COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Communicative Language Teaching is a method which is used in teaching language.

This method helps the learners to learn the target language more effectively. Like other teaching methods, CLT method has some principles which of all are accurately useful for the learners. The purpose of learning a second language is not to know rules but to be able to communicate with others through language. Rules are ,of course, important but they are not the first principle of this method. This method is based on functions of the language. A second language learner should be capable of these skills : Authentic Competence: This focuses on specific areas such as economy, political issues etc. Articles are the mostly used materials to gain this competence. Linguistic Competence: This covers the structure of the language , the rules, pronunciation , meaning and functions etc. Sociolinguistic Competence: It requires the knowledge of sociocultural rules of the target language.the question is ³ What types of sentences should we use in a specific situation?´ Strategical Competence: This skill is used when a breakdown occures while communicating to others or making presentations. In Communicative Language Teaching, ³Listening´ and ³ Speaking´ is the most important skills. In CLT, target language should be used but the students should also be let to use their native language to some extent. And the teacher should remind the students that they cannot do this whenever they want. This should not become a habit of them. In CLT, errors should be tolerated. If a student makes errors, this means that he/she is triying to do something with the language. That¶s, making error is the signals of progress in learning the language. In CLT, If the teacher¶s aim is fluency which means quality in speaking and writing he , should never interrupt the student to correct him/her at the time of error. Errors should be corrected at the end of the activity without giving names. the

If it is an accuracy activity which is based on measuring the degree of the student¶s gainings on the correct form and usage of the language, the teacher should correct the errors at the time of the activity Otherwise, the errors become fossilized which means that errors replace the proper usages. In order to comminicate. There should be a real purpose. When we ask a question to someone, the question should reflect that we expect an information about the subject. Learnin language is a process rather than an overnight event so the evaluation sh ould be process-oriented evaluation not product-oriented evaluation. ³Teaching´ and ³Testing´ cannot be seperated. Teacher has to test the way s/he teaches. This is called as ³ backwash effect´. Cultural frames should be taught to language learners not in detail but to some extent because of the fact that language and culture are integrated. The functions and the rules of language should be advanced according to the level of the students. A complex form of the language cannot be adopted to a student who is the beginner in learning language. Students feelings are also important in teaching language. Students should be aware of the usefulness of learning a foreign language and the teacher should make them feel secure. The purpose of communication in second language should be well identified; otherwise communication fails. The teacher plays role as a facilitator, counselor. advisor and encourager. S/he should be dominant sometimes but not always. S/he should let the students be active participants in classroom. Games should also take place in learning language because games are the activities students also perform outside the class and so they will be interesting and enjoyable which makes the students be more motivated.

Activities A. Check your understanding of Communication Language Teaching. 1. Marrow¶s three features of communication : Information gap: Someone gives an information about what the other one does not know. Communication is accomplished through exchange of information between at least two people so information gap can be filled the one who has the necessary information about the subject. Choice: This means having an opportunity to choose in general terms. In CLT, in some activities students act as a different person and they speak through the view of this person.Or in some activities, they make some predictions which means that they have a chance to say whatever they think on the given subject. Feedback : It means getting response or reaction about some issue you are included in through someone or a group of people who are also included in the same subject. In CLT, there is an interaction between students and teacher and also students interact with each other. In some studies, teacher gives information back to students or students give information back to each others in response to the given information. The feedback can be negative or positive. If the one who evaluates the information supports the idea of the other, s/he gives a positive feedback, if not, it will be a negative feedback. In the class observation, there is an activity which is based on a repoter¶s predictions about who will win the World Cup. In this activity, students are discussing about the reporter¶s predictions. The predictions are written on the blackboard by the teacher. Then the teacher asks the students to rephrase the sentences in a different way. One of the students try on the first sentence and says the sentences using a different expressin. The teacher replies ³Yes´. Here the teacher gives a positive feedback to the student which means that teacher supports the answer of the student. Then the teacher asks for another one to make the other sentence and one of the students performs on the next sentence. We see also an infomation gap activity. Some of the students conveys their knowledge or idea through the class and also they decide on the way how to say the sentences. They have a choice to identify their own way. 2. The linguistic forms a speaker uses should be appropriate to the social context. Why? Language has some kinds of rules and functions. Rules are based on several fuctions and functions are based on a variety of rules. All of us as a social creatures have some positions in life and we play different roles in several places.

The way we communicate with each other is not the same in every situation. So language has so many usages according to different social context. While we are talking with a diplomat, we cannot follow the same expressions or sentences which we use while talking with a friend. There is not a common discourse in a language. So we should be aware of the way of speaking. For example; the modals ³can´ and ³may´ which are used for ³permission´ cannot be used in the same way. We cannot use ³can´ while talking with a professor. If we do, this will be an ill-suited usage for the context. 3. If you wanted to introduce your friend Paula to Roger, you might say: Roger, this is (my friend) Paula.( for a beginner class) I would like you to meet Paula. (for an intermediate class) Let me present Paula to you. Roger, meet Paula. (for an advanced class ) ( for a beginner class )

Allow me to introduce Paula. ( for an advanced class ) The first and the fourth sentences are the most simple forms of introducing someone to another. So these two forms are used in a beginning class. The second sentence is a more complicated form of the function when compared with the first and fourth ones. These forms can be taught in an intermediate class. And lastly, the third and fifth forms are to be taught in an advanced class. We know that learning a language is dividen into periods. These periods are organized considering the level of the learner. Learners shouldn¶t be oveloaded with the whole rules and functions. This is not an effective way of teaching language. Linguistic forms for the function of inviting:
y y y y y y y y

Would you like to go to the theatre tomorrow? (advanced level ) Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday? (advanced level) How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner? (advanced level) How about going to the movies? (intermediate level ) Care to come over for lunch? (advanced level ) I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink.(intermediate level ) We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party. (advanced level ) Let's go to our place for dinner. (intermediate level )

Function of requesting information Activity WASHINGTON RAILWAYS (22 July,2010 Departure Stations Washington Washington Washington Washington Destination Stations Montana California Nevada Idaho Departure Destination Time 09:00 a.m 07:00 a.m 11:00 a.m 08:00 a.m Time 11:00 a.m 03:00 p.m 05.00 p.m 10:00 a.m Departure Destination Time 03:00 p.m 06:00 p.m 09:00 p.m 04:00 p.m Time 05:00 p.m 02:00 a.m 03:00 a.m 06:00 p.m

There is a railroad timetable of Washington Railways. The table is designed only for the given date. There is a class with ten students who are learning English as a target language and whose level is intermediate.Students are divided into pairs and one of them will be a passanger and the other one will be a receptionist in the information desk. The students who play a role as a passanger will request information from the receptionist by using the linguistic forms for requesting information. They should also use their imagination for the reasons why s/he needs an information. The first pair performs: P: Excuse me! Can I ask something? R: Of course, Madam. P: Is there any train to Nevada? R: Yes, there is. P: Well, could you tell me about the time of it? R: The next train is at 09:00 p.m P: What about the destination time? R: Train will arrive in Nevada at 03:00 a.m

The second pair: P: Sorry, could you please help me about my ticket? R: What is the problem with it, Sir? P: I bought this ticket yesterday. The train¶s departure time is almost over. But it hasn¶t arrived yet. R: Hmm, please let me look at the system. P: All right, I¶m waiting here. R: Sorry, the train will be delayed only ten minutes because of a breakdown in the railway. P: It is not matter for me. I can wait for it. Thanks for your help. R: Not at all. Have a good day, sir.

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