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# CHAPTER

## 1 Force and Pressure

Introduction
Force is a familiar word in science. In our daily life we experience, the concept of force. When we push
or pull an object, we exert a force on it. We exert a force when we throw or kick a ball. In these examples,
the word force, is associated with the result of muscular activity and with some change in the state of

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motion of an object.

Force
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Force is defined as a push or pull acting on a body. Whenever something moves, force must be involved.

The direction in which an object is pushed or pulled is called the direction of force. The SI unit of force
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is newton (N).

The SI unit of force-newton was named after the scientist Sir Issac
Newton.
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When forces are applied on an object in the same direction, we get the net force by adding the magnitude
of forces. When two forces are applied on an object in opposite directions, the net force is the difference
in the magnitude of forces and acts in the direction of larger force.

A force can be described by stating its magnitude and the direction in which it acts.
When two forces act on an object in the same or opposite directions, the effect on the object is due to the
net force acting on it. In this case it is the sum or difference of the two forces.
What about a situation where two or more forces act on a body in different directions?

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To study the net effect of two or more forces acting on a body
in different directions.
Observe a group of ants trying to pull a dead insect to their anthill.
If all ants were to pull in the same direction, the forces would add up and their job would be easy.
However, the ants do not pull in one direction, each ant pulls in a different direction.
The insect moves in the direction of the net effect of all these forces. If the insect moves in the desired
direction, the ants keep on pulling. But if it moves in another direction, they change their positions
and pull again. They keep adjusting their positions until the net force acts in the desired direction
and the insect moves towards their anthill !
We conclude that when two or more forces act on an object in different directions, the effect is due
to the magnitude and direction of the net force acting on it.

Effects of Force
(i) Force can make a stationary object move. When you throw a ball, it moves. If you push a book lying
on a table, it starts moving, i.e., you make it move. When you pull a chair, it starts moving.

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(ii) Force can change the direction of motion of a moving object.
When a batsman hits a cricket ball with his bat, he applies force
to change the direction of the moving ball.
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1 Following diagram
shows a moving ping pong
ball, hit by a player.
Ans.: The force changes the direction of the
What effect of the force is shown moving object.
in the above picture?

(iii) Force can stop a moving object. If we apply brakes to moving car, it first slows down and then stops.

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2 The arrow in following diagram shows the
direction a sailing ship moves.
What happens if a strong wind blows from the
same direction?
Ans.: The sailing ship moves faster.

(iv) Force can change the shape of an object. If you squeeze a lump of plasticise or sponge, its shape changes.

## To study the effects of force.

Some situations have been given in Column 1 of table in which
objects are not free to move. Column 2 of the table suggests the manner
in which a force can be applied on each object while Column 3 shows a diagram of the action.
Try to observe the effect of force in as many situations as possible. You can also add similar situations
using available material from your environment. Note your observations in Columns 4 and 5 of the
table.

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Table : Studying the effect of force on objects.
Description of situation How to apply force Diagram Action of force
Change Change
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in state in shape
of motion
Yes No Yes No
A lump of dough on a Pressing it down with
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a bicycle.
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## A rubber band suspend- By hanging a weight

ed from a hook/nail fixed or by pulling its free
on a wall end.

## A plastic or metal scale By putting a weight at

placed between two the centre of the scale.
bricks.

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Types of Forces
Force is classified into two types :

Contact Forces
Forces that act only when there is physical contact between two interacting objects are
known as contact forces.
Example : Muscular force and frictional force.
(i) Muscular force : The force applied by the muscles of our body is called muscular
force or biological force.
(ii) Frictional force : The frictional force is the opposing force exerted by one surface over other due to
relative motion between two surfaces in contact.
The force of friction always acts on all the moving objects and its direction is always opposite to the
direction of motion.

Non-contact forces
Force is being applied without touching the body. This is called action at a distance forces. It is also called
non distance force.
Example : Gravitational force, magnetic force and electrostatic force.

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(i) Gravitational force : Gravitational force is the force of attraction between particles of matter. Every
object exerts this force on every other object. The magnitude of the force depends on the masses of
the two objects and the distance between them.
The gravitational force exerted by the earth on all other bodies is called the force of gravity or
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simply gravity.
This gravitational force makes the earth move around the sun and also makes the moon go around
the earth.

## Gravitational force was first discovered by Sir Issac Newton.

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Mass
zz Mass is the amount of substance contained in a certain object. Substance that makes up an object is
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## known as matter. Hence mass is the quantity of matter.

zz The unit of mass is kilogram (kg), the smaller units are gram (g) and milligram (mg).
1 kg = 1000 g
1 g = 1000 mg.
zz All object have mass. Every object on earths surface is pulled towards its
centre by gravitational forces. The gravitational force pulling, an object
towards itself is said to be its weight.
Weight (W) = mass (m) gravity (g).
zz On Earth, value of gearth varies from place to place. The gravitational force
at the poles is higher than at the equator. Hence an object appears to be
heavier at the poles than at the equator. The gravitational force on earth
is six times stronger than on the Moon. Therefore if your weight is 60 N
on Earth, you will only be 10 N on the moon.

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zz The weight of an object can be measured by a spring balance or compressed balance. When we weight
an object using a spring balance, we are actually measuring the earths gravitational pull on that
object. As weight is a force, its unit is newton.

## 3 Mass of a body is 5 kg. What is its weight?

[Take g = 9.8 m s2]
Ans.: Mass (m) = 5 kg Ans.: Weight (W) = 49 N
Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.8 m s2 Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.8 m s2
We know that W = m g = 5 9.8 = 49 N. Mass (m) = ?
We know that
4 What is the mass of an object whose weight
W 49
is 49 newton ? [Take g = 9.8 m s2] W = mg m = , m= = 5 kg .
g 9.8

(ii) Magnetic force : The force exerted by magnets (and some magnetic materials) on each other and on
some metals like iron, nickel, cobalt and alloys such as steel, etc., is known as magnetic force. Two
magnets attract or repel each other depending on which ends are facing each other. Like poles repel
each other, whereas, unlike poles attract each other.

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To show that magnetic force acts from a distance.
Put some iron nails on a sheet of paper. Bring a small magnet
near these iron nails.
You will see that the iron nails are pulled towards the magnet
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even when they are a little distance away from it.
This shows that magnetic force can act from a distance.
Take two bar magnets. Bring them close together end to end,
so that their north poles face each other. What happens? Do
they attract or repel each other? Now bring the south pole of
one of the magnets near the north pole of the second magnet
and try again. What happens now? You will find that their
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## (iii) Electrostatic force : Electrostatic charge can exert a force called

electrostatic force. It is because of this force that the bits of paper
move towards the comb. Electrostatic force, like magnetic force,
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## also acts from a distance, and is a non-contact force.

Electrostatic force is used to control pollution by separating solid pollutant particles from smoke
given out from factories.

## To study electrostatic force.

Take a plastic pen or ruler from your pencil box.
Rub it vigorously on your hair (Make sure that your hair is dry).
Bring the rubbed end near some tiny bits of paper or fluff.
You can see the little bits of paper or fluff get attracted to the
plastic ruler pen.
This is because the pen acquires an electric charge while rubbing,
this charge can exert a force called electrostatic force.

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Pressure
The effect that a force has when it acts on a surface depends on two factors :
(i) The amount of force applied.
(ii) The area in contact over which the force is applied.
Pressure is defined as the force acting per unit area.
Force
Pressure = .
Area
It is clear from above expression, the smaller the area over which a force acts, the greater is pressure
and therefore, the greater is the effect of force.
In the SI system of units, force is measured in newton and area in m 2. Therefore, the unit of pressure is
N m2. However N m2 is called Pascal (Pa) in honour of the French physicist Blaise Pascal.
Therefore, 1 N m2 = 1 Pa.
All cutting instruments like knives, blades, axes, etc are sharpened (thin) at the cutting edge to decrease
the area of intersection. This is done so as to increase the pressure exerted by these instruments for a
given force.

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Wall of dams are specially thickened and broaden at the base than at
the top to withstand the huge pressure of water.
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5 Calculate the pressure exerted by a brick,
which applies a force of 2.5 N, when (a) it is
placed upright on the soil, (b) when it is placed
(b) When the brick is placed on its widest base :
on its widest base. The dimensions of the brick are
25 cm 10 cm 5 cm. Area in contact with soil = 25 cm 10 cm
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## Ans.: (a) When the brick is placed up right : 25 10

= m m
Area in contact with soil = 10 cm 5 cm 100 100
10 5 = 0.025 m2
= m m = 0.005 m 2
100 100
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2.5 N
F 2.5 N \ Pressure exerted = F = = 100 Pa.
\ Pressure exerted = = = 500 Pa A 0.025 m 2
A 0.005 m 2

Atmospheric Pressure
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere is known as atmospheric pressure. The earth is surrounded by a
layer of air, about 120 km deep, the atmosphere. The atmosphere exerts an enormous pressure of around
100,000 N/m2 on object on the earth.
A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure.

We cannot dive more than about 120 m in water. The water pressure
below this is enough to crash the human body.

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Pressure Exerted by Liquids
Like air, water and other liquids can also exert pressure.
Liquids exert pressure as we will learn from the following activity.

## To show that liquids exert pressure on all sides.

Take a wide glass tube open at both ends. Tie a rubber balloon
to its lower end. Pour water into the tube (figure a). You will
notice that the balloon bulges downwards.
This shows that liquids exert pressure on the base of
the container in which they are kept.
Now take a vessel with a tap-like opening at its side.
Tie a balloon to the opening and fill the vessel with
water (figure b). You will notice that the balloon bulges
outwards. This shows that liquids exert pressure not
only on the base of the container but also sideways
on the walls of the container. This sideways pressure
is exerted by liquids but not by solids.

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The pressure at the bottom of the sea is much greater than near the surface. This is the reason why deep-
sea divers have to wear special suits to prevent their bodies from being crushed.
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To show that liquid pressure varies with depth.
Take a plastic container and make four holes in it at different
heights. Fill the container with water, and let water
keep flowing into it from a tap (figure a).
Notice the force with which water comes out of
the holes.
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## You will find that water comes out with greater

force from the holes at greater depth. Water from
the bottom most hole will be spurted out the farthest
from the container. This shows that the pressure
in a liquid increases with increasing depth.
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An instrument used to measure liquid pressure is called pressure gauge. The simplest form of pressure
gauge is a manometer, which measure pressure difference.

Applications of Pressure
(i) Pressure due to liquids in blood vessels helps blood to move throughout the body.
(ii) We use rubber suckers for installing hooks in the kitchen. As the air between wall and sucker is sucked
out, it is held firmly against the wall.
(iii) We enjoy drinking cold drinks with a straw. This happens when air of straw goes into lungs and
forces liquid from straw to come out.
(iv) Vacuum cleaner - Low pressure is created inside the cleaner which sucks dirt into the device.
(v) Squeezing of tooth paste, lemon, spray bottle, perfume bottle, etc. are some activities which are not
possible without understanding pressure.

CONCEPT MAP

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ESSENTIAL POINTS for COMPETITIVE EXAMS
zz Force : Force is defined as a push or pull acting on a body.
zz Push : A body at rest be set in motion and moving body can be brought to rest by pushing the body.
zz Pull : The direction of motion of a body can be changed by means of pulling the body.
zz Contact forces : Force is being applied by actually touching the body. This is called contact force.
It is two types :
(i) Muscular force : The force applied by the muscles of our body is called muscular force or biological
force.
(ii) Frictional force : The frictional force is the opposing force exerted by one surface over other due
to relative motion between two surfaces in contact.
zz Non contact force : Force is being applied without touching the body. This is known as non contact force.
The following are non contact forces :
(i) Gravitational force : All objects in the universe exert a force on one another due to their masses.
This is called gravitational force. The gravitational force exerted by the earth on all other bodies
is called the force of gravity. This gravitational force makes the earth move around the sun and

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also makes the moon go around the earth.
(ii) Magnetic force : The force with which a magnet attracts or repels the objects (like iron or other
magnate) is called magnetic force.
(iii) Electrostatic force : The force with which the electrically charged body can attracts or repels the
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other objects is called electrostatic force.
Among these fundamental forces gravitational force is the weakest force in nature. Still, it is responsible
for the revolution of earth around the sun.
zz Mass : Mass is the amount of substances contained in a certain object. Substances that makes up an
object is known as matter, Hence mass is the quantity of matter.
The unit of mass is kilogram (kg), the smaller units are gram (g) and milligram.
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zz Weight : The weight of an object on the earth is a measure of the gravitational pull on that object.
Weight (W) = mass (m) acceleration due to gravity (g)
The weight of an object can be measured by a spring balance or compressed balance.
zz Pressure : Pressure is defined as the force acting per unit area,
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Force
Pressure =
Area
zz In the SI system of units, force is measured in newton and area in m 2. Therefore, the unit of pressure
is N m2.
zz The pressure exerted by a liquid depends upon the depth (height) of the liquid and density of the
liquid.
zz The pressure at any point under a liquid surface is due to the weight of the column of liquid above
that point.
zz Fluid : A substance that can flow (both liquids and gasses).
zz Manometer : A device used for measuring liquid pressure.
zz Atmospheric pressure : A layer of air called the atmosphere surrounds the earth. As you know air is
also matter and has weight. The weight of the atmosphere exerts a pressure on the surface of earth.
This pressure is called atmospheric pressure.
zz Atmospheric pressure reduces as height above sea level increases.

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SOLVED EXAMPLES
1. How much would a 70 kg man weigh on the 5. Why are all the things attract towards the
moon? What will be his mass on the earth earth?
and on the moon? [g on moon = 1.7 m s2] Ans.: Because, the huge mass of the earth and its
Ans.: Mass of the man, m = 70 kg gravity.
Acceleration due to gravity on moon.
6. What is the effect of force on the shape of
gm = 1.7 m s2
an object?
Weight of the man on the moon, W = ?
Ans.: A force can change or try to change the shape
From relation, W = mg
of an object. When a force is applied on an
Putting values, we get, W = 70 1.7 = 119 i.e.
object then change in shape takes place.
W = 119 N.
It may be smaller or greater. At last we can
The weight of the man on the moon will be 119 N
The mass will remain same (70 kg) on earth say that the application of force on an object
and the moon. may change its shape.

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2. A student is pulling a load up an inclined 7. If several forces act in different direction
plane. What are the forces the student has on a body, in which direction will the body
to overcome? move?
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Ans.: When several forces act on a body in different
directions, the effect on the object is due to
the magnitude and direction of the net force
acting on it.
8. Why do the school bags have broad shoulder
straps?
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Ans.: (a) Frictional force Ans.: School bags and shopping bags have
(b) Gravitational force broad belts or straps as handles. Narrow
handles cause pain in the hand because the
3. Why carts with rubber tyres are easier to ply,
weight of the bag acts on a small area, so the
than those with iron tyres?
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## pressure will be higher.

Ans.: The friction between rubber and road is
less, than between iron and road. Therefore, 9. What do you mean by state of motion of a
it is easy to ply a cart with rubber tyres, than body.
with iron tyres. Ans.: The state of motion of a body is described by
its speed and direction of motion. The state
4. A person weight 600 N. He is wearing shoes
of motion of an object at rest is the state of
with a total area of 0.02 m2. What pressure
zero speed.
do they exert on the floor?
Force 10. In the following situations identify the agent
Ans.: Pressure =
Area exerting a force and the object on which
Given, weight = mg = F = 600 N. it acts. State the effect of the force in each
and A = 0.02 m2 case.
600 (a) Squeezing a piece of lemon between the
\ Pressure = = 30000 N
0.02 fingers to extract its juice.

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(b) Taking out paste from a toothpaste Ans.: Various big or small actions make us feel the
tube. force. We hit or catch many objects in our daily
(c) A load suspended from a spring while its life. We see that a moving ball stops of its own.
other end is on a hook fixed to a wall. The ball changes the direction of its motion
(d) An athlete making a high jump to clear when hits with a bat. These are many actions
the bar at a certain height. which help us to feel that a force is exerted.
Ans.: (a) The fingers are the agents, lemon is the
13. What are the effect of force?
object. The effect of force is the lemon
Ans.: A force changes or tries to change
juice being expelled by squeezing.
(i) Speed of a moving body
(b) The hand is the agent, toothpaste tube is
(ii) Direction of motion of a body
object and the coming out of the paste from
toothpaste tube is the effect of force. (iii) Shape of a body.
(c) Suspended load is agent, spring is the 14. A force 20 N acts over an area of 4 cm2. Find
object, the effect of force can be seen in the the value of pressure? [in N m2]
form of elongation of spring on suspension Force
Ans.: Pressure =
(d) Athlete is the agent, bar is the object. The Given F = 20 N

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force can be seen in the form of jump. and A = 4 cm2 = 4 102 m
11. What happens to the pressure when area on 20
\ Pressure = = 500 N m 2
which it is applied increases? 2
4 10
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Ans.: Pressure = Force/Area on which force acts. 15. Can you separate two hemispheres, if all the
The pressure is inversely proportional to air is suck out from them?
the area on which force is applied. As the Ans.: If there is no air inside the two hemispheres, then
area in which force is increases, the pressure only outer surface is in contact of atmospheric
decreases. pressure and atmospheric pressure acts on it.
12. How do we feel force in our daily life? We cannot separate them in that case.
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NCERT SECTION
1. Give two examples of each situations in Ans.: (a) shape (b) muscular
which you push or pull to change the state (c) contact (d) gravity, friction
of motion of objects.
5. In the following situations identify the agent
Ans.: (i) We apply brakes to a moving bicycle.
exerting the force and the object on which
(ii) We pull a chair to change its position.
it acts. State the effect of the force in each
2. Give two examples of situations in which case.
applied force causes a change in the shape (a) Squeezing a piece of lemon between the
of an object. fingers to extract its juice.
Ans.: (i) A lady making chapattis.
(b) Taking out paste from a toothpaste
(ii) By pulling a rubber band suspended from
tube.
hook/ nail fixed on a wall.
(c) A load suspended from a spring while its
3. Fill in the blanks in the following other end is on a hook fixed to a wall.
statements.

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(a) To draw water from a well we have the bar at a certain height.
to_____ at the rope. Ans.: (a) The fingers are the agents, lemon is the
(b) A charged body _____ an uncharged body
object. The effect of force is the lemon
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towards it.
juice being expelled by squeezing.
(c) To move a loaded trolley we have to _____
(b) The hand is the agent, toothpaste tube is
it.
object and the coming out of the paste from
(d) The north pole of a magnet _____ the
toothpaste tube is the effect of force.
north pole of another magnet.
(c) Suspended load is agent, spring is the
Ans.: (a) pull (b) attracts
(c) push (d) repels object, the effect of force can be seen in the
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## form of elongation of spring on suspension

4. An archer stretches her bow while taking aim
at the target. She then releases the arrow, which
(d) Athlete is the agent, bar is the object. The
begins to move towards the target. Based on this
force can be seen in the form of jump.
information fill up the gaps in the following
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statements using the following terms. 6. A blacksmith hammers a hot piece of iron
muscular, contact, non-contact, gravity, friction, while making a tool. How does the force due
shape, attraction to hammering affect the piece of iron?
(a) To stretch the bow, the archer applies a Ans.: The force is applied due to hammering causes,
force that causes a change in its _____. change in shape of iron and iron can be moulded
(b) The force applied by the archer to stretch in the shape of the required tool.
the bow is an example of ______force.
(c) The type of force responsible for a 7. An inflated balloon was pressed against a
change in the state of motion of the wall after it has been rubbed with a piece
arrow is an example of synthetic cloth. It was found that the
of a ______ force. balloon sticks to the wall. What force might
(d) While the arrow moves towards its target, be responsible for the attraction between the
the forces acting on it are due to ______ balloon and the wall?
and that due to ______ of air. Ans.: Electrostatic force.

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8. Name the forces acting on a plastic bucket Ans.: (i) Gravitational force.
containing water held above ground level in (ii) Frictional force.
your hand. Discuss why the forces acting on
the bucket do not bring a change in its state 10. When we press the bulb of a dropper with
of motion. its nozzle kept in water, air in the dropper is
Ans.: Gravitational and muscular forces are acting seen to escape in the form of bubbles. Once
on a plastic bucket. The forces acting on the we release the pressure on the bulb, water
bucket do not bring a change in its state of gets filled in the dropper. The rise of water
motion because muscular force acts upward
in the dropper is due to
direction and gravitational force acts downward
(a) pressure of water.
direction. Hence net force on bucket is zero.
(b) gravity of the earth.
9. A rocket has been fired upwards to launch
(c) shape of rubber bulb.
a satellite in its orbit. Name the two forces
acting on the rocket immediately after leaving (d) atmospheric pressure.
the launching pad. Ans.: (d) Atmospheric pressure.

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## Physics | Class 8 force and pressure | 13

EXERCISE
Multiple Choice Questions 10. Pressure is defined as
force area
(a) (b)
Level - 1 area force
(c) force area (d) area force.
1. Force is the _____ needed to move some thing
11. Smooth surface has _______.
(a) push (b) pull (a) less frictional force
(c) both (a) and (b) (d) none of these. (b) more frictional force
2. Which of the following forces is needed to pick (c) sometimes less and sometime more force
up your school bag? (d) no frictional force at all.
(a) Muscular force 12. If two equal forces act on the body in opposite
(b) Gravitational force
direction, then the resultant force on the body
(c) Magnetic force
will be
(d) Electrostatic force.
(a) more (b) less

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3. You pick up your school bag by muscular force. (c) zero (d) none of these
The muscular force is also known as....
13. Pressure is measured in
(a) frictional force (b) magnetic force
(a) Pa (b) N
(c) biological force (d) all of these.
(c) N m2 (d) (a) and (c)
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4. When a ball is dropped from a certain height
14. Pressure of water
the speed of the ball goes on increasing due
(a) increases with depth
to
(b) decreases with depth
(a) gravitational force (b) biological force
(c) remains same with depth
(c) magnetic force (d) all of these.
(d) none of these.
5. Force of friction is an example of
15. 1 tonne is equal to
(a) non-contact force (b) contact force
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## (a) 1000 mg (b) 1000 g

(c) reactive force (d) none of these
(c) 1000 kg (d) 100 kg
6. If no external force acts on a body, it will
16. A spaceship continues moving in space with
(a) move with more speed
constant speed because
(b) change its shape
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## (a) no force of friction due to air acts on it

(c) break into pieces
(b) no force of gravitational acts on it
(d) either remain in its state of rest or uniform
(c) its mass is zero in space
motion.
(d) none of these
7. When the driver of a fast moving car suddenly
17. Weight of a body is the product of
applies brakes, the passengers in the car
(a) mass and acceleration due to gravity
(a) fall backward (b) fall forward
(b) mass and gravitational constant
(c) are not affected (d) none of these
(c) mass and velocity
8. The SI unit of force is (d) none of the above
(a) dyne (b) newton
(c) pascal (d) newton-second. 18. Which of these is a contact force ?
(a) friction (b) magnetic force
9. ______ is a measure of the gravitational force (c) gravitational force (d) electrostatic force
acting on an object.
(a) mass (b) weight 19. The state of motion of a body is described by
(c) pressure (d) none of these. its ______ and direction of motion.

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(a) force (b) pressure 29. When a body is thrown up, the force of gravity is
(c) speed (d) none of these. (a) in upward direction
20. There is one force which is exerted by all matter (b) in downward direction
on all other matter. Which force is this? (c) zero
(a) Gravitational force (b) Magnetic force
(d) in the horizontal direction.
(c) Electrostatic force (d) Frictional force
30. Which of the following effects cannot be produced
21. Which of the following is weakest force in
nature? by a force?
(a) Gravitational force (a) changing the mass of an object
(b) Electrostatic force (b) changing the shape of an object
(c) Magnetic force (d) All of these
(c) changing the position of an object.
22. In CGS system, the unit of force is (d) changing the direction of movement of an
(a) newton (b) pascal
object
(c) dyne (d) metre
Level - 2
23. Mass of a body is 5 kg. What is its weight ?
(Take g = 9.8 m s2) 31. Which of the following is not a correct statement?
(a) 98 N (b) 49 N

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(a) A force can change the state of rest or motion
(c) 24.5 N (d) zero
of a body
24. A coin flicked across a table will stop, (b) A force can change the direction of a body
because (c) A force can change the chemical properties
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(a) it is heavy of a body
(b) no force is acting on it
(d) A force can change the dimensions of a
(c) earth attracts the coin
body.
(d) table exerts a frictional force.
32. Equal and opposite forces acting on a body
25. Which of the following substance can be attracted
by magnet ? which do not change its state of rest or motion
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## (a) Iron (b) Wood are called

(c) Glass (d) All of these. (a) null forces
(b) unlike parallel forces
26. The magnet is stronger near the
(a) poles of the magnet (c) balanced forces (d) all of these
SA

(b) ends of the magnet 33. If a body is allowed to fall down a height freely,
(c) centre of the magnet its speed increases continuously. It is because
(d) one quarter point from the poles of the (a) air does not exert frictional force
magnet.
(b) magnetic force of earth increases its
27. The space or region around a magnet in which speed
a force is experienced by magnetic material is (c) gravitational force of earth increases its
called speed
(a) electric field (b) magnetic force (d) pressure of air forces it downward.
(c) magnetic field (d) magnetic axis.
34. The impact which a body can produce due
28. The pressure at the bottom of the sea is
to the combined effect of mass and velocity is
(a) greater than at sea level
called
(b) lesser than at sea level
(c) same (a) momentum (b) force
(d) none of these (c) moment of force (d) pressure

## Physics | Class 8 force and pressure | 15

35. A body is in the state of rest on the surface 40. When a horse pulls a cart, the force which is
of earth. Which of the following is a correct responsible for the movement of cart is
statement? (a) the force of the horse on the cart
(a) Frictional force acts on the body (b) the force of the ground on the horse
(b) Only the weight of body acts on it (c) the force of the ground on the cart
(c) Only the reaction of the earth acts on it (d) the force of the horse on the ground.
(d) The weight of body acting downward is
equal and opposite to the reaction of the 41. At the centre of earth the acceleration due to
earth. gravity is
(a) infinite (b) zero
36. A batsman hits a cricket ball which then rolls on
a level ground. After covering a short distance, (c) 9.8 m s2 (d) all of these
the ball comes to rest. The ball slows down to 42. An object is weighed in the following places
stop because using a spring balance. In which place will it
(a) the batsman did not hit the ball hard weigh the heaviest?
enough (a) on the moon
(b) velocity is proportional to the force exerted
(b) at the equator
on the ball
(c) at the pole
(c) there is a force on the ball opposing the

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(d) at the centre of earth
motion
(d) there is no unbalanced force on the ball, so 43. Why does an astronaut experience weightlessness
the ball would come to rest. in outer space?
PL
37. The force of freely falling body is directly (a) no gravitational force acts on him
proportional to (b) no frictional force acts on him
(a) mass of body (c) there is no air resistance in outer space
(b) acceleration of body (d) there is a vacuum in outer space
(c) velocity of body
44. What principle is used in a newton spring
(d) both (a) and (b)
balance?
M

38. The acceleration due to gravity near the surface (a) The mass of an object depends on its
of moon is density.
(a) 1 of the acceleration due to gravity of (b) The mass of an object depends on the gravity
6
earth pulling it.
SA

(b) almost equal to acceleration due to gravity (c) The weight of an object is directly proportional
of earth to its mass.
(c) 6 times the acceleration due to gravity of (d) The extension of the spring is directly
earth proportional to the weight pulling it, and
1 weight depends upon mass.
(d) of the acceleration due to gravity of
12
earth. 45. Mass differs from weight because
(a) weight is a force whereas and mass is not
39. Frictional force is important for motor racing.
a force.
This is because, frictional force
(b) the mass of an object is always more than
(a) can help a car slow down
(b) can help a car move faster its weight
(c) can help a car move around the corners (c) mass can be expressed only in the metric
without skidding system
(d) both (a) and (b) (d) there is no difference.

16
16 | force and pressure Class 8 | Physics
46. The mass of a body Fill in the Blanks
(a) is slightly different at different places on
earth 1. Electric charges exert ........... force, whereas
(b) i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e f r e e - f a l l magnets exert ........... force.
acceleration 2. If the same force is made to act on a larger area,
(c) is the same for all bodies of the same the pressure .......... .
volume 3. A .......... is used to measure liquid pressure.
(d) can be measured most accurately on a spring
4. At the given depth, a liquid exerts ..........
scale.
pressure in all directions.
47. An object placed on a equal-arm balance
5. The larger the area over which the force acts,
requires 12 kg to balance it. When placed on a the ........... is the pressure.
spring scale, the scale reads 12 kg. Everything
6. The pressure exerted by the air around us is
(balance, scale, set of weights and object) is
called ........... pressure.
now transported to the Moon where the free-
fall acceleration is one-sixth that on Earth. The 7. ......... is a force that slows things down or
new readings of the balance and spring scale prevents things from moving.

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(respectively) are 8. The pressure at the bottom of the sea is .........
(a) 12 kg, 12 kg (b) 2 kg, 2 kg than at sea level.
(c) 12 kg, 2 kg (d) 2 kg, 12 kg 9. At higher altitudes, atmospheric pressure is
PL
........... .
48. Equal forces F act on isolated bodies A and B
as shown. The mass of B is three times that of 10. The magnitude of gravitational force depends
A. The magnitude of the acceleration of A is upon ........ of the objects and also ........ between
them.

## (a) three times that of B True or False

(b) 1/3 that of B
M

(c) nine times that B 1. Pressure exerted by solids increases with the
increase in the area of cross-section.
(d) 1/9 that of B
2. When we lift a bucket of water, we use gravitational
49. A car travels east with a certain constant velocity.
force.
SA

## The direction of the friction force on the car

3. Gravitational force is an example of contact force.
is
(a) due east (b) due west 4. A force cannot be seen but the effect of the force
can be felt.
(c) up (d) zero
5. A force can change the shape and size of an
50. An object rests on a horizontal frictionless object.
surface. A horizontal force of magnitude F is
6. An astronaut whose mass is 84 kg on earth
applied. This force produces an acceleration
will have a mass of approximately 14 kg on
(a) only if F is larger than the weight of the the moon.
object
7. Pressure is exerted both downwards and
(b) only while the object suddenly changes sideways but downwards pressure is greater
from rest to motion than sideway pressure.
(c) always
8. Muscular force and frictional force are two
(d) only if the inertia of the object decreases. examples of contact forces.

## Physics | Class 8 force and pressure | 17

9. Only the earth exerts gravitational force on all (R) Manometer 3. A force that acts
objects. upon another body
10. The gravitational force pulling on an object without the aid of a
towards itself is said to be its weight. material connecter.
(S) Non contact force 4. A device used for
Match the Following measuring liquid
pressure.
In this section, each question has two matching lists. Code :
Choices for the correct combination of elements from P Q R S
List-I and List-II are given as options (a), (b), (c) (a) 2 1 4 3
and (d) out of which one is correct. (b) 3 4 2 1
1. List-I List-II (c) 1 3 4 2
(P) Magnetic force 1. Non-contact force (d) 4 3 1 2
(Q) A physical quantity 2. Depth
that determines the
Assertion & Reason Type
pressure in liquids Directions : In the following questions, a statement
(R) Force 3. N m2 of assertion is followed by a statement of reason.
(S) Pressure 4. Newton.

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Mark the correct choice as :
Code :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason
P Q R S
is the correct explanation of assertion
(a) 3 2 4 1
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason
PL
(b) 3 4 2 1
is not the correct explanation of assertion
(c) 1 2 4 3
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false
(d) 4 3 1 2
(d) If assertion is false but reason is true.
2. List-I List-II
(P) Electrostatic force 1. Spring balance 1. Assertion : Force is defined as a push or a pull
(Q) Frictional force 2. Pascal acting on a body.
(R) Weight 3. Contact force Reason : CGS unit of force is newton.
M

## (S) Pressure 4. Non-contact 2. Assertion : The weight of an object changes

force. from place to place but not mass.
Code : Reason : T h e w e i g h t o f t h e o b j e c t i s
P Q R S independent of the value of g.
SA

(a) 3 2 4 1
(b) 3 4 2 1 3. Assertion : The forces acting on a body can be
(c) 1 3 4 2 replaced by the resultant force only
(d) 4 3 1 2 as regards the motion of the body
as a whole.
3. List-I List-II
Reason : The resultant force can not replace
(P) Contact force 1. A substance that
the several forces acting on a body
can flow (both
liquid and in other respects.
gasses). 4. Assertion : The gravitational force makes the
(Q) Fluid 2. A force that acts earth move around the sun and
upon another body also makes the moon go around
through some the earth.
material Reason : Every objects in the universe exert
connecter. a force on other objects.

18
18 | force and pressure Class 8 | Physics
5. Assertion : When we bring a magnet close to 3. Express 10 N force in terms of g cm s2
a pin lying on a smooth table, the (a) 105 g cm s2 (b) 106 g cm s2
pin starts moving (sliding) towards (c) 105 g cm s2 (d) 104 g cm s2
the magnet.
Reason : Magnetic force is a contact force. PASSAGE-II : Two bricks each of same dimensions
are placed on level ground. Surface area of end of
6. Assertion : Friction always opposes the motion.
each brick is 40 cm2 and the surface are of base of
Reason : W henever one surface moves or
tries to move over another surface, each brick is 150 cm2. Each brick weigh 40 N.
the force of friction starts acting on 1. If both bricks are placed as shown then pressure
the surfaces.
exerted by both bricks on ground is
7. Assertion : T he pressure at the bottom of (a) 100 N m2
the sea is lesser than that near the
(b) 126 N m2
surface.
(c) 150 N m2
Reason : The pressure exerted by a liquid
depends upon the depth of the (d) 126 N m2
liquid and density of the liquid. 2. If both bricks are placed on standing position

E
8. Assertion : 1dyne = 105 newton. then, the total pressure exerted by the bricks
Reason : dyne is the CGS unit of work while on ground is
newton is the SI unit of work.
(a) 100 N m2 (b) 200 N m2
PL
9. Assertion : We can live very happily if friction (c) 300 N m2 (d) 400 N m2
is not present in nature.
Reason : Aeroplane shape is streamlined Subjective Problems
to reduce the effort of frictional

10. Assertion : T he weight of the atmosphere 1. What is the direction in which an object is
pushed or pulled is called?
M

## exerts a pressure on the surface of

earth. 2. Does a force acting on a body always cause a
Reason : When we go upwards, the magnitude change in its state of motion?
of atmospheric pressure decrease 3. What measures the earths gravitational pull on
gradually. an object, its weight or mass?
SA

## Comprehension Type 4. Which type of force is exerted by a static

charge?
PASSAGE-I: Ramu applied a force of 10 N on a 5. Which force tends to slow down objects or keep
body to move it from rest. He wants to express the them from moving?
applied force in terms of various system of units. 6. Name the force that acts on all bodies on the
earth at all times.
1. Express 10 N force in terms of dynes
7. What is the force per unit area?
(a) 105 dynes (b) 106 dynes
8. Name the instrument used to measure liquid
(c) 107 dynes (d) 108 dynes
pressure.
2. Express 10 N force in terms of kgf 9. How is pressure related to force and area ?
(a) 9.8 kgf (b) 56 kgf
10. What do you call the force which can act from
(c) 100 kgf (d) 84 kgf a distance?

## Physics | Class 8 force and pressure | 19

11. What is the unit of pressure?
12. What is the requirement for a force to come
1. Prove that the pressure exerted by water at the
into play?
bottom of the container depends on the height
13. What is the resultant force when two forces act of its column.
in same direction?
2. What are contact forces? State different contact
14. What will be the resultant force when two forces forces. What are non-contact forces? Explain
act in opposite directions on an object? different types of non-contact forces.
15. What happens in tug of war when two teams 3. Show that air has pressure with the help of an
pull equally hard? experiment.
Short Answer Type 4. Explain that a liquid exerts pressure on the
walls.
1. What is a force? Explain with the help of some
5. Explain that liquids exert equal pressure at the
examples.
same depth.
2. Describe state of motion.

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3. What do you understand about the force of
friction? In this section, each question, when worked out will
4. What is electrostatic force? Why is it called result in one integer from 0 to 9 (both inclusive).
PL
non-contact force? 1. The mass of an object whose weight is 50 N is
5. We observe that the wheels of buses and trucks x kg. Find x. (Take g = 10 m s2)
are heavier than the wheels of car or scooter. 2. A force of 16 N is distributed uniformly
Why? on one surface of a cube of edge 4
cm. The pressure on this surface is
6. What is atmospheric pressure?
x 104 Pa. Find the value of x.
M

7. If the area of your head is 15 cm 15 cm, how 3. A horizontal force of 4 N is applied to a block
much air (in weight) would you carry on your of mass 2 kg resting on a frictionless table. What
head? is the acceleration of the block in m s2 ?
8. Take a pencil sharpened at one end and press 4. The mass of the body is 60 kg, if value of
SA

it between your fingers. Which end will hurt acceleration due to gravity is 10 m s 2 and
more and why? weight of the body is x 102 N. Find x.

9. Why do deep-sea divers wear special suits? 5. If two horizontal forces F1 and F2 act on a body
of certain mass in opposite directions such that
10. Why do some people suffer from nose bleeding they are odd consecutive force then find the net
at higher altitudes? force acting on the body.

20
20 | force and pressure Class 8 | Physics
CHAPTER

## 1 Force and Pressure

Multiple Choice Questions 17. (a) : Weight = mass (m) acceleration due to
gravity (g).
1. (c) 18. (a) : Friction force is an example of contact
2. (a) : You pick up your school bag by muscular force.
force. 19. (c) : A change in the speed of an object or its
3. (c) : Muscular force is also known as biological direction of motion or both is referred to as

E
change in the state of motion of the object.
force.
20. (a)
4. (a) : Due to gravitational force.
21. (a) : Gravitational force is weakest force in nature
5. (b) : Friction is a contact force.
PL
still, it is responsible for the revolution of the
6. (d) : By Newtons first law, without an external earth around the sun.
force, there is no change in the state of rest or 22. (c) : dyne, 1 N = 10 5 dyne.
motion.
23. (b) : Weight (W) = mg
7. (b) : The passengers, account on inertia of motion Given m = 5 kg and g = 9.8 m s2
continue moving forward and hence fall in \ W = 5 9.8 = 49 N.
forward direction.
M

## 24. (d) : Because table exerts a frictional force.

8. (b) : The SI unit of force is newton.
25. (a) : Iron.
9. (b) : Weight is a measure of the gravitational force
26. (a) : Magnet is stronger near the poles of the
acting on an object. It can be measured using a
magnet.
SA

spring balance.
27. (c) : A space or region around a magnet in which
10. (a) : Pressure = force . a force is experienced, is called magnetic field.
area
11. (a) : A smooth surface has less friction than a 28. (a) : The pressure at the bottom of the sea is
rough surface. much greater than at sea level. Very deep down
the pressure is large enough to crush the human
12. (c) : Zero, because the resultant force is the
body.
difference of the two forces.
29. (b) : Gravity is the force with which the earth pulls
13. (d) : Pressure is measured in Pa (Pascal) or (N m2).
everything towards itself. It is due to gravity that
14. (a) : The pressure exerted by water in all directions things on earth fall downwards, not upwards.
is the same at the same depth. The pressure of 30. (a) : By force we can not change the mass of the
the water increases with depth. body.
15. (c) : 1 tonne = 1000 kg (kilograms). 31. (c) : Force does not change chemical properties
16. (b) : Mass of body can never be zero. of a substance.

## Physics | Class 8 force and pressure | P1

32. (c) : When forces are balanced, the state of rest \ mass of body B = 3m,
or motion of body does not change. acceleration produced in it = aB
Force on A, F = m aA
33. (c) : As the body is accelerated due to gravitation,
Force on B, F = 3m aB
therefore, speed of body goes on increasing.
aA= 3aB
34. (a) : Momentum is the combined effect of mass
49. (b) : Since the car travels with constant velocity,
and velocity.
net force acting on it is zero. As the force of car
35. (d) : By Newtons third law, action and reaction engine push it towards east, the direction of
are equal and opposite. friction force is towards west.
36. (c) : The cricket ball comes to rest after covering 50. (c)
a short distance, because there is a force on the
ball, opposing the motion. This force is due to Fill in the Blanks
resistance of air and also due to friction between
the ball and the ground. 1. Electric force, magnetic force
37. (d) : Force is the product of mass and acceleration. 2. Reduces 3. Manometer
4. Equal 5. Lesser
38. (a) : The gravitational force on earth is six times
stronger than on the moon. 6. Atmospheric pressure 7. Frictional force
8. Much greater 9. Less

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39. (c)
10. Mass, distance
40 (b) : It is the force of ground acting opposite to
the direction in which horse is pushing which
causes motion of cart.
True or False
PL
41. (b) : At the centre of the earth g is zero. 1. False : Pressure = Force/Area
It is clear that, lesser the area of cross-section,
42. (c) : The gravitational force at the poles is higher
the greater is pressure.
than at the equator. Therefore, at the pole an
object appears to be heavier. 2. False : We use muscular force.
43. (a) : I n o u t e r s p a c e w h e r e t h e r e i s n o 3. False : Gravitational force is an example of non
contact force.
M

## gravitational force, an astronaut will experience

weightlessness. 4. True 5. True
44. (d) 6. False : In outer space where there is no gravitation,
45. (a) : Weight is a force whereas mass is not a there is a state of weightlessness, where his body
has no weight although his body mass remains
SA

force.
the same. Therefore, although the mass of a
46. (b) : The mass of body is independent of the body remains constant at all times, its weight
free-fall acceleration. may change from place to place.
47. (c) : In case of equal arm balance, the weights in 7. True 8. True
both the pans must be same, which is 12 kg i.e.
9. False : Other heavenly bodies like sun, moon,
same as that measured on earth.
planets also exert gravitation force.
In case of spring balance, the extension in the
spring is directly proportional to the weight of 10. True
the mass suspended.
Since gravitational pull on moon is one sixth Match the Following
that on earth, extension in spring, too will be one
sixth hence it will weigh only 2 kg at moon. 1. (c) : P 1, Q 2, R 4, S 3
48. (a) : Let mass of body A = m, 2. (d) : P 4, Q 3, R 1, S 2
acceleration produced in it = a A
3. (a) : P 2, Q 1, R 4, S 3

2P2
| force and pressure Class 8 | Physics
Assertion & Reason Type Subjective Problems
1. (c) : CGS unit of force is dyne and SI unit is Very Short Answer Type
newton.
2. (c) : Weight W = m g 1. The direction of force.
On earth, value of g varies from place to 2. Force may not always bring about a change in
place. the state of motion of a body.
3. (c) 3. Weight is a measure of the earths gravitational
4. (b) : Due to gravitational force every object exerts pull on an object.
force on other objects. 4. Electrostatic force.
5. (c) : Magnetic force is being applied without 5. Friction is a force that slows things down or
touching the body, so it is a non-contact prevents things from moving.
force.
6. Gravitational force.
6. (d) : Reason is true but assertion is false. It is
because of friction that we are able to walk 7. Pressure.
on ground or a horse is able to pull the cart.
8. Manometer.
Friction therefore, helps motion sometimes.
Force

E
7. (d) : Pressure in a liquid increases with depth, 9. Pressure = .
Area
but at the same depth the pressure exerted is
equal in all directions. 10. Non-contact force.

## 8. (c) : Dyne is unit of force in CGS system. 11. Pascal.

PL
1 N = 105 dyne. 12. Interaction between two objects is required for
9. (d) 10. (b) a force to come into play.
13. Forces applied on an object in the same direction
Comprehension Type add to one another.
PASSAGE-I 14. When two forces act in opposite directions on
an object then the net force will be the difference
M

## 1. (b) : 1 N = 105 dynes,

between two forces.
10 N = 106 dynes
15. When two teams pull eaqually hard then the
2. (c) : 1 N = 10 kgf
rope does not move in any direction.
10 N = 100 kgf
SA

3. (b) : 1 N = 105 g cm s2
10 N = 106 g cm s2 1. Force is a pull or push of the object. The action
PASSAGE-II like, pushing, pulling, picking, hitting, lifting,
running and bending are the examples of force
1. (b) : Area of end of one brick is 40 cm 2
being exerted. Moving or stopping of a body,
Weight of brick = 40 N
40 changing shape and direction of motion of objects
Pressure exerted by one brick is = are various actions which show force in play.
40 10 2
= 100 N m2 2. There are two states of motion.An object can be
Pressure exerted by other brick is either at rest or in motion. Any change in these
40
= 26 N m 2 states (in rest or motion) can be called the change
2
150 10 in the state of motion.
2. (b) : If both bricks are in standing position, then
pressure exerted by them on ground 3. The force which always acts on all the moving
= 100 + 100 = 200 N m2 objects and whose direction is always opposite to
the direction of motion is called force of friction.

## Physics | Class 8 force and pressure | P3

Since the force of friction arises due to contact
between surfaces, it is also called contact force.
1. Take a transparent glass tube or plastic pipe.
4. The force exerted by a charged body on another
Also take a piece of thin sheet of a good quality
charged or uncharged body is called electrostatic
rubber. Stretch the rubber sheet tightly over one
force. This force comes into play even when
end of pipe. Hold the pipe at the middle, keeping
the bodies are not in contact, so it is called it in a vertical position. Pour some water in the
non-contact force. pipe. Note the height of the water column in the
5. The buses and trucks are heavy and require pipe. Pour some more water. Observe, the bulge
to exert less pressure. We know that pressure in rubber sheet and height of water column in
decreases as area of contact increases, so the tyres the pipe.
are broadened so that they exert less pressure on Repeat this process a few more times. You observe
earth and move easily. If they exert more pressure, that as the height of water column increases the
they will sink into earth. The scooters and cars bulge in the rubber sheet also increases.
have less wide wheels because they need more
pressure for gripping.
6. The envelope of air around the earth is known
as atmosphere. The atmospheric air extends

E
up to many kilometres above the surface of the
earth. The pressure exerted by the air is called
atmospheric pressure.
7. Atmospheric pressure is measured in units of
PL
atmosphere
1 atmosphere = 105 N m2 = 10 N cm2
Force
Pressure = 2. The forces which come in play only when two
Area objects come in contact with each other are called
Force = Pressure area contact forces.
For an area of 15 cm 15 cm Some contact forces are :
Force = (10 N cm2) (15 15) cm2 = 2250 N
M

## (i) Muscular force : The forces resulting due to

We have body fluids inside of our body, so we the action of muscles are known as muscular
are not crushed under this weight and pressure forces. Muscular force is a contact force
of air is balanced on both the sides. because it comes in play when two bodies
8. The sharpened end of pencil will hurt more due to come in contact with each other.
SA

more pressure felt at that end. As we know pressure (ii) Force of friction : When a body is moving,
applied increases with decrease in area, and the then a force in opposite direction of motion
area of the tip of the pencil is very less therefore is exerted on that moving body. This force
it applies greater pressure on the fingers. is called force of friction. It is also a contact
force because it is exerted when two surfaces
9. The pressure at the bottom of the sea is much
come in the contact with each other.
greater than at sea level. Very deep-down, the
The forces which can be exerted from a distance,
pressure is large enough to crush the human
without establishing a contact are called
body. That is why deep -sea divers wear specially non-contact forces. Some non-contact forces are :
designed suits to protect themselves from such (i) Magnetic force : The force exerted by a magnet on
high pressures. other magnet or some other magnetic substances
10. Some people suffer from nose-bleeding at like iron is called magnetic force. Like poles of
higher altitudes. It is because at higher altitudes, a magnet repel each other and unlike poles of
atmospheric pressure is less, and the pressure a magnet attract each other without contact.
of air within their bodies is more. So it is called non-contact force.

4P4
| force and pressure Class 8 | Physics
(ii) Electrostatic force : The force exerted by a that all the holes are at the same height from
charged body on other charged or uncharged the bottom. Now fill the bottle with water. We
body is called electrostatic force. Electrostatic observe that different streams of water coming
force also acts without making a direct contact out of the holes fall at the same distance from
with other charged or uncharged body. So the bottle. This observation indicates that liquids
it is also a non-contact force. exert equal pressure at the same depth.
(iii) Force of gravity : Earth pulls every thing
or body towards it. The force of attraction
exerted by earth on any object is called force
of gravity. This is also non-contact force as
it acts from a distance.
3. Otto von Guericke, a German Scientist invented a
pump in 17th century to extract air out of a vessel.
He demonstrated the force of the air pressure.
He joined two hollow metallic hemispheres of Integer Answer Type
51 cm diameter each, and pumped air out of
them. Then he employed eight horses on each 1. (5) : Here, mass of the object = 50 N
hemisphere to pull apart. So great is the force Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m s2
of air pressure that the hemisphere could not

E
Weight = mass g
be pulled apart. weight 50 N
\ Mass = = = 5 kg
g 10 m s 2
\ x = 5
PL
2. (1) : Here, force applied = 16 N

Side of cube = 4 cm = 4 102 m
4. Take a plastic bottle. Fix a cylindrical glass tube Area of surface in contact = 4 102 4 102 m2
a few cm long near its bottom. You can do so Force 16 N
by slightly heating one end of the glass tube Pressure = = = 1 10 4 Pa
Area 4
4 4 10
and then quickly inserting it near the bottom of \ x = 1
the bottle. Make sure that water does not leak
M

from the joint. If there is any leakage seal it 3. (2) : Given, mass = 2 kg
with molten wax. Cover the mouth of the glass Force = 4 N
tube with a thin rubber sheet. Now fill the bottle Force = mass acceleration
up to half with water. We observe the bulge in force 4 N
\ Acceleration = = = 2 m s 2
SA

## the rubber sheet. Pour some more water in the mass 2 kg

bottle. We see more bulge in rubber sheet. This 4. (6) : Here, mass of the body = 60 kg
activity indicate that water exerts pressure on Acceleration of the body = 10 m s2
the sides of the containers. We know that W = mg
\ Weight = 60 kg 10 m s2 = 6 102 N
\ x = 6
5. (2) : Given forces F1,F2 act in opposite direction,
hence net force
F = F1 F2 (if F1 > F2)
or F2 F1 (if F2 > F1)
If F1 > F2 then F1 = F2 + 2
or F2 > F1 then F2 = F1 + 2
5. Take an empty plastic bottle. Drill four holes all (odd consecutive force)
around near the bottom of the bottle. Make sure \ Net force F = F2 + 2 F2 = 2 units
vvv
Physics | Class 8 force and pressure | P5