to : 5
i) recover sugar from an aqueous sugar solution.
ii) separate mixture of salt solution and sand.
b) Which of the following will show Tyndal Effect & why ?
i) Salt Solution ii) Milk
iii) Copper Sulphate Solution iv) Starch Solution
a) How are sol, solution and suspension different from each other?
b) Which of the following is chemical change? Justify.
i) Rusting of iron ii) Mixing of iron fillings and sand
iii) Cooking of food iv) Freezing of water
22. The graph below represents the distance-time graph of two cars A and B. Which car 5
is moving with a greater speed when both are moving and why?

Define uniform acceleration . Derive the following equations considering uniform
a) s = ut + at2
b) v2 = u2 + 2as
23. Identify whether it is balanced or unbalanced force that causes the following 5
different types of movement.
(i) A person resting in an armchair.
(ii) A cyclist braking.
(iii) A lorry travelling at a constant speed on a straight road.
(iv) A car that has a deceleration of 10 m/s2.
Explain hoe Newtons second law can be used to define the unit of force. Define the
SI unit of force.
24. How crop variety improvement methods come to the rescue of farmers facing 5
repeated crop failure? Describe three factors for which they could do crop
Which is the most common method of obtaining improved variety of crops? Explain
A poultry farmer wants to increase his broiler production. Explain three
management practices followed to enhance the yield
In what way is the daily food requirement of broiler different from those of egg

25. Pick out a colloid from the following : 1

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Sugar Salt Muddy Milk
solution solution solution
26. Egg albumin in water forms : 1
a) True solution b) Colloid
c) Suspension d) None of these
27. Which of the following represents a correct set of observations for a mixture of 1
common salt and water?
Transparency Stability Filtration

a) Transparent Unstable No residue

b) Transparent Stable No residue
c) Translucent Stable No residue
d) Opaque Unstable Residue
28. When a mixture of iron fillings and sulphur is heated , the colour of the mixture 1
changes from :
a) Black to yellow b) Yellow to black
c) Greyish yellow to black d) Black to brown
29. The colour of hydrated copper sulphate is : 1
a) Blue b) Colourless
c) Brown d) Yellow

30. What happens when Zn granules react with dilute sulphuric acid : 1
a) Bubbles due to colourless , odourless gas are formed and colourless solution is
b) No reaction takes place.
c) Pungent smelling gas comes out.
d) No gas evolved.
31. What happens when iron nails are added to copper sulphate solution : 1
a)The solution becomes pale green and reddish brown copper metal gets
b) The solution becomes colourless.
c) There is no reaction .
d) Copper displaces iron.
32. Which of the following substances sublimes on heating : 1
a) Iodine b) Camphor
c) Naphthalene d) All of these
33. At what temperature ice and water both exist together under normal atmospheric 1
pressure ?
a) Below 273.16 K b) Above 273.16 K
c) At 273.16 K d) None of these
34. Recovery of salt from salt solution in water can be done by : 1
a) Evaporation b) Distillation
c) Filtration d) None of these
35. If a particle moves with a constant speed , the distance time graph is a 1
a) straight line b) circle
c) straight vertical line d) polygon
36. In circular motion the 1
a) direction of motion is fixed b) direction of motion changes continuously
c) acceleration is zero d) velocity is constant
37. If no force acts on a body, it will 1
a) get de-shaped b) Move with increasing speed
c) Either remain at rest or move in a straight line d) Break

38. The steps for conducting the starch test on the given sample of rice grains are 1
i) Crush the rice grains
ii) Add water to the test tube
iii) Add few drops of iodine
iv ) Boil the contents and filter
The most appropriate order in which the steps should be followed are
a) ii, iii, I, iv b) ii, I, iii, iv
c) iii, iv, I, ii d) I, ii, iv, iii
39. While preparing a temporary mount of the Cheek cells, the reason behind staining 1
the cells is
a) To prevent the cells from dying quickly
b) To preserve them
c) To distinct them
d) To make them the organelles clearly visible
40. Girt is formed in some fruits due to 1
a) Sclereids b) Parenchyma c) Fibres d) Collenchyma
41. A pulse is a/an: 1
a) An isolated wave a very short duration
b) Group of 1-3 waves
c) Group of large number of waves
d) Electrical in nature having many waves
42. Which of the following has the largest inertia? 1
a) A pin b) An ink pot
c) Your physics text book d) Your body


Summative Assessment II (SA 2 - Term II)

Time: 3 hours M.M.: 90

S.No Form of questions Mar VSA SA- I SA-II LA MCQ TOTAL

Chapters ks
1. Matter - its Nature & Behaviour 17
a) Ch.3- Atom & Molecules 1(1) ----- 1(3) 1(5) 2(2) 5(11)
b) Ch.4- Structure of atom ----- 2(6) ------ ------ 2(6)
2. Organisation in the living world 25
a) Ch.7 - Diversity in living organisms 1(1) 1(2) 2(6) 1(5) 6(6) 11(20)
b) Ch.13 Why do we fall ill ? ----- 1(2) 1(3) ------ ------ 2(5)
3. Motion , Force & work 36
a) Ch.10 Gravitation (Floatation) ----- 1(2) 1(3) ----- 6(6) 8(11)
b) Ch.11 Work ----- 1(2) 2(6) 1(5) ------ 4(13)
c) Ch.12 Sound ----- ----- 1(3) 1(5) 4(4) 6(12)
4. Our Environment 12
a) Ch.14 Natural Resources 1(1) ----- 2(6) 1(5) ----- 4(12)
TOTAL 90 3(3) 4(8) 12(36) 5(25) 18(18) 42(90)


Summative Assessment II (SA 2 - Term II)

MAX. Marks: 90 TIMES: 3 Hrs.

General Instructions:
a. The question paper comprises of two sections A and B, you are to attempt both the
b. All questions are compulsory.
c. There is no overall choice. However internal choice has been provided in all the three
questions of five marks category. Only one option in each question is to be
d. Questions from 1 to 3 in section A are one mark questions these are to be answered
in one word or a sentence.
e. Questions from 4 to 7 in section A are Two marks questions. These are to be
answered in about 30 word each.
f. Questions from 8 to 19 in section A are Three marks questions These are to be
answered in about 50 word each.
g. Questions from 20 to 24 in section A carry five marks questions. These are to be
answered in 70 words each.
h. Questions from 25 to 42 in section B are multiple choice questions based on practical
skills. Each question is one mark question. You are to select one most appropriate
response out of the four provided to you.

1. Give an example of tri atomic gas. 1
2. The growth in plants is limited to certain regions. What is the reason? 1
3. How the frequency of wave is related to its time period? 1
4. State the factors on which work done depends. 2
5. What are the main points of the Cell Theory proposed by Sclieden and Schwan? 2

6. A car with a speed of 25m/s weighing 900 Kg stops at a distance of 40 metres. Calculate 2
the force exerted and the and work done by the brakes.
7. What is Relative Density ? If an object is immersed wholly in a liquid causing upthrust 2
equal to the weight of the body, then what will be the relation between the Relative
densities of liquid and the object.
8. What is Symbiosis? Name a symbiotic life form. Mention the specific organisms which 3
display the symbiotic relationship in this life form.
9. Write the formulas & names of the compounds formed between : 3
a) Sodium and carbonate ions
b) Aluminium and sulphate ions
c) Barium and chloride ions
10. a) Calculate molar mass of S8. 3

b) Convert into mole : i) 12 gram of oxygen gas

ii) 32 gram of oxygen molecule
11. Write three significant features of Bohrs Model of atom. 3
12. Suppose a man is trying to push a wall. But the wall doesn't move. What is the amount 3
of work done? Calculate the amount of work done in lifting a body of mass 3 Kg through
a distance of 11 metres.
13. Explain the salient features of Phylum Mollusca. 3
14. a) What are Concentrates in animal feed ? 3
b) Name two Internal Parasites that cause diseases in animals.
15. a) Describe an activity to demonstrate the process of Osmosis. 3
b) How does carbon dioxide move in and out of cells?
16. Give three differences, between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. 3
17. Calculate the wavelength of a sound wave whose frequency is 220 Hz and speed is 440 3
m /s in a given medium.
18. Explain the principle behind the wind up toys. 3
A cat and a mouse are running with the same speed. If the weight of the cat is 20 times
that of mouse, what is the ratio of their kinetic energy?
19. State Archimedes Principle. Why does an object float or sink in water ? 3

20. a) State the Law of conservation of mass & Law of definite proportion with the help of 5
one example each.
b) What are polyatomic ios ? Give two examples.
a) State any two differences between an atom and molecule.
22 20 22 20
b) How 10 Z and 10 Z related to each other and why ? If abundance of 10 Z and 10 Z is

90% & 10% respectively then calculate the average atomic mass of Z?
21. Which part of the ear contains the actual hearing organ? Draw the structure of the ear 5
and label it.
Show that the reflector must be situated at a least distance from the observer for
formation of distinct echo. What is the value of this distance at room temperature?
Why ceilings of concert halls and conference halls are made curved?
22. a) What is transformation of energy? Explain with any two suitable examples. 5
b) What must be the velocity of a moving body of mass 2 kg so that its K.E. is 25 J?
c) Represent graphically constant force acting on a body producing a displacement along
the direction of motion on a force-displacement graph. What is the significance of force-
displacement graph?
a) Define potential energy. Give two examples.
b) Two bodies of different masses m1 and m2 (m1 > m2) have same kinetic energy. They
are stopped by applying same retarding force. Which body will stop first?
23. a) Why do we classify organisms ? Write its any four advantages. 5
b) Why is there a need for systematic naming of living organisms ?
Write four conventions that are followed while writing scientific names of the species.
a) What are the basis of putting plants and animals in two different categories ? Write
one main difference between fungi and plantae.
b) Classify the following in their respective phylum / class; Jellyfish , Earthworm ,
Cockroach, Rat.

24. With the help of a labeled diagram, show 5
a) Nitrogen cycle in nature.
b) Describe briefly any two processes involved in the cycling of N2 in the atmosphere.
With the help of a labeled diagram show the cycling of carbon in nature. What are the
two ways in which carbon-di-oxide is fixed in the environment.

25. State the chemical reaction between Barium Chloride (aqueous) & Sodium Sulphate 1
(aqueous) .
a) BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO4 (white ppt) + 2NaCl (aq)
b) BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO3 (red ppt) + 2NaCl (aq)
c) Both (a) & (b)
d) None of these
26. In accordance with the law of conservation of mass give the co-efficient of O2 in the 1
C5H12 + O2 5CO2 + 6H2O
a) 4 b) 6
c) 8 d) 2
27. Which of the following is not an aerial adaptation of a bird? 1
a) Presence of strong flight muscles.
b) Presence of vertebral column
c) Streamlined body
d) Forelimbs modified into wings.
28. The time period of a sound wave travelling in a medium is T. At a given instance (t=0) a 1
particular region in the medium has minimum density. The density of this region will be
minimum again at
a) t=T b) t=T/2
c) t=T/3 d) t=T/4
29. Which of the following is not an aquatic adaptation : 1
a) Streamlined body b) Hollow bones
c) Presence of Gills c) Presence of fins

30. The frequency ,wavelength and speed of a sound wave are related as : 1
a) v= xV b) =V x
c) = / V d) V = x
31. If a flower has 6 petals which type of a plant would it be ? 1
a) Dicot b) Monocot
c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of these
32. If the density of air in the lab ,at a point through which a sound wave is passing is 1
maximum at an instant , the pressure at that point will be :
a) Minimum b) Same as the density of air
c) Equal to the atmospheric pressure d) Maximum
33. Amphibians of the plant kingdom are : 1
a) Thallophyta
b) Pteridophyta
c) Bryophyta
d) None of these
34. Choose the option which includes the feature that helps the fish to change its direction 1
a) caudal fin and pelvic fin
b) Dorsal fin and anal fin
c) Dorsal fin only
d) Caudal fin only
35. You are shown two slides of plant tissues; Parenchyma and Sclerenchyma. You can 1
identify the Sclerenchyma by the:
a) location of nucleus b) thickness of the cell wall
c) size of the cell d) position of vacuoles
36. A sound wave consists of : 1
a)A number of compression pulses one after the other
b) A number of rarefaction pulses one after the other.
c) Compression and rarefaction pulses one after the other.
d) A compression and rarefaction pulse separated by a distance equal to one

37. Wave produced along a compressed spring are : 1
a) Longitudinal wave b) Transverse wave
c) Seismic wave d) Electromagnetic wave
38. Water meniscus in a graduated cylinder is of concave shape.While finding the volume, 1
the correct reading will correspond to :
a) upper end of meniscus
b) lower end of meniscus
c) the midpoint of meniscus
d) anywhere on the meniscus
39. The buoyant force on a body acts in a :
a) vertically downward direction b) vertically upward direction
c) Horizontal direction d) direction between the horizontal and
40. While taking readings on the spring balance what are the things you should take into 1
account ?
a) Zero error b) Least count
c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of these
41. A body floats in a liquid if the buoyant force is: 1
a) Zero b) Greater than its weight
c) Less than its weight d) equal to its weight
42. Two bodies of unequal masses are dropped from the table. At any instant , they have 1
a) Momentum b)acceleration
c) Potential energy d)Kinetic energy


Chapter8 ----MOTION
Answer the following by choosing the correct option

1 Rate of change of displacement is called

a. Speed c. acceleration
b. Velocity d. deceleration

2 Acceleration is a vector quantity, which indicates that its value

a. Can be positive, negative or zero c. Is always positive
b. Is always negative d. Is zero

3 A man travels a distance of 20 km from his home to office, and 10 km towards his
house back. Then the displacement covered by the man in the whole trip is
a. 30 km c. 10 km
b. zero km d. 50 km

4 A farmer moves along the boundary of a square field of side 10 m in 40 sec.The

magnitude of displacement of the farmer at the end of 2 minutes 20 seconds from his
initial position is
a. 10m c. 40m
b. 30m d. 102m

5 An object travels 20m in 5 sec and then another 40m in 5 sec. What is the average
speed of the object?
a. 12m/s c. 2m/s
b. 6m/s d. 0 m/s

6 Formula to find the average velocity of a body is given by

a. V= u+ at c. S= ut + a t2
b. Sn ={u + a/2(2n-1)} d. Vav=(u + v)/2

7 SI Unit of measurement of acceleration is

a. m/s c. m/s2
b. m/hr d. M

8 An example of a body moving with constant speed but still accelerating is

a. A body moving with constant c. A body moving with constant
speed in a circular path speed on a straight road
b. A body moving in a helical path d. A body moving with constant
with constant speed speed on a straight railway
9 The acceleration of a body from a velocity time graph is
a. Equal to the slope of the graph c. Area under the graph
b. Is denoted by a line parallel to the d. Is denoted by a line parallel to
time axis at any point on the the distance axis at any point
distance axis on the time axis

10 Distance covered by a body from velocity-time graph is

a. Area under the graph c. Equal to the slope of the graph

b. Is denoted by a line parallel to the d. Is denoted by a line parallel to
time axis at any point on the the distance axis at any point
distance axis on the time axis

Answer the following from the above graph

11 From the figure the body is moving with

a Variable Acceleration c Zero Acceleration
b Constant Acceleration d Zero velocity

12 Distance covered by the body during the interval from 10sec to 20 sec is
a 200m c 270m
b 360m d 400m

13 At the point A the body is at a distance of

a 180m c 200m
b 300m d 50m

14 The velocity of the body at the point B is

a 40m/s c 50m/s
b 36m/s d 20m/s

15 In the total journey the body has travelled up to a distance of

a 1000m c 900m
b 800m d 270m

16 What does the slope of distance - time graph give?

a Speed c uniform speed
b acceleration d both[a] and [c] depending upon
the time of graph

17 From the given v-t graph (figure) it can be inferred that the object is moving


a uniform velocity c non uniform velocity
b At rest d moving with uniform


1 There will be a change in the speed or in the direction of motion of a body
when it is acted upon by
a. Uniform force c. Zero Force
b. An Unbalanced force d. Balanced Force

2 Force required in accelerating a 2 kg mass at 5 m/s2 and a 4 kg mass at 2

a. Same in both the cases c. 2kg mass at 5m/s2 is greater
than 4 kg mass at 2 m/s2
b. 2kg mass at 5m/s is less than 4 d. Zero in both the cases
kg mass at 2 m/s2

3 Formula to find the Force is

a. F= ma c. F= m/a
b. F= a/m d. a=Fm

4 Inertia is a measure of
a. Force c. acceleration
b. Mass d. velocity

5. An object of mass 2 kg is sliding with a constant velocity of 4 m/ s on a

frictionless horizontal table. The force required to keep the object moving with
the same velocity is
a. 32N c. 8N
b. 0N d. 2N

6. Rocket works on the principle of conservation of

a. Mass c. momentum
b. Energy d. velocity

7. A passenger in a moving train tosses a coin which falls

a. In front of him c. Behind him
b. Falls outside the train d. Will not move

8. In the following example, try to identify the number of times the velocity of
ball changes:
A football player kicks a football to another player of his team who kicks the
football towards the goal. The goalkeeper of the opposite team collects the
football and kicks it towards a player of his own team.
a. Five times c. Four times

b. Three times d. Six times

9. A bullet of mass 20gm is fired from a gun of mass 8kg with a velocity of 400
m/s, calculate the recoil velocity of gun
a. 1m/s c. -1m/s
b. 2m/s d. -2m/s

10. Type of inertia that tends to resist the change in case of an Athlete often
jumps before taking a long jump
a. Inertia of rest c. Inertia of motion
b. Inertia of direction d. Uniformly accelerated motion

11. The object shown above moves with constant velocity. Two forces are acting
on the object. Considering negligible friction , the resultant force will be
a. 17 N leftwards c. 10 N leftwards
b. 3 N leftwards d. 7N rightwards

12. Qualitative definition of Force is given by

a Newtons first law of motion c. Newtons Second law of motion
b. Newtons third law of motion d. Newtons law of gravitation

13. An object will continue to accelerate until the

a. Resultant force begins to c. Resultant force on it is zero
b. The velocity changes direction d. Resultant force on it is
increased continuously

14. The action and reaction forces referred to in the third law
a. Must act on the same object c. Must act on different objects
b. May act on different objects d. Need not be equal in magnitude
but act in the same direction

15. A hammer of mass 500 g, moving at 50m/s, strikes a nail. The nail stops the
hammer in a very short time of 0.01 s. The force of the nail on the hammer is
a. 3500N c. 500N
b. 2500N d. 1000N

1 The value of acceleration due to gravity of the surface of the earth is
a. 6 m/s2 c. 9.8 m/s2
b. 4.9 m/s2 d. 8 m/s2

2 The value of acceleration due to gravity at the highest point of the motion of
the body when a body is projected upwards
a. 0 m/s2 c. 9.8 m/s2 downwards
b. 9.8 m/s2upwards d. 6 m/s2
3. The value of acceleration due to gravity at the poles
a. Is more than at the equator c. Same as at the equator
b. Is less than at the equator d. zero

4. Weight of an object on the surface of the moon is

a. 1/5 th that on the surface of c. 1/3 that on the surface of the
the earth earth
b. that on the surface of the d. 1/6 that on the surface of the
earth earth

5. The time of ascent when measured from the point of projection of a body
projected upwards , the
a. Time of ascent > Time of c. Time of ascent < Time of
descent descent
b. Time of ascent=Time of d. All of the above

6. The force which keeps the body to move in circular motion when accelerated
a. Force of gravitation c. Electrostatic force
b. Centripetal force d. Magnetic force

7. The expression for finding the gravitational force of attraction between any
two bodies is
a. F= Gm1 m2/r2 c. F= G m1m2/r
b. F= G m1m2/r3 d. F = Gm1/r

8. The force acting on an object perpendicular to the surface is called

a. Pressure c. thrust
b. Weight d. weight

9. SI Unit of pressure is
a. Newton c. Pascal
b. Dyne d. m/s

10. The upward force exerted by the liquid displaced by the body when it is
placed inside the liquid is called
a. Buoyant force c. Gravitational force
b. Centripetal force d. Force of gravitation

11 The weight of an object is:
a Greater on earth and lesser on c Equal on both earth and moon
b lesser on earth and greater on d none of these

12 The relation between the weight of an objecton the moon (W) and on the
earth (W)
a W =16 (W) c We = 1/6W
b W= We d W =6 W

13 If the distance between objects increases, then the gravitational force

between the objects will:
a Increase c remain same
b decrease d none of these

14 Which of the following was NOT a contribution of Newtons to science?

a the law of universal c F = ma

b the first good experimental d explanations of optical
measure of G, the phenomena
gravitational constant of

15 The mass of an object is

a the force of gravity on that c dependent on whether the
object located at a particular object is on the Earth or
point in space elsewhere.

b The amount of matter d divided by the Earths

contained in the object, acceleration due to gravity to
independent of where that equal force.
object is found.


1 Work done by a body from Force-distance curve is

a. Slope of the curve c. Area under the curve
b. Line parallel to the distance axis d. Line parallel to the Force axis

2. A stone rubbed on a rough surface and placed on the skin will show heating
sensation, because
Aa a a Friction causes heat c. Heat cannot flow from the skin to

the stone
b. Heat flows from the stone to d. Heat cannot flow

3. On a rough surface a mass is (a) pulled,(b) pushed by a force acting at an angle

with the surface.
a. Pushing is easier c. Pulling is easier
b. Pushing and pulling both are d. Pushing and pulling g are not
easier easier

4. When a body rolls down an inclined plane, then it has

a. Only Kinetic energy c. It has potential energy
b. Both kinetic and potential d. It has no energy

5. When a spring is compressed work is done on it.Its elastic potential energy

a. Decreases c. increases
b. Disappears d. Does not change

6. When force acts in opposite direction the work done is

a. Positive c. negative
b. Zero d. infinity

7. The value of 1KWH is

a. 3.6 X 105J c. 3.6 X 106 J
b. 3.6 X 107 J d. 3.6 X 109 J

8. Work done by tension in the string when a ball tied to a string is being whirled
around in a circle is
a. tension does no work at all c. tension does negative work
b. tension does positive work d. tension does zero work

9. Mike applied 10 N of force over 3 m in 10 seconds. Joe applied the same force
over the same distance in 1 minute. Who did more work?
a. Mike c. Joe
b. both did the same work d. both did zero work

10. A child on a skateboard is moving at a speed of 2 m/s. After a force acts on the
child, her speed is 3 m/s. What can you say about the work done by the external
force on the child?
a. positive work was done c. negative work was done
b Zero work was done d Infinite work was done

11 The potential energy of a girl is maximum

a sleeping on the ground c sitting on the ground
b standing d sitting on the chair

12 A spring is compressed. The P.E of the compressed spring

a increase c remains unchanged
b decrease d becomes zero

13 Power of a woman is equal to:
a work x time c time/work
b work /time d work /time x work

14 When a body falls freely towards the earth then the total energy
a increase c remains constant
b decrease d first increases and then decreases

15 Water stored in a dam posseses:

a No energy c potential energy
b kinetic energy d electrical energy

Chapter12 SOUND
1 For its propagation sound requires
a. Air c. Water
b. Iron d. All of the above

2. Compression is a region of
a. High pressure c. Low pressure
b. Atmospheric pressure d. No pressure

3. Sound waves are

a. Transverse in nature c. Longitudinal in n nature
b. Electromagnetic in nature d. Magnetic in nature

4. The distance between any two compressions or rarefactions in a longitudinal

wave is
a. Half wavelength c. One wavelength
b. Twice the wavelength d. One fourth wavelength

5. SI unit of frequency is
a. Meter c. m/s
b. Hertz d. m/s2


If the wave is propagating having the number of waves shown in

the figure per second ,then the frequency of the wave is
a. 5Hz c. 6Hz
b. 3Hz d. 10Hz

7. Pitch of the wave is measured in terms of

a. Amplitude of the wave c. Speed of the wave
b. Frequency of the wave d. Time period of the wave

8. The sound which is produced due to a mixture of several frequencies is called

a. A tone c. A note
b. Frequency d. Amplitude

9. Speed of sound in vacuum is

a. 340 m/s c. 600m/s
b. 380m/s d. 300m/s

10. The time period of a simple pendulum in a spacecraft orbiting the earth is
a. Zero c. Infinity
b. One second d. Two seconds

11 Sound waves are

a longitudinal c partly longitudinal, partly
b transverse d sometimes longitudinal,
sometimes transverse

12 The product of time-period and frequency is

a zero c infinity
b unity d none of these

13 Sound waves with frequency less than 20 Hz and more than 20000 Hz is
a Infrasonic and sonic boom c supersonic and ultrasonic
b sonic boom and supersonic d infrasonic and ultrasonic

14 The characteristic of sound which enables us to distinguish one sound from

another having the same pitch and loudness
a amplitude c timber
b Shrillness d intensity

15 In gases a sound wave is

a Transverse only c Both Transverse and
b Longitudinal only d Neither Transverse Nor

Answer Key(PHYSICS-IX)

Q.No option Correct Answer Q.No option Correct Answer

1 b velocity 1 b
An Unbalanced force

2kg mass at 5m/s2 is greater

2 a Can be positive, negative, zero 2 c
than 4 kg mass at 2 m/s2
3 c 10 km 3 a F= ma
4 d 102m 4 b Mass
5 b 6m/s 5 b 0N
6 d Vav=(u + v)/2 6 c momentum
7 c m/s2 7 c Behind him
A body moving with constant
8 a 8 b Three times
speed in a circular path
9 a Equal to the slope of the graph 9 c -1m/s
10 a Area under the graph 10 c Inertia of motion
11 b Constant Acceleration 11 b 3 N leftwards
12 c 270m 12 a Newtons first law of motion
13 a 180m 13 c Resultant force on it is zero
14 b 36m/s 14 c Must act on different objects
15 d 270m 15 b 2500N
16 b Speed
17 a uniform velocity


Q.No option Correct Answer

1 c 9.8 m/s2
2 c 9.8 m/s2 downwards
3 a Is more than at the equator
4 d 1/6 that on the surface of the earth
5 b Time of ascent=Time of descent
6 b Centripetal force
7 a F= Gm1 m2/r2
8 c thrust
9 c Pascal
10 a Buoyant force
11 a Greater on earth and lesser on moon
12 a W =16 (W)

13 b decrease
the first good experimental measure
14 b
of G, the gravitational constant of

The amount of matter contained in

15 b the object, independent of where that
object is found.

Chapter-11( WORK AND NERGY) Chapter-12 ( SOUND)

Q.No option Correct Answer Q.No option Correct Answer

Area under the

1 c 1 d All of the above
2 a Friction causes heat 2 a High pressure
Longitudinal in nature
3 c Pulling is easier 3 c

Both kinetic and

4 b 4 c One wavelength
potential energy
5 a Decreases 5 b Hertz
6 c negative 6 a 5Hz
7 c 3.6 X 106 J 7 b Frequency of the wave
tension does no
8 a 8 c A note
work at all
both did the same
9 b 9 a 340 m/s
positive work was
10 a 10 c Infinity
11 b standing 11 a longitudinal
12 b decrease 12 b unity
13 b work /time 13 d infrasonic and ultrasonic
14 c remains constant 14 c timber
Both Transverse and
15 c potential energy 15 c

An old man and a scientist were talking about a deserted house. The old man was
sure that it was haunted by ghosts, but the scientist discarded the view saying no
one had ever seen a ghost. The old man was annoyed and challenged the scientist
about existence of atoms, sub-atomic particles which also could not be seen.
Name the three sub-atomic particles and their discoverers.
Whose viewpoint do you support and why?
An activity was conducted in a classroom where students held placards with
symbols and valency of the elements separately. Each student held two placards,
one with the symbol in the right hand and other with the valency in the left hand.
Which placards will be required for formation of sodium chloride ( both symbol
as well as valency).
Which qualities are required in the student to perform such a group activity?
Two class IX students, Kaveri and Nalin, were asked to take 5.3 g of sodium
carbonate and 6g of ethanoic acid to make 2.2g of carbon dioxide, 0.9g of water
and 8.2 g of sodium ethanoate. Kaveri followed the instructions but Nalin took the
chemicals without measuring their amounts.
Whose activity do you think will be in agreement with the law of ``Conservation
of mass''?
State the law of ``Conservation of mass''.
Whose method do you like and why?
Raghu and Vansh were performing an activity related to conservation of mass in
chemistry lab of their school. They mixed a solution of barium chloride and sodium
sulphate. Raghu suggested that as they already knew the amount of both compounds
taken by them, they need not to measure the amount of final solution. On the
contrary, Vansh insisted to measure the amount of final solution, which had barium
sulphate and sodium chloride. Atomic mass of ions: Ba2+ = 137 units, Cl- = 35.5
units, Na + = 23 units, S2- = 32units, O2- = 16 units.

Determine the molecular mass of
a) Barium chloride
b) Barium sulphate
c) Sodium sulphate
d) Sodium chloride
Comment on Vansh's Insistence to complete the activity.
Beenu was quite confused when she was taught mole concept in the class. Same
evening she went to the market with her mother to buy fruits. Her mother bought
one dozen apples, one dozen oranges and one dozen (one dozen=12 piece.) banana
, fruits-seller gave the fruit according to their mass in kg. on observing their
respective masses, beenu understood the mole concept instantly.
Can you explain what made Beenu understand mole-concept?
What is Avogadro's constant.
Ayush is not keeping happy and is unable to focus on studies. His friend Udghosh
observed the same and inquired Ayush. Udghosh was told by Ayush that his
younger brother is not keeping good health. His neck has swollen. The fact that
Ayush's family was not including iodized salt in their diet came to light. Udghosh
immediately suggested certain measures and insisted that Ayush's brother must
see the doctor without any delay.
What values are displayed by Udghosh?
What can be possibly the disease from which Ayush's brother is suffering?
Name the element whose isotope is used in the treatment for the disease.
During a field-trip some students visited an agricultural farm and saw a few birds
eating earthworms. They enjoyed the scene and then they also started picking and
killing the earthworms for pleasure. The farmer strongly objected and asked them
to leave the field.

What could be the reason behind such a behavior of the farmer?
What values do you find missing in the student's behavior?
Which phylum do earthworm belong to?
Write two identifying features of earthworm.
Anshul is having a beautiful pet dog 'Ginger'. One day, he observed a small insect
between his toes. He removed it carefully from the toe and observed it curiously
as chapter titled 'Diversity In Living Organisms' was being taught in the school.
Identify the phylum to which the insect belong to.
Enlist any two characteristic features of this phylum.
Comment on Anshul's behavior.
Rahul and his mother were walking in the garden. Rahul saw mushrooms Growing
on decaying leaves. He tried to uproot them. He was stopped by his mother.
Identify the kingdom to which the organism belongs to.
Write the mode of nutrition exhibited by the mushrooms.
Why did Rahul's mother stopped him?
Ayush was playing cricket in the ground with his friends. One of his friend who
was standing near the boundary felt something climbing upon his feet. Subsequently
he started crying in pain. Ayush being class nine student identified the climbing
creature as leech and helped removing the leech.
Name the phylum to which leech belongs.
Write two identifying features of the phylum.
Enlist two values shown by Ayush.
A group of children were playing on a heap of sand. One of them collected some
shelled creatures from the sand. Being taught lesson on diversity in School, one of
them identified them as snail.
Name the phylum to which snail belongs.

Write two characteristic features of the phylum.
What positive attitude towards learning is shown by the students?
Radhey was suffering from respiratory disorder since long time. His daughter
Sarita took him to a doctor. After studying his case, the doctor came to know that
Radhey was residing near a very busy road.
What could be the possible reason for Radhey's respiratory disorder?
Which major pollutants are present in exhaust of vehicles?
Write the preventive measures that should be taken.
In a school assembly, the students were asked to wear full sleeves shirts,full pants
and socks pulled till knees, use mosquitoes repellants cream during day time.
Name the disease, about which preventive instruction are given in the assembly.
Name the vector of this disease.
Give two preventive environmental measures.
Which two values were given in assembly related to society?
While passing nearby a pond, some students saw a drowning man screaming for
help. They alerted another passerby, who immediately threw an inflated rubber
tube in the pond. The man was saved.
Why the passerby did use inflated rubber tube to save the drowning man?
Write the principle involved here.
Which qualities shown by the students and the passerby do you identify that
helped in saving the drowning man?
You received an e-mail from a friend living in a coastal town. He shared an
experience with you that recently, while swimming on the coastline of the sea in
common swimming attire, he thought of going deeper inside the sea. He was
asked to abstain from delving deeper into the sea by the rescue personnel. Respond
to the following questions using the information provided above.
Why the rescue personnel asked your friend not to swim deeper inside the sea?
What values were exhibited by the rescue personnel?
Nitya is visiting her relatives in Bhopal. One day her aunt expressed unhappiness
with the milk supplied by the milkman. She complained of adulterated milk. Nitya
asked her to buy an instrument to check the purity of milk. Next day, the supplied
milk was tested and found water being mixed in the milk. Nitya's aunt informed
all her neighbors about the instrument.
What values are shown by Nitya, her aunt and the milkman respectively?
Identify the instrument and the principle on which it is based?
During the summer vacations, Gaurav visited his native village. He observed that
for washing clothes, villagers used the water from the well. Out of curiosity he
drew water from the well and observed that the bucket of water appeared to be
heavier as it came out of the water.
Name the principle used in the above passage.
Why bucket appears to be heavier in air?
Which values are reflected in Gaurav's behavior.
An educational tour to Mumbai was organized. While visiting the seashore, Vyom,
one of the students observed that direction of wind changed during the day time
and night. He asked his science teacher who accompanied them, the possible reasons
for his observations.
What possible reasons, teacher gave to the student.
Name two other factors which influence winds.
Comment on the values shown by the student.
Due to heavy rains and speedy winds a tree broke and fell on the road. Two
persons from local shops came and begin to remove that broken part of the tree,
but in vain as the log was too heavy. A passerby came to their help with a few
solid heavy sticks. Consequently, the heavy log was put aside and the commutation
on the road began as usual.
Comment upon the value(s) displayed by the passerby?
Name the energy stored when the heavy log of the tree was lifted to some height?
Mr. Shah's family was worried about heavy electricity bills to be paid. Their
neighbour Mr. Sen suggested some easy and effective steps to reduce the same.
Next month's bill came as a relief to Mr. Shah, as the consumption of electricity
had reduced by 50 units and so had the bill.
What is the unit of ``Power''.
What is it a measure of energy or power?
Write any three steps that you think Mr. Sen might have suggested to Mr. Shah.
Amit and Nitin were observing a building having two different staircase. One
slanting and other vertically spiral. Amit was of the opinion that a person using
slanting staircase will be doing more work against gravity but Nitin thought
otherwise. They started quarrelling. Asif, their friend, explained and gave entirely
different view and pacified them.
What according to you was the explanation given by Asif?
What appreciable values do you see in the Asif?
Four tubelights of 60 watt each, three fans of 60 watt each and a geyser of 500
watt operates for eight hours everyday in a household. The electricity bill made
Mr. Abhinav worried. He discovered the usage of geyser, unnecessary longer. He
conveyed to the family members that energy guzzling appliances and gadgets ought
to be wisely used according to the need.
(hint:- 1watt = 0.001 kilowatt = 1 unit)
Calculate the total electrical units of energy consumed if the month is September.
Comment upon the values demonstrated by Mr. Abhinav.
Convert 1 kilowatt hour into joules.
Aditya and his friends were playing with a catapult (gulel) in his garden. Several

mangoes were dislodged and fell with the help of catapult. One of his friend was
aiming the catapult on a bird. Aditya prevented him from doing so.
Name the energy possessed by the stretched string of the catapult.
What will happen if the stone is thrown without stretching the string of a catapult?
Why Aditya did prevent his friend from aiming at the bird?
Which quality is highlighted in Aditya's behavior?
Raghu lives in a village and his school is 8 km away from his home. His father
suggests buying a motor cycle to go to school. Raghu opposes the idea and opt for
a bicycle instead.
. Write the energy transformation taking place while Raghu rides his bicycle.
If Raghu paddles the bicycle with a speed of 8 Km/hr and he wants to Reach 10
minutes before the school commences. What should be the duration before which
he must leave his house?
Justify the stand taken by Raghu in your own words.
Chapter 12 SOUND
In a hot summer afternoon a man was shouting through a megaphone. He was
'zip-repairer'. As Arshi was preparing for her examination, she got disturbed. She
inquired her father about the instrument being used by the 'zip-repairer'. The father
told her that it was a megaphone also known as 'loud hailer'.
State the principle on which the megaphone works.
Why did Arshi get disturbed?
Why megaphones should not be used in residential area?
Kunal and Abhimanyu were waiting to go across a railway crossing. Kunal jumped
over the barrier and curiously put his ear on the railway track. Abhimanyu opposed
Kunal and pulled him away from the railway track.
Why did Kunal put his ear on the railway track?
Can sound travel faster through, (i). Copper (ii). Water.

Why did Abhimanyu pulled Kunal away from the railway track?
Revantashish had a pain in his ear as he pricked it with a pin. The doctor advised
we should take proper care of our ears and protect them from damage.
Why we must not prick with hard and pointed things inside our ears?
What is the function of ear?
Reena's grandmother took her mother to a doctor as she was four months pregnant
for ultra-sonography. But she showed her interest in determining whether the child
is a boy or a girl. The doctor was annoyed and refused to disclose the gender of
the child.
What is ultra-sonography?
On what principle does it work?
Why do you think the doctor refused to determine the gender of the child?
Why is ultrasonography important?
Harsha was watching a program based on ships on television. She saw a device
attached to a ship through which the men on the ship located the enemy submarines
and sent the message to the headquarters.
Name the device fitted in the ship.
Write the full form of the device.
On which principle does the device work?
Write other uses of the device.
Two HIV- infected siblings Anu and Nikhil were expelled from their school. Only
after the intervention of a NGO, they were readmitted.
Which disease are the two children suffering from?
Write any three modes of transmission of this disease.
What is your viewpoint about both the steps taken by the school as well as the

Akshita came to school one day with running nose, reddish and watery eyes and
coughed often. She met Sanchita in the morning assembly who adviced her to sit
on a separate desk in the classroom till she recovers
Name the disease from which Akshita is suffering from?
Name the causal organism.
Enlist any two preventive measures.
What is your view point on the sanchita'a advice?
Shreyas's gardener was coughing continuously since last few days and was running
low grade fever. He was taking home made remedial treatment. One day Shreyas's
physician visited their home. Shreyas got his gardener checked. The gardener
was advised to get his chest X-rayed and sputum tested in the neighboring Infectious
Disease Hospital.
Name the disease he might be suffering from?
Name the causative organism?
Give two preventive measures of the disease.
Which two values were shown by Shreyas?
Rahul and Anil are two close friends who spent much of their time together. Rahul
observed that Anil is behaving differently since last week. He gets tired and sits on
the bench after playing for 5 -10 minutes. Rahul inquired Anil if he was not feeling
well. Anil just looked at Rahul with his pale eyes and complained of nausea and
vomiting. Rahul advised him to visit the doctor.
Symptoms of which disease are reflected in Anil's situation.
Which causative organism is responsible for it?
Which values are reflected in Rahul?
Megha, a class IX student was asked to submit a project report on mosquito
transmited diseases in school. She visited a nearby hospital where her aunt was

staffed as a nurse. Her aunt took her to a patient suffering from malaria. Megha
talked to the patient and asked him about symptoms.
Name the causative organism and the vector of the disease.
Name the two other symptoms which may have been told by the patient.
Identify two important values as shown by Megha.
Kushal's family is happy as he became a proud father to a baby girl. Upon a
routine visit to the hospital, the doctor advised him not to skip the vaccination
schedule. While discussing the same at home, one of the family members suggested
that vaccination is not necessary for girl child. Kushal opposed this suggestion.
What is vaccination?
Name any two common vaccines and their associated disease.
Critically comment upon Kushal's viewpoint.
Kriti and Kaustubh are discussing on vaccination. Kaustubh during the discussion,
submitted his fear that the inoculated vaccination can be dangerous because it
contains dead germs. Kriti explained and removed his fears.
What could be Kriti's explanation?
What values do you think Kriti possess?
Rahul, an engineering student, is from an affluent family and is physically active.
But to support his lavish lifestyle, he starts stealing mobile phones and laptops of
his classmates. He was caught and counselled by his teachers to stop such a behavior.
Do you think Rahul is healthy or disease-free? Substantiate your answer.
Define health.
Manu's younger sister is two years old. His father was supposed to take her to
'Pulse Polio' center on a Sunday. But he was not interested as he was watching a
live telecast of the final match played between the cricket teams of India and
Pakistan. Manu insisted on their visit to the 'Pulse Polio' center.
What is Pulse-Polio?

Which is the causative organism of polio?
Why do you think it was necessary to take Manu's sister to the center?
Although Archana had been suffering from cold and cough, yet she decided to
appear for her unit test. Anita seated next to her was not affected but Pooja seating
behind contracted the infection.
What prevented Anita catching cold and cough in spite of her exposure to the
Which type of disease, she was suffering from.
Name two preventive measures against above type of disease.
Express your opinion, whether Archana was right in her decision of coming to
Parineeti was down with an attack of bronchitis. The atmosphere was full of smoke
and noise as diwali was nearing when her parents explained to the ill effects of
burning crackers to neighbourhood kids. They agreed not to burn crackers anymore.
It is observed that when a cracker is burnt its light reaches us first and then we
hear its sound. Why?
Write any three ill-effects that Parineeti' parents might have explained to kids.
Do you support kid's decision of not burning crackers, which qualities do you
identify in those kids.
Water covers 75% of the earth's surface. It is also found underground. Still, in
every summer, most of the places have to face a shortage of water.
Critically comment.
Ram Avatar is a farmer residing on the outskirts of Delhi. Upon a visit to a fertilizer
shop, the salesmen inquired of Ram Avatar of the crop he anticipated to cultivate
in the coming season. During the conversation, the crop concerned was conveyed.
The salesman suggested that urea and other nitrogenous fertilizer be used. Shreshth,
quietly but keenly listening the conversation intervened and told Ram Avatar that
for the concerned crop nitrogenous fertilizers shall not be required. Respond to the
following questions using the information provided above:
What values are shown by Shreshth?
What can be the concerned crop possibly?
What can be the reason for Shreshth's suggestion?
A priest of temple collected dried garlands, holy old books and some statues. He
asked his son to throw in the river. But instead of throwing, he buried them in the
In the situation above, who wins your support: the priest or the son? Justify your
answer by giving two reasons.
What are the values reflected in the behavior of son?
Mr Rajinder has this unique habit of planting saplings wherever he can in his
neighborhood area to stop soil erosion. Due to his constant efforts, once barren
and unused land of village Rampur has got changed into green plantation.
What is soil erosion?
What are agents that cause soil erosion?
What are the methods of reducing and preventing soil erosion?
Which characteristics do you find in Mr Rajinder that can be emulated?
A gardener was seen burning dry leaves in the garden daily by a bunch of school
kids. The kids went to him and advised not to burn those leaves and told about this
practice's ill effects.
What ill-effects were the kids talking of?
What do you suggest the gardener to do with the leaves instead of burning?
Write any two values shown by the kids.
The Resident Welfare Association of an area refused the proposal of installation of
a mobile tower in their complex.

Co-relate the refusal with the environment and extinction of house sparrow.
Comment upon the values shown by RWA.
Nistha and parents had to postpone their trip to Indonesia because of cancellation
of all flights to the country last November. She found out the reason to be persistent
'SMOG' in the country.
What is smog?
How does it affect human beings?
What could be your/Nistha's contribution as an individual towards controlling
such a situation.
A news item, telling about mysterious disease affecting people of nearby village,
inspired Karan to find out the cause behind it. On investigation, he discovered that
the only source of water for the village is a small river on whose banks three paper
factories are situated. Karan along with villagers made efforts and got those factories
Addition of which undesirable substance might have caused the disease?
What is water pollution?
Do you identify with the cause Karan fought for?
The menace of air pollution has proliferated the harmful effects on environment.
Ferozpur majra is a village through which an arterial national highway passes
through with an incessant traffic. Kapil observed that his father's worry over the
years has increased whenever the first rain of the season pours down, as he had
observed that the first rain affects the animals and plants adversely. Kapil understood
the reason and explained the phenomenon to his father.
Name the phenomenon which kapil explained to his father.
What is the reason behind the occurrence of this phenomenon.
Name any two harmful gases which cause this phenomenon.
Give any two suggestions to reduce the ill-effects of this phenomenon.

Raghu switched from traditional to modern farming practices in which he used
large amounts of fertilizers and pesticides to gain an increase in profit.
What are the adverse effects of modern farming?
What is soil pollution?
What do you think will be effect on the soil in long run?
. What alternative method could be more beneficial for farming?

iz'u&1 ,d o` O;fDr ,oa ,d oSKkfud vkil esa ,d fojku ?kj ds ckjs esa ckr dj jgs Fks] o` O;fDr
dks ;g fuf'pr Fkk fd ?kj esa fdlh Hkwr dk lk;k gS ysfdu oSKkfud us Hkwr gksus dh /kj.kk dks iwjh
rjg udkjrs gq, dgk fd fdlh us vkt rd Hkwr ugha ns[kk gSA o` O;fDr >q> a yk;k vkSj oSKkfud
dks ijek.kq ,oa voijek.kq d.kksa ds gksus dh /kj.kk dks pqukSrh nh fd ;s Hkh izR;{k :i ls ugha ns[ks
tk ldrs gSAa
(i) rhu voijek.kq d.kksa ds uke ,oa [kkst ds ckjs esa fy[kksA
(ii) vki fdl fopkj/kjk dk leFkZu djrs gSa vkSj D;ksa\
iz'u&2 d{kk esa ,d f;kdyki lapkfyr fd;k x;k ftlesa fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds gkFk esa dqN [ksy dkMZ Fks ftlij
rRoksa ds ladrs ,oa mudh la;kstdrk, vyx&vyx fy[kh gqbZ Fkh] izR;sd fo|kFkhZ us nks [ksy dkMZ
idM+s Fks] nk, gkFk esa ladrs okyk dkMZ vkSj ck, gkFk esa la;kstdrk okyk dkMZA
(i) lksfM;e DyksjkbM cukus ds fy, dkSu&dkSu ls [ksy dkMZ dh vko';drk gksxh ml ij fy[ks
rRo ds ladrs rFkk la;kstdrk dks fy[kksA
(ii) bl rjg dh lkewfgd f;kdykiksa ds fy, fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa fdl rjg dh Hkkouk ;k fo'ks"krk dh
vko';drk gksrh gS\
iz'u&3 dkosjh vkSj ufyu] d{kk&uoha ds fo|kFkhZ dks muds f'k{kd }kjk funs'Z k fn;k x;k fd oks 5-3xzke
lksfM;e dkcksZusV ys vkSj 6xzke bFksuksbd vEy ysa rkfd 2-2xzke dkcZu&Mkb&vkWDlkbM] 0-9xzke ikuh
vkSj 8-2xzke- lksfM;e bFksuks,V cu ldsA dkosjh us funs'Z kksa dk lgh ikyu fd;k ijUrq ufyu us fcuk
rksys jlk;u ys fy,A
(i) fdldh f;kdyki nzO;eku&laj{k.k ds fu;e ds vuq:Ik gksxhA
(ii) nzO;eku&laj{k.k dk fu;e fyf[k,A
(iii) fdldk rjhdk vkidsk Bhd yxk vkSj D;ksa\
iz'u&4 j?kq vkSj oa'k vius fo|ky; ds jlk;u iz;ksx'kkyk esa ^nzO;eku laj{k.k* ls lacaf/r ,d f;kdyki
dj jgs FksA os csfj;e DyksjkbM vkSj lksfM;e lYisQV ds foy;u dks dks fefJr djrs gSA j?kq us lykg
fn;k fd muds }kjk fy, x;s nksuksa dh ek=kk dks ekius dh vko';drk ugha gSA blds foijhr oa'k
us vfUre foy;u dh ek=kk dks ekius dk vkxzg fd;k ftlesa csfj;e lYisQV o lksfM;e DyksjkbM
vk;uksa dk ijek.kq nzO;eku
Ba2+ 137u
Na+ 23u
S2 32u
O2- 16 u

(i) vk.kkfod nzO;eku dh x.kuk djks
a ) csfj;e DyksjkbM
b) csfj;e lYiQsV
c ) lksfM;e lYisQV
d) lksfM;e DyksjkbM
(ii) f;kdyki dks iwjk djus ds fy, oa'k ds vkxzg ij fy[kksA
iz'u&5 chuw dks tc d{kk esa ^eksy ladYiuk* i<+kbZ xbZ rks oks mls le> uk ikbZA tc 'kke dks og viuh
eka ds lkFk cktkj xbZ rks mldh ek us ,d ntZu lsc] ,d ntZu larjs vkSj ,d ntZu dsys [kjhsnsA
iQy&fosrk us lHkh iQy rksydj fdyksxzke ds Hkko ls fn,A ;g lc ns[kus ij chuw ^eksy&ladYiuk*
rRdky gh le> xbZA
(i) crkb, fd chuw ;g lc ns[k dSls ^eksy&ladYiuk* dks le> ikbZ\
(ii) ^vkoksxknzk&s fLFkjkad* D;k gS\
iz'u&6 vk;w"k [kq'k ugha Fkk vkSj vius i<+kbZ ij iwjh rjg ls ;ku ugha ns ik jgk FkkA mlds nksLr mn~?kks"k
us ;g ns[kk vkSj vk;w"k ls ckr phr dhA vk;w"k us crk;k fd mlds NksVs HkkbZ dk LokLF; Bhd ugha
gSA mlds xys esa lwtu gSA vk;w"k dk ifjokj [kkus esa vk;ksMhu ;qDr ued dk bLrseky ugha dj
jgk Fkk] tc bl rF; dks mn~?kks"k us tkuk] rqjUr dqN mik; crk;k vkSj fcuk fdlh nsj ds vk;w"k
ds NksVs HkkbZ MkWDVj ds ikl ys tkus dh lykg nhA
(i) vc bu iz'uksa ds mkj nhft,A
mn~?kks"k ds O;ogkj esa dkSu ekuoh; ewY; fn[kkbZ nsrk gS\
(ii) og dkSu lk laHkkfor jksx gS ftlls vk;w"k dk NksVk HkkbZ xzflr gS\
(iii) ml rRo dk uke fy[kks ftlds leLFkkfud dk mi;ksx bl jksx ds fuokj.k ds fy, fd;k tkrk
iz'u&7 ,d {ks=k&Hkze.k ds nkSjku dqN Nk=kksa us ,d d`f"k&iQkeZ dk Hkze.k fd;k vkSj mUgksaus ogka dqN fpfM+;ksa
dks dspqvk [kkrs gq, ns[kk mUgsa ;s n`'; dkiQh euksjta d yxk vkSj Nk=kksa us Hkh dspqvksa dks idM+uk
,oa mudks ekjuk 'kq: dj fn;kA fdlku ns[kdj bldk etcwrh ls fojks/ fd;k vkSj mUgsa [ksr esa
NksM+dj tkus ds fy, dgkA
mi;qZDr tkudkjh ds vuqlkj bu iz'uksa dk mkj nsaA
(i) fdlku ds bl O;ogkj dhs IkhNs D;k dkj.k gks ldrk gS\a
(ii) vkids vuqlkj fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds O;ogkj esa fdl rjg dh deh Fkha\
(iii) dspqvk fdl ^la?k* esa vkrk gS\
(iv) dspq,a ds nks fo'ks"k y{k.kksa dks fy[kksA

iz'u&8 va'kqy ds ikl ,d lqUnj ikyrw dqkk ^ftatj* gSA ,d fnu mlus dqks ds vaxBw ksa ds chp esa ,d NksVk
dhM+k ns[kk vkSj dhM+s dks lko/kuh iwoZd vaxBw s ls fudkyk vkSj ftKklk iw.kZ dhM+s dk voyksdu
fd;k tSlk fd ^thoksa esa fofo/rk* uked ikB ds vUrxZr mlds fo|ky; esa i<+k;k tk jgk FkkA
(i) dhM+s ds ^la?k* dh igpku djksA
(ii) ml la?k dh nks fo'ks"krkvksa dh lwph cukb,A
(iii) va'kqy ds O;ogkj dh djsaA
iz'u&9 jkgqy o mldh ekrk th ckxhps esa Vgy jgs FksA
jkgqy us ns[kk fd lM+s&xys ikksa ij dqN e'k:e mx jgs gSA mlus mls m[kkM+us dh dksf'k'k dh]
ijUrq mldh ekrk th us mls jksd fn;kA
(i) ml tho ^txr* dh igpku djks ftlesa mi;qZDr tho vkrk gS\
(ii) e'k:e ds iks"k.k fof/;ksa dk mYys[k djksA
(iii) jkgqy dh ekrk th us mls D;ksa jksdk\
iz'u&10 vk;w"k vius nksLrksa ds lkFk eSnku esa fdsV [ksy jgk FkkA mldk ,d nksLr tks fd eSnku ds ckgjh
vksj [kM+k Fkk vpkud mlus eglwl fd;k fd mlds iSj ij dqN jsax jgk gSA og nnZ ls fpYykus
yxkA vk;w"k ukSoha d{kk dk fo|kFkhZ gksrs gq, mlus bl tho dh igpku yhp(tksad) ds :i esa dh]
vkSj vius nkslr ds iSj ls tksad fudkyus esa mldh enn dhA
(i) tksad ftl la?k esa vkrk gS mldh nks fo'ks"krkvksa dks fy[kksA
(ii) vk;w"k ds }kjk iznf'kZr fd;s x;s nks ewY;ksa dh igpku djksA
iz'u&11 dqN cPps jsr ds <sj ij [ksy jgs FksA muesa ls ,d us dqN dop /kjh tho bdV~Bk fd;k] pwfa d
muds fo|ky; esa ^tSo fofo/rk* ikB dks i<+k;k tk jgk Fkk] ,d us bldh ?kks?ksa ds :i esa igpku
(i) ml la?k dk uke fy[kks ftlls ?kksa?ks dk lEcU/ gS\
(ii) ml Lka?k ds nks vfHkyk{kf.kd xq.kksa dks fy[kksA
(iii) cPpksa ds }kjk iznf'kZr gksus okys] lh[kus ds ldkjkREkd xq.kksa dk mYys[k djksA
iz'u&12 jk/s yEcs le; ls 'okWl lEcU/h jksxksa ls ihfM+r FkkA mudh iq=kh lfjrk mUgsa MkWDVj ds ikl ys xbZ]
MkWDVj jk/s ds ckjs esa v;;u djus ds ckn ;g tkuk fd ;s ,sls LFkku ij fuokl dj jgs Fks ftlds
ikl okyh lM+d vR;Ur O;Lr jgrh gSA
(i) jk/s ds 'okWl laca/h jksx ds ihNs D;k laHkkfor dkj.k gks ldrs gS\a
(ii) okguksa ds /qv
ksa esa fdl rjg ds izn"w kd ekStnw gksrs ga\S
iz'u&13 fo|ky; dh izkFkZuk lHkk esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks iwjh cktw dh 'kVZ iwjh iS.V vkSj ?kqVus rd eksts iguus ds
fy, dgk x;k vkSj fnu ds le; ePNjksa ls cpkus okyh he dk mi;ksx djus ds fy, dgk x;k

mi;qZDr tkudkjh ds vk/kj ij fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa ds mkj nsaA
(i) ml jksx dk uke crk,a ftuls cpus ds fy, izkFkZuk lHkk dqN funs'Z k fn, x;sA
(ii) jksx ds okgd tho dk uke fy[kksA
(iii) cpko lEcU/h nks i;; mik;ksa dks fy[kksA
(iv) lekt lEcU/h izkFkZuk lHkk esa fn;s x;s nks ewY;ksa dk mYys[k djksA
iz'u&14 ,d rkykc ds ikl ls xqtjrs gq, dqN cPpkas us ,d Mwcrs gq, O;fDr dks ns[kk tks cpkvks] cpkvks
fpYyk jgk Fkk mUgksaus ,d vU; xqtjrs gq, jkgxhj dks lwfpr fd;k ftlus rqjUr ,d gok ls Hkjh
gqbZ jcj V~;cw rkykc esa isQd
a fn;k vkSj O;fDRk dks cpk fy;kA
(i) jkgxhj us Mwcrs gq, O;fDr dks cpkus ds fy, gok ls Hkjh gqbZ jcj V~;cw dk mi;ksx D;ksa fd;kA
(ii) ;gk dkSu lk flkar mi;ksx esa yk;k x;k\
(iii) Nk=kksa rFkk jkgxhj esa dkSu lh fo'ks"krk, tks Mwcrs gq, O;fDRk dks cpkus esa lgk;d fl gqbZ
mu fo'ks"krkvksa ,oa xq.kksa dks igpkuksa vkSj fy[kksA
iz'u&15 vki us vius ,d fe=k ls besy izkIr fd;k tks leqUnz rVh; bykds esa jgrk gS og vius vuqHkoksa
dks lk>k djrk gSA mlus crk;k fd gky gh esa og leqnz ds fdukjs vius lkekU; rSjkdh iks'kkd
esa rSjkdh ds nkSjku] leqUnz ds vUnj xgjkbZ esa tkuk pkgrk Fkk ijUrq cpkodkjh deZpkfj;ksa us leqUnz
dh xgjkbZ esa tkus ls euk dj fn;kA
mi;qZDr lwpuk ds vk/kj ij bu iz'uksa ds mkj nsaA
(i) cpkodkjh deZpkfj;ksa }kjk vkids nksLr dks leqUnz dh xgjkbZ esa rSjus ls D;ksa euk fd;k\
(ii) cpkodkjh deZpkfj;ksa esa fdu ekuoh; ewY;ksa dks ns[kk tk ldrk gS\
iz'u&16 fuR;k vius fj'rsnkj ds ;gk Hkksiky xbZ FkhA ,d fnu mldh vk.Vh us nw/ okys ds nw/ nsus ds rjhds
ls uk [kq'k gksdj viuh ukjktxh O;Dr dh mUgksus nw/ esa feykoV dh f'kdk;r dhA fuR;k us mUgs
vxys fnu nw/ dh 'kqrk dh tkap ds fy, ,d ;qfDr [kjhnus dh ckr dgh] bl rjg vk.Vh us
bl ;qfDr ds }kjk vkus okys nw/ dh tkap dh vkSj ik;k fd nw/ esa ikuh feyk gSA lkFk gh fuR;k
dh vk.Vh us vius lHkh iM+ksfl;ksa dks Hkh bl ;qfDr ds ckjs esa tkudkjh nhA
(i) fuR;k] mldh vk.Vh vkSj nw/ okys ds }kjk e'k% fdu ewY;ksa dk izn'kZu fd;k x;k\
(ii) bl ;a=k@;qfDr dh igpku djks vkSj crkb, fd ;g fdl flkar ij dk;Z djrk gS\
iz'u&17 xzh"ekodk'k ds nkSjku xkSjo vius xko ?kweus ds fy, tkrk gSA og ogka ns[krk gS fd xkao okys dq,
ds ikuh ls diM+s /ksrs gSA ftKklk o'k og dw, ls ikuh [khaprk gS vkSj ns[krk gS fd tc Hkjh ckYVh
ikuh ls mQij vkrh gS rks Hkkjh yxrh gSA
(i) ml flkUr dk uke fyf[k, ftlds dkj.k ikuh ls Hkjh ckYVh tc dq, esa ikuh ls mQij vkrh
gS rks Hkkjh yxrh gSA
(ii) ckYVh gok esa Hkkjh D;ksa yxrh gS\
(iii) xkSjo ds O;ogkj esa dkSu lk ewY; iznf'kZr gksrk gS\a
iz'u&18 eqEcbZ Hkze.k ds fy, ,d 'kSf{kd i;ZVu dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA fo|kfFkZ;ksa us leqnhz rV dk Hkze.k
fd;kA ,d fo|kFkhZ] O;kse us fnu ,oa jkr ds le; iou dh fn'kk esa gks jgs ifjorZu dk v;;u
fd;kA mlus vius foKku v;kid tks muds lkFk esa Fks] muls laHkkfor dkj.k tkuus dh dksf'k'k
(i) foKku v;kid us fo|kFkhZ dks D;k laHkkfor dkj.k crk, gksxs\
(ii) nks dkjdks dk mYys[k djks tks iou dh fn'kk ,oa xfr dks izHkkfor djrs gSA
(iii) fo|kFkhZ esa dkSu lk ewY; fn[kkbZ nsrk gS ml ij fy[kksA
iz'u&19 ewlyk/kj o"kkZ rFkk gok ds jrkj ds dkj.k lM+d ds fdukjs mifLFkr isM+ fxj x,A nks O;fDRk LFkkuh;
nwdkuksa ls vk;s vkSj lM+d ij fxjs isMk+ as ds Hkkxksa dks gVkuk 'kq: fd, ysfdu muesa dqN ydM+h ds
Hkkx cgqr gh Hkkjh Fks ftls gVkuk dfBu Fkk ikl ds dqN vkSj yksx jkgxhj vk;s vkSj Hkkjh ydfM+;ksa
ds yV~Bks dks gVkus ds enn dh bl rjg Hkkjh ydM+h ds Hkkx dks lM+d ds fdukjs fd;k x;k vkSj
lapkyu dh O;oLFkk fiQj ls lkekU; gqbZA
(i) jkgxhj ds }kjk fdu ewY;ksa dks iznf'kZr fd;k x;kA
(ii) ydM+h ds Hkkjh vkSj eksVs yV~Bks dks gVkus essa fdl flkUr dk mi;ksx esa yk;k x;kA
iz'u&20 fe- 'kkg vR;f/d fctyh ds fcy dks Hkjus ds fy, ijs'kku FksA muds iM+kl
s h fe- lsu us dqN vklku
vkSj izHkkodkjh rjhds crk, rkfd fcy de vk;sA vxys eghus fe- 'kkg dks fctyh ds fcy esa FkksM+h
jkgr feyh pwfa d fctyh dh [kir 50 ;wfuV de gqbZ rks fctyh dk fcy de vk;kA
(i) fo|qr mQtkZ dh bdkbZ D;k gS\
(ii) mQtkZ ;k 'kfDr esa dkSu lk fo|qr [kir dk ekid gksrk gS\
(iii) vki rhu ,sls mik; crk, tks fe- lsu esa fe- 'kkg dks lq>k;s gksxsAa
iz'u&21 vfer ,oa uhfru ,d fcfYMax dk voyksdu dj jgs Fks ftlesa nks rjg dh flf<+;k Fkh ,d <ykonkj
nwljh mokZ/j ([kM+h) ?kqekonkjA vfer dk er ;g Fkk fd tks O;fDr <ykonkj flf<+;ksa dk iz;ksx
djsxk og xq#Rokd"kZ.k ds foijhr vf/d dk;Z djsxk ijUrq fufru dk er blls fHkUUk Fkk oks vkil
esa >xM+us yxsA vfer tks fd mudk ,d nksLr Fkk mlus mu nksuksa dks 'kkUr fd;k vkSj ,d iwjh rjg
fHkUUk fopkj izLrqr fd;kA
(i) vkids fopkj ls vfer esa D;k foLrkj iwoZd tokc fn;k gksxk\
(ii) vki vfer ds vUnj fdl dkfcys rkjhiQ ewY; dks ns[krs gS\
iz'u&22 ,d ?kj esa 60 okV dh pkj V~;cw ykbV] 60 okV ds rhu ia[ks vkSj 500 okV ds xhtj vkB ?k.Vs
izfrfnu pyrs gSA fctyh ds fcy us fe- vfHkuo dks fpUrk esa Mky fn;k FkkA mUgksaus ns[kk fd yEcs
le; ds fy, xhtj dk mi;ksx vuqi;qDr gSA mUgksaus vius ifjokj esa ppkZ dh fd vR;f/d mQtkZ
ysus okys midj.kksa o vU; e'khuksa dk mi;ksx vko';drk ds vuqlkj foosd iw.kZ rjhds ls fd;k
tkuk pkfg,A
(i) ;fn flrEcj dk eghuk gS rks fo|qr mQtkZ dqy [kir dh x.kuk djksA
(ii) 1 fdyksokV ?kaVk dks twy essa ifjofrZr djksA
(iii) fe- vfHkuo ds }kjk iznf'kZRk fd, ewY;ksa ds ckjs esa djsaA
iz'u&23 vkfnR; vkSj mlds fe=k vius ckxhps esa xqysy ds lkFk [ksy jgs FksA xqysy dh lgk;rk ls cgqr ls
vke tehu ij vk fxjsA muesa ls ,d fe=k ,d fpfM+;k ij fu'kkuk cuk;kA vkfnR; us mls ,slk djus
ls jksdkA
(i) xqysy ds [khsp
a s gq, jcj dh Mksjh esa fufgr mQtkZ dk uke fy[kksA
(ii) vki D;k vk'kk djrs gS ;fn xqysy dh jcj dh Mksjh dks fcuk [khaps iRFkj ds VqdM+s dks isQd
a k
(iii) vkfnR; vius fe=k dks fpfM+;k ij fu'kkus yxkus ls D;ksa jksdrk gS\
iz'u&24 j?kq ,d xko esa jgrk gS vkSj mldk fo|ky; ?kj ls 8fdeh- nwj gSA j?kq d{kk uoha esa i<+rk gSA mlds
firk mlds fy, eksVj&lkbfdy [kjhnuk pkgrs gSa ijUrq j?kq mudk fojks/ djrk gS vkSj lkbZfdy
[kjhnrk gSA
(i) tc j?kq lkbZfdy pykrk gS rks mQtkZ dk dkSu&lk :ikUrj.k gksrk gS\
(ii) ;fn j?kq lkbZfdy dks 8fdeh-@?kaVk dh pky ls pykrk gS rks fo|ky; le; ls nl feuV igys
us ds fy, mls ?kj ls fdruk igys pyuk iM+sxk\
iz'u&25 xzh"edky ds nkSjku ,d fnu nksigj dks ,d vkneh esxkiQksu (ykmMLihdj) ds }kjk fpYyk jgk
FkkA og psu (fti) dh ejEer djus okyk FkkA pwf d vk'khZ vius ijh{kk dh rS;kjh dj jgh Fkh mls
ijs'kkuh gqbZ mlus vius firk th ls psu cukus okys ds }kjk mi;ksx fd, tkus okys midj.k dh
tkudkjh ekaxh] firk th us crk;k fd ;g esxk iQksu Fkk ftls ofu foLrkjd ;a=k ;k ykmMLihdj
Hkh dgrs gSA
(i) esxkiQksu fdl flkUr ij dk;Z djrk gS mldh O;k[;k djksA
(ii) vk'khZ dks ijs'kkuh D;ksa gqbZ\
(iii) voklh; {ks=kksa esa esxkiQksu dk iz;ksx D;ksa ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg,\
iz'u&26 dquky vkSj vfHkeU;q jsyos kWflax dks ikj djus dk bartkj dj jgs Fks] rHkh dquky vojks/ dks ikj
djds jsyos VSd ij viuk dku yxk;k] vfHkeU;q us bldk fojks/ fd;k vkSj dquky dks [khapdj
jsyos VSd ls gVk;kA
(i) dquky us jsyos VSd ij viuk dku D;ksa yxk;k\
(ii) fdlesa ofu dk lapj.k rst gks ldrk gS\
(1) dkWij (rkack) (2) ty
(iii) vfHkeU;q us dquky dks jsyos VSd ls nwj D;ksa [khapk\

iz'u&27 jsokUrf'k'k ds dku esa nnZ Fkk ftlds dkj.k fiu ls dku esa [kqtyk jgk FkkA MkWDVj us lykg fn;k
fd gesa vius dkuksa dh vPNh rjg ls ns[kHkky djuh pkfg, mUgsa [krjs ls ;k fdlh izdkj ds uqdlku
ls cpkuk pkfg,A
(i) gesa vius dkuksa esa dBksj uqdhyh oLrq dks ugha pqHkkuk pkfg,A D;ks\
(ii) dku ds D;k dk;Z gS\a
iz'u&28 jhuk dh nknh mldh eEeh dks tks pkj eghus dh xHkZorh Fkh] vYVklksuksxzkiQh tkap ds fy, MkWDVj
ds ikl ys xbZ] ysfdu og ns[kuk pkgrh Fkh fd xHkZ esa iy jgk cPpk] yM+dk gS ;k yM+dh MkWDVj
a yk;k vkSj cPps dk fyax crkus ls euk dj fn;kA
(i) vYVklksuksxzkiQh D;k gS\
(ii) vYVkl
s ksuksxzkiQh fdl flkar ij dk;Z djrk gS\
(iii) vkidks D;k yxrk gS\MkWDVj us D;ksa cPps dk fyax crkus ls euk dj fn;kA
(iv) vYVklksuksxzkiQh D;ksa egRoiw.kZ gS\a
iz'u&29 g"kkZ Vsyhfotu ij ,d leqnzh tgkt ls lacaf/r dk;Ze ns[k jgh FkhA mlus leqnhz tgkt esa yxk
,d ;a=k ns[kk ftldh lgk;rk ls nq'euksa dh iuMqfCc;ksa dk irk yxkdj mldk lans'k gsMDokVj dks
Hkst fn;kA
(i) leqnzh tgkt ij yxs ;a=k dk uke crkb,A
(ii) ml ;a=k@;qfDr dk iwjk uke fy[kks
(iii) ;a=k fdl flkUr ij dk;Z djrk gS\
(iv) ;a=k ds vU; mi;ksx fy[kksA
iz'u&30 nks ,pvkbZoh xzflr HkkbZ&cgu vuq vkSj fuf[ky dks fo|ky; ls fudky fn;k x;k] ckn esa ,d xSj
ljdkjh laLFkk (NGO) ds n[ky djus ij mudks iqu% izos'k ns fn;k x;kA
(i) nksuksa cPps fdl jksx ls xzflr Fks\
(ii) bl jksx ds lajpj.k dh rhu fof/;ksa dk mYys[k djksA
(iii) nksuksa cPpksa ds fy, fo|ky; vkSj xSj ljdkjh laLFkk }kjk mBk, x, dne ds ckjs esa vki ds
fopkj D;k gS\a
iz'u&31 ,d fnu tc vf{krk Ldwy vkbZ rks mldh ukd cg jgh Fkh] vk[ks yky Fkh vk[kksa ls ikuh fudy
jgk Fkk] jg jg ds [kkalh vk jgh Fkh] tc og izkFkZuk lHkk esa lafprk ls feyh rks lafprk us mls ml
fnu ds fy, d{kk esa vyx MsLd ij cSBus dh lykg nhA
(i) ml jksx dk uke crkb, ftlls vf{krk xzflr Fkh\
(ii) jksx ds dkjd tho dk uke crkvksA
(iii) bl jksx ls cpus ds nks mik; fy[kksA
(iv) lafprk }kjk nh xbZ lykg ij vkidk D;k fopkj gS\
iz'u&32 Js;k dk ekyh fiNys dqN fnuksa ls yxkrkj [kkWlh vkSj gYds cq[kkj ls ihfM+r FkkA og ?kjsyw bykt
dj jgk FkkA ,d fnu Js;k ds MkWDVj muds ?kj vk,] Js;k us ekyh dk psdvi djk;kA MkWDVj us
lykg nh fd fdlh utnhd laked jksx vLirky esa tkdj vius Nkrh dk ,Dl&js ,oa Fkwd dh
tkap djok;sA
(i) ml jksx dk uke crkvks ftlls ekyh ihfM+r gS\
(ii) ml jksx dk jksx dkjd tho dk uke fy[kksA
(iii) bl jksx ls cpus ds fy, nks mik; fy[kksA
(iv) Js;k esa vkidks fn[kkbZ ns jgs nks ewY;ksa dk mYys[k djksA
iz'u&33 jkgqy vkSj vfuy nks ?kfu"B fe=k gS tks vf/dka'k le; ,d lkFk jg dj O;rhr djrs gSA jkgqy
us ns[kk fd xr lIrkg ls vfuy dk O;ogkj fcYdqy fHkUUk gks jgk gSA og 5 ls 10 feuV [ksyus
ds ckn Fkd tkrk gS vkSj csp
a ij cSB tkrk gSA jkgqy us vfuy dks Bhd u jgus dh otg dh tkudkjh
fd;kA vfuy us tSls gh jkgqy dh vksj ns[kk rks irk yxk fd mldh vk[ks ihyh gks jgh Fkh vkSj
mls fepyh ,oa myVh dh f'kdk;r gSA jkgqy mls MkWDVj ds ikl tkus dh lykg nhA
(1) vfuy dkSu lh chekjh ds y{k.k fn[kk jgk gS\
(2) bl chekjh ds dkjd tho dk uke fy[kksA
(3) jkgqy esa dkSu ls ewY; vki ikrs gS\
iz'u&34 es?kk tks IX d{kk dh Nk=kk gSA ftls ePNjksa ls iQSyus okys jksxksa ds ckjs esa ,d ifj;kstuk dk;Z fjiksVZ
fo|ky; esa tek djus ds fy, dgk x;kA og ikl ds vLirky esa xbZ tgk mldh vk.Vh ,d ulZ
ds :i esa dk;Zjr FkhA mldh vk.Vh ,d ejht ds ikl ys xbZ tks eysfj;k jksx ls ihfM+r FkkA es?kk
us ejht ls ckr dh vkSj chekjh ds vU; y{k.kksa ds ckjs esa iwNkA
(i) jksx ds dkjd tho dk uke rFkk mlds laokgd dk uke fy[kksA
(ii) nks vU; y{k.kksa dks crk;s tks ejht }kjk es?kk dks crk;s x;s gksxsA
(iii) es?kk ds }kjk iznf'kZRk fd, x;s nks egRoiw.kZ ewY;ksa dh igpku djsA
iz'u&35 dq'ky dk ifjokj cgqr [kq'k gS D;ksafd og ,d uUgh lh cPph dk firk cu x;k gSA fu;fer rkSj
ij vLirky tkus ds nkSjku MkWDVj us mUgsa Vhdkdj.k dk;Ze dks u NksM+us dh lykg nhA tc og
bl ckjs esa ?kj ij ppkZ dj jgk Fkk rks ifjokj ds fdlh lnL; us lykg nh fd ^yM+dh* ds fy,
Vhdkdj.k dh dksbZ vko';drk ugha gSA dq'ky us bl lykg dk fojks/ fd;kA
(i) Vhdkdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gS\
(ii) nks lkekU; Vhdksa rFkk mlls lEcfU/r jksxksa ds uke crkb,A
(iii) dq'ky ds n`f"Vdks.k ij leh{kkRed fy[kksA
iz'u&36 d`fr vkSj dkSLrqHk ^Vhdkdj.k* ij ppkZ dj jgs FksA ppkZ ds nkSjku dkSLrqHk us dgk fd eq> Vhdkdj.k
ls Mj yxrk gS D;ksafd blesa e`r tho gksrs gS tks gekjs 'kjhj ds fy, [krjukd gks ldrs gSA
(i) dkSLrqHk ds bl Mj ij fy[kksA
iz'u&37 jkgqy ,d le` ifjokj dk 'kkjhfjd :i ls ranq:Lr] bathfu;afjx dk fo|kFkhZ gSA ijUrq viuh
vfrO;;h thou 'kSyh dks thus gsrq mlus vius d{kk ds lkfFk;ksa dk eksckby iQksu vkSj ySiVkWi pqjkuk
'kq: dj fn;kA ,d fnu og idM+k x;kA mlds bl O;ogkj dks jksdus ds fy, vkSj mlesa ldkjkREkd
lq/kj gsrq f'k{kdksa us mlds lkFk ijke'kZ fd;kA
(i)jkgqy ds O;ogkj ds ckjs esa vki D;k lksprs gS\og LoLFk ;k jksxeqDr gS\ vius mkj dh laiqf"V
(ii) ^LokLF;* dh ifjHkk"kk fyf[k,A
iz'u&38 euq dh NksVh cgu nks lky dh gSA mlds firk th dks jfookj ds fnu mldh NksVh cgu dks iYl
iksfy;ksa dsUnz ij ys tkuk Fkk ijUrq Vsyhfotu ij Hkkjr ikfdLrku dk ykbo eSp vk jgk Fkk og
mls ns[k jgs Fks] ftlds dkj.k iYl iksfy;ks dsUnz ij tkus dh :fp ugha FkhA fiQj Hkh euq us firk
th dks iYliksfy;ks dsUnz tkus ds fy, fo'ks"k vkxzg fd;kA
(i) ^iYl iksfy;ks* D;k gS\
(ii) iksfy;ks ds dkjd tho dk uke fy[kksA
(iii)vki dks ,slk D;ska yxrk gS fd euq dh cgu dks iYl&iksfy;ks dsUnz ys tkuk vko';d Fkk\
iz'u&39 ;|fi vpZuk lnhZ&tqdke ls ijs'kku Fkh mlus ;wfuV VsLV nsus dk fu.kZ; fy;kA vuhrk tks mlds djhc
cSBh Fkh og bl jksx ls izHkkfor ugha gqbZ] tcfd iwtk] tks mlds ihNs cSBh Fkh og Hkh bl chekjh
ls xzflr gks xbZA
(i) lae.k ds lEidZ esa gksrs gq, Hkh fdl pht us vuhrk dks lnhZ tqdke gksus ls cpk;kA
(ii) vpZuk fdl izdkj ds jksx ls xzflr Fkh\
(iii) mi;qZDr jksx ds cpko ds nks mik; crk,A
(iv) vki viuk fopkj nhft, fd D;k vpZuk dk fo|ky; vkus dk fu.kZ; lgh Fkk\
iz'u&40 ifjf.kfr dks czkdsa kbfVl ('olu laca/h ,d jksx) gqvk FkkA pkjksa rjiQ ok;qeaMy /q,a vkSj 'kksj ls
Hkjk Fkk D;ksafd nhokyh ikl FkhA ifjf.kfr ds ekrk&firk us vkl&iM+ksl ds cPpksa dks iVk[ks tykus
ds cqjs izHkko le>k,A mUgsa lqudj cPps iVk[ks uk NqMk+ us ds fy, eku x,A
(i) ,slk ns[kk x;k gS fd iVk[kk tc tyk;k tkrk gS rks igys izdk'k fn[krk gS vkSj fiQj vkokt
lqukbZ nsrh gSA ,slk D;ksa\
(ii) ,sls rhu cqjs&izHkko fyf[k, tks fd ifjf.kfr ds ekrk&firk us cPpksa dks crkb, gksaxAs
(iii)D;k vki cPpksa ds iVk[ks uk NqMk+ us ds fu.kZ; dk leFkZu djrs gS\a vki bu cPpksa esa dkSu ls
vPNs xq.kksa dks ikrs gSsa] dksbZ nks xq.k fy[ksAa

iz'u&41 i`Foh dk 75 Hkkx ty ls f?kjk gSA vkSj ;g i`Foh ij Hkwfexr ty ds :i esa Hkh ik;k tkrk gS]
fiQj Hkh xehZ ds fnuksa esa cgqr ,slh txgksa ij ty dh deh dh leL;k ls tw>rs gSAa
(i) bldh lekykspukRed fy[kksA
iz'u&42 jke vorkj ,d fdlku gS tks fnYyh ds ckgjh {ks=k esa fuokl djrk gS] moZjd ds nqdku ij tkus
ij fo;drkZ us jkevorkj ls vkus&okys ekSle esa mlds }kjk mxk;h tkus okyh iQly dh tkudkjh
ekaxhA ckrphr ds nkSjku iQly dk uke irk pyk ftlds vuqlkj fo;drkZ us ;wfj;k vkSj vU;
s u ;qDr moZjd iz;ksx djus dh lykg nh\ ogh mifLFkr ^Js"B* tks fd 'kkUr gksdj ;ku ls
;g lc ckrphr lqu jgk Fkk] chp esa n[ky nsrs gq, dgk fd bl iQly ds fy, ukbVkt s u ;qDr
moZjd dh vko';drk ugha gksxhA
mi;qZDr tkudkjh ds vuqlkj iz'uksa ds mkj ns%&
(i) Js"B ds }kjk fdu ewY;ksa dk izn'kZu fd;k x;kA
(ii) lacaf/r iQly dkSu lh gks ldrh gS\
(iii) Js"B ds lykg nsus dh D;k otg gks ldrh gS\
iz'u&43 ,d efUnj dk iqtkjh dqN lw[ks ekykvksa] ifo=k iqjkuh iqLrdsa rFkk ewfrZ;ksa dks ,df=kr fd;k vkSj
og vius iq=k ls budks unh esa izokfgr ds fy, dgkA tcfd iq=k us budks unh esa izokfgr djus
ds ctk; feV~Vh esa nck fn;kA
(i)mi;qZDr n'kkvksa esa vki fdldk leFkZu djrs gS% iqtkjh ;k iq=k dkA nks dkj.kksa dk mYys[k djrs
gq, vius mkj dh iqf"V djksA
(ii) iq=k ds O;ogkj esa vki dks fdu ekuoh; ewY;ksa dh >yd vk jgh gS\
iz'u&44 jkeiqj ds Jh jktsUnz dh ,d [kkl vknr gS fd oks tgka mi;qDr LFky feys ogha ij ,d ikS/k
yxk nsrs gSAa muds vFkd iz;kl ls xkao esa catj iM+s ,d cgqr cM+s Hkwfe ds VqdM+s dks gjk&Hkjk cuk
fn;k x;kA
(i) e`nk&vijnu D;k gS\
(ii) e`nk&vijnu djus okys nks dkjdksa dk uke fy[ksAa
(iii) e`nk& vijnu jksdus ds fy, D;k mik; viuk, tkus pkfg,A
(iv) Jh jktsUnz ds dkSu ls xq.k dks vki viukuk pkgsxa s vkSj D;ksa\
iz'u&45 ckxhps esa Ldwy ds cPpksa us izfrfnu ekyh dks lw[kh ifk;ksa dks tykrs gq, ns[kk FkkA Ldwy ds cPps
muds ikl x, vkSj mudks lykg fn;k fd bu lw[kh ifk;ksa dks u tyk, vkSj ;g Hkh crk;k fd
bl rjg ds dk;ksZa ls D;k gkfudkjd izHkko gks ldrs gSA
(i) mu gkfudkjd izHkkoksa dh lwph cukb, ftlds ckjs esa Ldwy ds cPps ckr dj jgs Fks\
(ii) vki ekyh dks lw[kh ifk;ksa dks u tykus ds ctk, vkSj D;k djus dh lykg ns ldrs gS\

iz'u&46 fdlh {ks=k ds vkokl dY;k.k la?k us ml {ks=k esa eksckby Vkoj LFkkfir djus ds izLrko dks euk
dj fn;kA
(i)okrkoj.k rFkk xkSj;S k ds vkokl dk foyksi ,oa vkokl dy;k.k la?k }kjk ls vLohd`fr dk lEcU/
LFkkfir dhft,A
(ii) RWA (vkokl dY;k.k la?k) ds }kjk iznf'kZr gks jgs ewY;ksa ij fy[ksA
iz'u&47 fu"Bk vkSj mlds ekrk&firk us baMksusf'k;k tkus dh ;kstuk dks LFkfxr dj fn;k Fkk D;ksafd uoEcj
ds vUr esa ml ns'k esa tkus okyh tgktksa dks fujLr dj fn;k x;k FkkA mlus bldk dkj.k ;g ik;k
fd ns'k esa Leksx (/we dksgjk) Nk;k gqvk gSA
(i) Leksx (/we dksgjk) D;k gS\
(ii) ;g fdl rjg ekuo thou dks izHkkfor djrk gS\
(iii)bl ifjfLFkfr ls fuiVus ds fy, O;fDr fo'ks"k rkSj ij fu"Bk ;k vki dk D;k ;ksxnku gks ldrk
iz'u&48 ,d lekpkj ds }kjk irk yxk fd ,d xkao ds yksx ,d jgL;e;h jksx ls ihfM+r gSAa dju us ;g
tkudj mlds dkj.k dk irk yxk;kA tkap ds nkSjku mlus ik;k fd xko ds yksx ml NksVh unh ds
ty dk mi;ksx dj jgs Fks ftlds fdukjs rhu dkxt ds dkj[kkus fLFkr gSAa dju xkao ds yksxksa ds
lkFk feydj dkxt ds dkj[kkuksa dks cUn djok;kA
(i) ty esa fdl vokaf{kr inkFkksaZ ds feyus ds dkj.k ;g jksx gqvk gSA
(ii) ty izn"w k.k D;k gSA
(iii)dju ds O;ogkj dh igpku djks ftlds }kjk mlus ,sls dne mBk, vkSj fojks/ esa yM+kbZ yM+h
iz'u 49 ok;q izn"w k.k esa o`f ds iQyLo:i i;kZoj.k ij nq"izHkko c<+s gSAa fiQjkst+ijq ektjk uked xko ,d
vfrO;Lr jk"Vh; jktekxZ ds fdukjs fLFkr gSA tarqvksa ,oa ikS/ksa ij foijhr izHkko Mkyus ds dkj.k
igyh o"kkZ ds vkxeu ds lkFk gh dfiy ds firk dks fpark gksrh gSA dfiy us fLFkfr rFkk blds
dkj.kksa dks isfz {kr djrs gq, vius firk dks O;k[;kRed fooj.k fn;kA
(i) dfiy }kjk firk ds le{k fdl ize dh O;k[;k dh xbZ\
(ii) bl ize ds dkj.kksa dks lwphc dhft,A
(iii) bl ize ls lacaf/r nks xSlksa ds uke fyf[k,A
(iv) bl ize ds nq"izHkkoksa dks de djus gsrq dksbZ nks lq>ko fyf[k,A
iz'u&50 j?kq us ikjaifjd d`f"k ifr;ksa ds LFkku ij vk/qfud d``f"k ifr;ksa dh 'kq:vkr dh ftlesa mlus
vf/d ykHk ds fy, vR;f/d ek=kk esa moZjd vkSj dhVuk'kd jlk;uksa dk mi;ksx fd;kA
(i) vk/qfud d`f"k ds D;k gkfudkjd izHkko gS\a
(ii) e`nk izn"w k.k D;k gS\
(iii)vki ds fopkj ls yEcs le; rd vk/qfud d`f"k dks viukus ls e`nk ij D;k izHkko gks ldrk
gS\d`f"k ds oSdfYid rjhds D;k gks ldrs gS tks vf/d iQk;nsean gks\

This Material is prepared to help the students to understand and analyse the passage given. Also the
teacher is requested to make students sit in a group and come out with answers after a discussion. The
paragraph wise questions and questions that involve thinking, analyzing and reflecting are also
included. In Group work, will lead to development of maximum potential of the student.

A mind map has been made at the end of each theme to aid the students understanding. The students
could be made to make such mind maps after reading the open text passage. Mind maps can be made
still simpler.

The given Open text material is for use in Summative Assessment II of Class IX




Answer the following Each question carries one mark

1 Name the conditions of the atmosphere that provides excellent conditions to support
and sustain life.
A The atmosphere comprising of mainly Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide and water
vapour provides excellent conditions to support and sustain life.
2 What are pollutants?
A The undesired components which contaminate air are called pollutants.
3 Name the gas that is necessary for the survival of life on earth.
A Carbon dioxide is necessary for the survival of life on earth.
4 `Name the phenomenon that is essential to maintain and keep the earths atmosphere
A Photosynthesis
5 What is the cause for the depletion of ozone layer?
A The use of refrigerators and air conditioners, fire extinguishers, aerosol sprays like
deodorants etc. results in release of CFCs and N2O in the atmosphere which is
responsible for depletion of ozone layer
6 Give the consequences of depletion of ozone layer
A UV radiations enter into the atmosphere causing damage to all kinds of life on earth.
7 What is NAMP?
A NAMP stands for National Air Quality Monitoring Programmer.
8 What is the significance of PM10?
A PM10 is the term used to describe tiny particles in the air, made up of a complex
mixture of soot, organic and inorganic materials having particle size less than or equal
to 10 microns diameter(10 microns is equal to one hundredth part of a millimeter)
9 What do PTI and IST stand for?
A Press Trust of India, and Indian Standard Time
10 What is the place of Air pollution in taking lives of people in India?
A Air pollution is the fifth largest killer in India taking 6.2 lakh lives per year.

Answer the following Each question carries 2 marks
1 Name the five most critically polluted regions in the country.

A Delhi, Ghaziabad, Gwalior, West Singbhum district in Jharkhand and Raipur are the
five most critically polluted regions in the country.

2 How acid rain is is formed?

A The oxides of sulphur, carbon, and nitrogen released into the atmosphere from
chimneys of Industries and exhaust of vehicles react with water of the rains and
oxygen from air to form acids. Dissolved acids make the rain acidic in nature.

3 What is the affect of acid rains on the environment?

A Acid rains are very harmful for both, living and nonliving things. Acid rains damage
crops, pollute soil and water, ruin the harvest, damage aquatic life and erode

4 Name the undesirable components which contaminate and cause air pollution

A The harmful Ozone in the lower atmosphere, Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen dioxide,
Solid or liquid matter that is suspended in the air, Sulfur dioxide, Lead,Arsenic,
asbestos, benzene and dioxin, Green House gasses Carbon dioxide methane and
nitrous oxide are the components which cause air pollution.

5 What is the effect of carbon monoxide on the life on earth?

A It makes the body parts hard to get the necessary oxygen

More exposure makes people feel dizzy and tired
High concentrations is fatal
People suffering from heart disease are hospitalized more often.

6 What is the importance of Earth Day? When is it celebrated

A To give awareness to the people towards keeping the planet Earth non polluted, Earth
Day is celebrated on April 22 every year.
7 What is Global warming?

A Increase in the levels of CO2 due to excessive burning of fossil fuels and other carbon
containing fuels which results in excessive heating of the earths surface is called
Global Warming.
8 What are the greenhouse gases present in the earths atmosphere in their order of
abundance in the atmosphere

A Water vapour, Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons.

9 What made the Governments of different nations take up the problem of air pollution
to a central stage?

A Smog which surrounded the city of London in the year 1952 resulted in the loss of
about 4000 human lives and many others suffering from serious breathing problems .
This made Governments of different nations to take-up the problem of air pollution to
a central stage.
10 Visibility is very low during winters. Why?
A Smog is a mixture of smoke dust particles and fog. The smoke emitted from the
exhaust of the vehicles settles over fog in winter and reduces the visibility
11 What is the effect of Air toxics on the Human beings?
A Air toxics can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or aggravate existing
conditions, such as asthma. Infants who were born premature or growth-retarded
may be particularly vulnerable to additional environmental affects..
12 From picture no. 5 name the diseases affecting children of 0 to 5 years.
A Diseases affecting children in the age from 0 to 5 years are
High respiratory rate, Respiratory death cough bronchitis wheeze and ear infections
13 From picture no 5 name the diseases affecting children of 6 to 12 years.
A Chronic cough and bronchitis, Reduced lung function, wheezing and asthma attacks,.

14 From the bar graph find out in which city there are more number of ill health children
and less number of ill health children and give your conclusions.

A In Nagpur there are more number of unhealthy children because Nagpur is more
polluted and in, Hyderabad there are less number of unhealthy children because
Hyderabad is comparatively less polluted. There are more number of unhealthy
children in Nagpur than the other cities.The city does not have large industries and
hence the high SPM levels are mainly due to demolition of buildings, construction
activity, and excavation of roads

15 What is PM10? Give the unit of measurement of PM10?

A PM10 is particulate matter. The unit of measurement of PM10 is microgram per cubic
metre or gm/m3
16 From the table showing the Ambient Air quality factor of different cities, find the cities
which are high in pollution and why?

A From the table Gwalior and Raipur are the cities which are more polluted because in
those places PM 10 311 and 310 which is 1.5 times more than the National

17 What are the national standards of Ambient Air Quality for Residential, Industrial, and
other areas?

National Ambient Air Quality standard for Residential Rural and other areas(Annual
average) for SO2 = 50 microgram per cubic metre ,NO2 = gm/m3 PM 10=60 gm/m3

18 State two uses of Carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide is an essential raw material for
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Green house effect

Answer the following Each question carries 3 marks
1 Give the effect of Ozone on life on earth

A Ozone can lead to more frequent asthma attacks in people who have asthma and can
cause sore throats, coughs, and breathing difficulty. It may even lead to premature
death. It can also hurt plants and crops.

2 What is the effect of Air Pollution on Taj Mahal? Give reasons for the same.

A Taj Mahal is turning yellow because of air pollution. Glass factories, rubber industries,
Mathura Oil refinery and other industries of the neighbouring towns which burn
fossil fuels are responsible for this. These industries release soot particles and gases
into the atmosphere. The soot particles turn the colour of the marble to yellow and
gases react with water to form acid rain which corrodes the marble of the monument
3 What are the steps taken by the Govt to protect the Taj Mahal?

A Steps taken by the Government in protecting the monument are

o Government has put a ban on driving near the Taj Mahal.
o All cars and buses are parked roughly 1km away.
o Battery run buses or horse-drawn carriages have been set up for visitors to
reach the monument.
o Industries in neighbouring towns are being persuaded to use cleaner fuels like
CNG and LPG instead of coke in their furnaces.
4 What is marble cancer?

A Taj Mahal is turning yellow because of air pollution. Glass factories, rubber industries,
Mathura Oil refinery and other industries of the neighbouring towns which burn
fossil fuels are responsible for this. These industries release soot particles and gases
into the atmosphere. The soot particles turn the colour of the marble to yellow and
gases react with water to form acid rain which corrodes the marble of the monument.

This phenomenon is called Marble Cancer.

5 Match the following

a. April 22 1. Tiny particles in the atmosphere
b. Greenhouse gas 2. Chlorofluorocarbons
c. Refrigeration 3. pollution free place
d. Malappuram 4.Highly polluted city
e. Gwalior 5. Continuous Development
f. PM 10 6. carbon dioxide
7. Earth Day
6 State whether the following statements re TRUE or FALSE.
a. TajMahal is suffering from Marble Cancer.
b. Air Toxics can affect lung function and neuro development.
c. Greenhouse gases Keep the room cool
d. Refrigeration causes the release of Chlorofluro carbons
e. Taj Mahal is polluted by its surrounding Industries .
7 What is PM10?
Particulate matter (PM10) pollution consists of very small liquid and solid particles
floating in the air. Of greatest concern to public health are the particles small enough
to be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lung. These particles are less
than 10 microns in diameter - about 1/7th the thickness of the human hair - and are
known as PM10. This includes fine particulate matter known as PM2.5.
PM10 is a mixture of materials that can include smoke, soot, dust, salt, acids, and
metals. Particulate matter also forms when gases emitted from motor vehicles and
industry undergoes chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
8 What are the sources of PM10?

There are sources of PM10 in both urban and rural areas, major sources include:

a. Motor vehicles.

b. Wood burning stoves and fireplaces.
c. Dust from construction, landfills, and agriculture.
d. Wildfires and brush/waste burning.
e. Industrial sources.
f. Windblown dust from open lands.

9 What is NAMP? What are the objectives of NAMP?

A NAMP is National Air quality Monitoring Programme.

The objectives of NAMP are

To determine status and trends of ambient air quality;

o To ascertain whether the prescribed ambient air quality standards are

violated, to identify Non-attainment cities.

o To obtain the knowledge and understanding necessary for developing

preventive and corrective measures;

To understand the natural cleaning process undergoing in the environment

through pollution, dilution, dispersion, wind based movement, dry deposition,
precipitation and chemical transformation of pollutants generated.
10 How does Air pollution affects you?

PM10 is among the most harmful of all air pollutants. When inhaled these particles
evade the respiratory system's natural defenses and lodge deep in the lungs.

Health problems begin as the body reacts to these foreign particles. PM10 can increase
the number and severity of asthma attacks, cause or aggravate bronchitis and other
lung diseases, and reduce the body's ability to fight infections.

Although particulate matter can cause health problems for everyone, certain people
are especially vulnerable to PM10's adverse health effects. These "sensitive populations"
include children, the elderly, exercising adults, and those suffering from asthma or

Of greatest concern are recent studies that link PM10 exposure to the premature death

of people who already have heart and lung disease, especially the elderly
11 What steps do you take to control Air Pollution at your level?

OZONE (O3): Ozone can lead to more frequent asthma attacks in people who have
asthma and can cause sore throats, coughs, and breathing difficulty. It may even lead
to premature death..

Carbon Monoxide (CO): Carbon monoxide makes it hard for body parts to get the
oxygen they need to run correctly. Exposure to carbon monoxide makes people feel
dizzy and tired and gives them headaches. In high concentrations it is fatal. Elderly
people with heart disease are hospitalized more often when they are exposed to higher
amounts of carbon monoxide.

Particulate Matter (PM): Particulate matter that is small enough can enter the lungs
and cause health problems. Some of these problems include more frequent asthma
attacks, respiratory problems, and premature death.

12 Malappuram in Kerala state is considered to be pollution free. Justify your answer

The status of Ambient Air Quality in Malappuram is below the actual standards of
National Ambient Air quality i. e., SO2 = 2gm/m3, NO2= 52gm/m3, PM 10 =
30gm/m3. Since these values are very much below the national standards the city is
considered to be pollution free
13 What steps do you take to control Air Pollution at your level?
* Hang dry some-or all-of the laundry. Walk, ride your bike or take a bus to work.
* Share a ride with a friend or co-worker.
* Turn out the lights in empty rooms and when away from home.
* Avoid burning trash or leaves
* Hang dry some-or all-of the laundry.
* Reduce the number of trips you make in your car.
* Avoid the use of air conditioners altogether.
* Take the train or bus on long trips.

14 As a student what all actions can you take to make your environment clean
A a. Conserve energy in your home, office and automobile.
b. Purchase clean electric power.
c. Manage your heating and cooling. (Turn your thermostat down
in the winter and up in the summer whenever you are at work,

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sleeping or on vacation.)
d. Cut back on the amount of packaging you purchase and the
amount of household waste you produce (by composting).
e. Reduce the amount of time you spend in the car. (Carpool or use
public transportation whenever you can)
f. Improve your fuel economy. Avoid accelerating quickly, braking
hard and driving at high speeds, particularly when in heavy
traffic. Remove excess weight from your car and remove unused
roof racks or bike carriers, which cause drag.

16 Study picture 5 and answer the following question. How do the pollutants
affect the children?
A Early childhood is a critical period for the continued development and
maturation of several biological systems such as the brain, lungs, and immune
system. Air toxins can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or
aggravate existing conditions, such as chronic cough, bronchitis, reduced lung
function, wheezing and asthma. Infants who were born premature or growth-
retarded may be particularly vulnerable to additional environmental insults.

Answer the following Each question carries 5marks

1 Carbon dioxide is necessary for the survival of life on Earth as it is an essential raw
material for the process of photosynthesis and greenhouse effect. This effect is essential
to maintain and keep the earths atmosphere warm to sustain life. But due to excessive
burning of fossil fuels and other carbon containing fuels, there has been an excessive
release of CO2 in the atmosphere. The increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere lead to
excessive heating in the earths surface. The heating results into a new phenomenon
called Global Warming.

Answer the following questions:

a. What is the function of greenhouse gas?
b. Give any two uses of the gas that is released in the process of photosynthesis.
c. What are the greenhouse gases?

A a. The functions of greenhouse gases are to absorb heat from sunlight and

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trap it in the atmosphere to warm the Earth and melt the ice caps.
b. Carbon dioxide gas is involved in the production of refrigeration systems,
welding systems, water treatment processes (to stabilize the pH of water)
and carbonated beverages.
c. Water vapour, Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone,
2 What are the effects of Acid rain on Environment?
Effects on vegetation: Acid rain corrodes the protective covering of leaves of the plants,
which affect the photosynthesis of the plants. Due to lack of nutrition, plants become
vulnerable to disease. Another cause of lack of nutrition for trees may be due to acid
rain getting absorbed by the soil. The harmful acids can have hazardous effects on the
roots of the trees
Effects on soil:: the soil has abundant various metals and minerals. When these metals
come in contact with acid rain there can be some harmful chemical reactions. These
reactions can lead to soil erosion. Acid rains are known to reduce the fertility of the
soil, leaving the land barren. Harmful acids can also reduce the amount of soil
microorganisms which perform important job of breaking down the dead and decayed
plants and other beings.

Effects on Aquatic Flora and Fauna: Acid rain can directly affect the aquatic life, as the
high amount of sulphuric acid and nitric acid levels in acid rains are directly
consumed by aquatic plants and animals. The harmful acids affects the ability of fish
to take in nutrients, salt, and oxygen. Aquatic animals intake oxygen from the water
through their gills, but harmful acids leads to mucus formation in the gills, which
hinders their ability to respire. Acid rains affect the pH level of water which reduce the
absorption capacity of essential nutrients of the aquatic life.

Effects on Human Health: As acid rain affects the soil making it poisonous, the
food which is grown on this soil is also contaminated. This food can seriously
hamper our entire body system and may cause death. The release of various
gases in the atmosphere leads to lung problems
3 Identify from the pictures and data given in the text, the diseases which occur in
children of age group 6 to 12 and 0 to 5 due to air pollution. Analyse the given data
and draw conclusion about health of children and pollution levels of various cities in
India. What are the steps taken by the authorities and communities to check the same?
Diseases which occur in children of age group 6 to 12: due to air pollution
Increase in lung volume

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Chronic cough and bronchitis
Reduced lung function
Wheezing and asthma attacks
Respiratory problems
Diseases which occur in children of age group 0 to 5 due to air pollution
Alveolar development
Respiratory death
Cough , bronchitis wheezing, ear infections and illness
There are more number of unhealthy children in Nagpur than the other cities.
The city does not have large industries and hence the high SPM levels are mainly due
to demolition of buildings, construction activity, and excavation of roads.
1. Proper care needs to be taken during demolition and excavation to ensure
that dust does not settle in air
2. Planting more trees
3. Proper disposal of bio- medical waste.
4 Air pollution-fifth largest killer in India

i. What are the effects of burning agricultural waste?

ii. What are the health effects of Carbon Monoxide?
iii. How can pollution prevention be achieved?

A i. Burning agricultural waste is a source of particulate matter and other

pollutants. It can greatly affect the regional air quality, visibility and
ground level zero potential.

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ii. When we breathe air containing CO it is absorbed through the
bloodstream where it displaces oxygen and bonds with the hemoglobin
in your blood. Carbon monoxide has a greater affinity to hemoglobin
than oxygen; CO bonds to hemoglobin about 250 times better than
oxygen. Without oxygen, vital organs, your heart and brain become
deprived and will begin to deteriorate. To compensate, your heart rate
increases, breathing may become difficult and in the most serious
circumstances cardiac trauma, brain damage, coma and even death will
iii. Pollution may be prevented by many types of approaches.
a. Reduction of pollutants can be achieved by using raw materials,
energy, and water more efficiently.
b. Conserving and protecting natural resources can also reduce
the amount of waste produced.
c. Actions which may prevent and reduce pollution include:
product redesign substitution of raw materials process or
equipment modifications improvements in maintenance,
training, inventory control and housekeeping.

Answer the following Higher Order thinking questions.

1 A farmer plants the crop in the field. After some days he finds the plants to be
dead. He plants the crop once again and finds the same result. What may be
the cause for this . Give your answer.
A The Plants die due to the effect of acid rain. Acid rain does not affect the trees
directly, Instead it weakens them by damaging their leaves and roots or
poisoning them with toxic substances. Nutrients present in the soil are
destroyed by the acidity. Useful microorganisms which release nutrients from
decaying organic matter, into the soil are killed off, resulting in less nutrients
being available for the plants
2 In an accident in a chemicals and fertilizers industry there was
release of CO2 gas into the atmosphere. During the next rain Sudha
got wet. Red rashes followed by itching were formed on her body.
i. What could be the cause of this?
ii. Suggest some methods to reduce this effect.
A i. This could be caused due to acid rains. The first shower of rainfall
contains acid H2CO3. When water containing acid comes in contact

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with the skin, denaturation of proteins occurs.
ii. Many precautions can be taken to minimize such pollutions by
spreading awareness and educating people.
a. Factories can be closed down if they do not adhere to the standards
prescribed by the pollution control board.
b. Monitoring of the gases such as Carbon dioxide , sulphur dioxide
and other gases thatare released from the facories
c. Using efficient fuelswhere ever fuel is required
d. By planting trees in the surroundings

Answer the following questions . Teachers are requested to make the children
answer these questions by the way of group work
1 Think of a Model which can give signals when the pollution coming out of
the factory or appliance exceeds beyond the prescribed levels
2. Suppose that a place is highly polluted and filled with gases of CO2, SO2, PM
etc. Think of the ways that gases will not mix or minimise the amount that
they mix with rain water to form acids and fall on the ground.
3 How to protect the the monuments from the pollution.

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1. Theme-Clean Air-A shared Concern


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Answer th following . Each question carries 1 mark

1 Give the reason for the enhancement of quality of mans living
A Enhancement of quality of living in mans life is due to his ability and power to transform his
environment through technological developments
2 What was the highest rainfall that was recorded in Uttarakhand till 2012.What was the rainfall
recorded on 16th a nd 17th June 2013 within a period of 24 hours
A The highest rainfall recorded till 2012 was 350.5mm in 1970.The rainfall recorded on 16th and
17th within a span of 24 hours was 370 mm.
3 What is the average monthly rainfall during the months of June , July and August
A In the month of June average monthly rainfall is 210mm while in July and August it is more than
4 What is the highest ever single day rainfall in June for the state of Uttarakhand
A It is 370mm.
5 Name a disaster caused by natural reasons?
A Tsunami , Earth quake etc.
6 Name a disaster caused by manmade reasons?
A Bomb blast, Terrorism
7 Name a device used for collecting and measuring the amount of rain which falls.
A Rain gauge
8 What do you mean by eco-friendly tourism?
A Tourism without upsetting the existing balance in nature at a place is called eco
friendly tourism.
9 Who is an Ecologist?
A A biologist who studies the relation between organisms and their environment is an ecologist.
10 What is meant by Disaster Management ?
A Disaster management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and
responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular
preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.1
12 What is the place of Uttarakhand on the Tourism map among all states.
A Uttarakhand ranks eighth on the Tourism Map.
13 What is meant by cloudburst?

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A The cloudburst is a localized weather phenomena representing highly concentrated rainfall over
a small area lasting for few hours.
14 What is meant by landslide?
A A large mass of rocks and earth that suddenly and quickly moves down the side of a mountain or
15 To what percentage the tourists are increased from 2001 to 2012 in KEDARNATH
A 378%
18 Name the place in Uttarakhand where you can find more number of Hydel power Projects
A PITHORAGARH where 62 number of hydel projects are constructed.
19 What is meant by Quarrying?
A The extraction of building stone or slate or rock from the ground

20 What is the unit of rainfall?

mm ie millimeters of rain because the rainwater is collected in a container kept in an

open place for 24 hours and the height of the rainwater is noted in mm
21 How is the record of rainfall maintained?

The record of rainfall is maintained on a daily basis by the meteorological department in

the place. Generally the rainfall received over a year is reported to-- classify the place as
one which receives torrential rains or average or scanty rainfall.
22 When is a place said to have torrential rains?
A place which receives above 3000mm of rain per year is said to have torrential rains. Eg
Cherapunji, western coast of Indiaparticularly Karnataka and Kerala

23 Do landslides occur in all hills?

The Mountains of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats are young mountains and hence
the soil has not hardened enough. Hence the chances of occurrence of landslides are

24 Why do landslides occur?

One of the reasons could be--The anthropogenic activities (Man Made activities) like
cutting the hills to make roads and houses have lead to keeping the cut edges of the hill
without support. Hence the landslide when there is a heavy rain. Such landslides can be
reduced by constructing a retaining wall along the walls of the roads etc.

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Secondly deforestations also

Answer th following . Each question carries 2 mark

1 Give the factors which increased the amount of disaster in Uttarakhand
A The factors which increased the affect of Uttarakhand disaster are
a. Huge expansion of hydro-power projects to meet the growing demands of the
expanding state
b. Construction of roads to cope with the lakhs of tourists Poor disaster management
2 Give the name of the forces which helped in the rescue operations of Uttarakhand disaster (or)
Give the details of Human help provided in the rescue operations of the Uttarakhand disaster.
A The Army, Air Force, Navy, Indo-Tibetan Border Police(ITBP), Border Security Force(BSF),
National Disaster Response Force(NDRF), Public Works Department and local administration
worked together for quick rescue operations. Several thousand soldiers were deployed for the
rescue missions. Acivists of political and social organizations were also involved in the rescue
and management of relief centres.
3 How many numbers of Hydel Power Projects were constructed in Uttarakhand?
How much area of forests have been cleared.
A 244 Hydel Projects were constructed and an area of 15,072 ha of forests have been cleared.
4 List the human activities that cause disaster such as land slide.
A a. Cutting down of forests
b. Building roads for promoting tourism,
c. Unplanned structures
d. Setting up industries and
Erroneous agricultural practices o barren hill slopes
5 A report commissioned by theUnion Environment and Forests Ministry in May
2012 had warned the centre against going ahead with 24 hydropower projects
planned on the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi river systems in Uttarakand.Why?

: Because It stated that

i. The projects would destroy 22 percent of the states forestland
ii. Affect the unique Himalayan ecology along one-third of lengths of the
two main tributaries of Ganga.

6 16. Uttarakhand is one of the most fragile regions suffering from poor soil stability.
What is the meaning of poor soil stability?

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i. The soil is not hard enough to support the structures that are being built
on it.
ii. The soil is so loose that it can get washed away with water unlike the
rocky mountains of the Aravali Mountain range.

7 17. What facilities were lacking in this area?

a. There were no warning systems in place,
b. no weathering monitoring systems near the major pilgrimage centres
which saw a large number of tourists year after year.
There do not seem to be any rain-gauges at Kedarnath and Badrinath and
hence one may never know how much rainfall fell at those sites and we will
8 List a few of the damages caused by the natural calamity in Utterakhund :

The floods washed away entire villages and small towns and destroyed entire
roads, cutting off large areas, as well as homes, hotels and pilgrimage sites.
Much of the infrastructure in the affected areasroads, bridges, dams and civic
facilities have been completely destroyed or damaged.


Answer th following . Each question carries 3 mark

1 What are the reasons for the irreversible damage that took place during the Uttarakhand
disaster that took place on 16th and 17th June, 2013?
A Causes for the damage that took place during the disaster are due to
a. Cloudburst and landslides

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b. Cutting down of forests
c. Building roads for promoting tourism,
d. Unplanned structures
e. Setting up industries and
f. Erroneous agricultural practices o barren hill slopes
g. Unscientific road building
h. Constructing hydroelectric power plants

2 A large number of Hydel projects are constructed in the state of Uttarakhand. Why?
A The principle of Hydel project is that Potential energy of water falling from a height can be
utilized to produce electric energy. The Uttarakhand regions key resource is the water that
flows from high glaciers and mountains to the plains. This resource was utilized to build
hydropower projects that generate revenue mountains to the plains for the state.
3 What causes landslide in Uttarakhand?
A Many factors contribute to the instability of slopes, but the main controlling factors are
the nature of the underlying bedrock and soil, the configuration of the slope, the
geometry of the slope, and ground-water conditions.
Improper cutting of a slope by stream erosion, wave action, glaciers, or
human activities such as road building,
Continuous and Heavy rainfall, rapid snowmelt, fluctuations in ground-
water levels,
Shocks or vibrations caused by earthquakes or construction activities,
Movement of heavy loads on upper slopes, or
One of these or a combination of these factors is a cause for the
landslides in Uttarakhand.

4 Fillin the blanks

a. A tributary of Ganga
b. An instrument used to measure the rain fall___________
c. Number of villages affected in Tehri is ____________
d. One of the causes of disaster in Uttarakhand is _____________
e. Uttarakhand ranks _________among all states on the Tourism map

Answer th following . Each question carries 5 mark

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1 When the flood struck in Uttarakhand about 28 million tourists were visiting the state,
while the local people are close to that number.
a. Does it really affect the ecological conditions of that region? If yes how?
b. Do you think will it be a wise decision to ban tourism to this state?
Justify your answer.

A a. Yes, by cutting down the forest and dynamiting the mountains for building
roads and hotels for promoting tourism will disturb the bio diversity because of
the following reasons
When a large population is concentrated over a small area it will have
the effect of
I. decrease of clean water
II. decrease of the number of forest/deforestation to make a new
house or had been converted into farmlands
III. Increase of waste on the environment. Its condition make a unhealthy
IV. Increase of infectious disease. So the people get sick easily
V. Due to increase in population, greezone becomes smaller and smaller
because of the construction of various facilities such as buildings, roads
etc . Thereby only small amount of water can be absorbed into the soil.

b. The decision to ban tourism completely from this state is not correct. It
will affect the lively hood of local people who earn their bread and
butter. States revenue also gets affected due to this , Instead the
following measures can be taken up
1. Instead of allowing a big group, people in small chunks can be allowed to
2. Strict rules are to be enforced on the pilgrims and tourists in the
disposing the Waste materials for promoting the healthy environment
3. The tourists as well as local people should be properly trained to face any
natural disaster without disturbing the nature.
4. All hilly roads must have adequate drainage systems to fight with natural
5. There has to be a mandatory environmental impact assessment for the
construction of all state and national high ways and broadening of roads

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2 What are the tourism related activities that affect the environment at a place?
a. Construction of new roads and bridges and broadening of the ones that already
b. Building many hotels and guest houses to accommodate tourists
c. Building huge power projects to meet the growing demands of energy of the
expanding state
d. Dumping of huge quantities of organic and in-organic waste.
e. Deforestation for growing demands of space
Heavy traffic that pollute air and water, on fragile regions
3 The horrific disaster that struck Uttarakhand has been assessed as a mix of natural and
manmade reasons. Justify the statement
A heavy rainfall, cloudbursts and landslides were the natural causes of
Uttarakhand disaster. In addition to the nature man also is equally responsible for
this disaster.
1. Riverbed Mining is done in an area of 1.608 hac.
2. .About 15,072 ha of forests have been cleared.. The region is prone to
3. There are 244 Hydel projects constructed to satisfy the energy needs.
This resulted in evacuation of many people. Also People lost their
livelihood. There are reports to say that large part of power generated is
lost during transmission .
4. There are no readiness programmes to face the calamities.
5. Improper building constructions.
6. Improper agricultural practices on barren hill slopes,
7. Unscientific road building and
8. The extraction of building stones from open ground. . A report commissioned by
the Union Environment warned the centre against going ahead with 24 hydel
projects planned on the Alakananda and Bhagirathi river systems which will
destroy the 22 percent of the states forest land and eco system.
9. There is a1000 per cent increase in vehicular traffic in the last eight years which
resulted in the higher increase of landslides. More number of people allowed for
tourism during the monsoon season. There are no rain fall measuring devices set
up at Kedarnath and Badrinath to know how much rain fell and find out the

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4 What are the advantages of constructing Dams
1. Clean, efficient, and reliable form of energy.
2. Does not emit any direct pollutants or greenhouse gases.
3. While the initial cost is high, they are very inexpensive to operate.
4. Electricity generated by hydro-electric power plants is the cheapest electricity
5. Dams prevent floods.
6. Dams store water for irrigation in summer seasons and dry months. Many desert areas
can now farm due to dams and canals that supply water.
7. Dams supply water for local drinking needs.
8. Allows for fish farming.

5 What is the negative impact of constructing HYDEL POWER PROJECTS?

1. In flat basins large dams cause flooding of large tracts of land, destroying local animals
and habitats.
2. People have to be displaced causing change in life style and customs, even causing
emotional scarring. About 40 to 80 million people have been displaced physically by
dams worldwide.
3. Large amounts of plant life are submerged and decay anaerobically (in the absence of
oxygen) generating greenhouse gases like methane. It is estimated that a hydroelectric
power plant produces 3.5 times the amount of greenhouse gases as a thermal power
plant burning fossil fuels.
4. The migratory pattern of river animals like salmon and trout are affected.
5. Dams restrict sediments that are responsible for the fertile lands downstream. Farmers
use chemical fertilizers and pesticides to compensate for the loss in productivity.
6. Salt water intrusion into the deltas means that the saline water cannot be used for
7. Large dams are breeding grounds for mosquitoes and cause the spread of disease.
8. Farmers downstream who used to wait for the flooding of the fields to plant their seeds
are affected.
9. Dams serve as a heat sink, and the water is hotter than the normal river water. This
warm water when released into the river downstream can affect animal life.
10. Peak power operations can change the water level thirty to forty feet in one day and
can kill the animals staying at the shorelines.
Around 400,000 km2 of land worldwide has been submerged due to the construction
of dams.

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1 State whether the following statements are True or False.

a. Every community must get to know its own features and surroundings: the natural
environment as well as environment built by human beings.
b. The number of Hydel Projects constructed in Uttarakhand is 244 and 1500 ha of forest
was diverted.
c. The highest ranfall in June for the state of Uttarakhand being 350.5 mm.
d. The river sabri is the Tributary of Ganga.
2 Fillin the blanks :
a. Number of Hydel projects that were constructed in Uttarakhand till 2012 are_______.
b. _________ and ____________ rivers are the tributaries of Ganga.
c. The average monthly rainfall in Uttarakhand in the months of July and August is more
d. Uttarakhand disaster occurred on ____ and _________ of June, 2013.
e. What else does one expect from the mountain if there is heavy tourist rush at
vulnerable areas. The Himalaya is a young mountain and you dynamite it to build
roads. Landslides are bound to happen, says a senior officer of ________________
Meteorological Centre.

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2. Theme- Environment and Development- Lessons from the Hills


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