You are on page 1of 149

, 2016

(EMC)
2016 -
,
.

EMC-
.

:
:
:
:

(EMC)
: . 12, ,
: +995 032 2 23 37 06
.: humanrightsemc@gmail.com
www.emc.org.ge
https://www.facebook.com/RIGHTSEMC

:
..................................................... 07

: ?............................................. 33
-

1: ?................................................... 53
-

. ......................................................................... 73

?
- ................................................ 82
&

, :
.................................................................. 118
-

Governmentality ..............133

:

:
:

-
. ,
, , -
, , , ,
. ,
, -
,
.

. . -
, -
, -
.
,
, -
, , .
, , , -
, , ,
: )
, ,
) ,
; ,
.

, -19 -20 -
, , -
, ,
, -
. , -20 ,
,
. -
, -
.
: , -
,

.
, -
. , ,
, -
,

.

, , , -
, -
, , -
. .
, ,
. , -
, .
,
-
.

,
, , -

. , ,
. , -
, , -
, , , ,
. , -
, .
, -
.
. -
, ,
-
. , , ,
,
, -
.
, ,
, -
-
.

8
:

1.


. -
,
. -
, -

. ,
1.


-
. ,
,
, -

,
.2 -
, -
, , -
, ;
. , -

, -
, ,
.3

, -
, , , -
. ,
-
,
,

1 -
. . The End of Liberalism (New York: Norton, 1969). -
: Jurgen Habermas, Legitimation Crisis (Boston: Beacon, 1973); Claus Offe,
Contradictionso f the WelfareS tate (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984); John Keane, Public Life in Late
Capitalism (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984); Benjamin Barber, Strong Democracy (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1984).
2 .Philip Green, Retrieving Democracy (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman &
Allanheld, 1985).
3 , -
, ,
Participation and Democratic Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).(
, , ). . James Miller, Rousseau: Dreamer of Democracy (New Haven,
Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984).

4. -
, ,
, , ,
, .
, . ,
,
, .


. , -
-
, -
, ,
.
-
; -
.
.
, .

-
, , -
.
. , ,
, -
,
, , -
. , ,
.

, -
, .
,
,
: -
, -
,
.

4 , , , -
. . Murray Bookchin, The Rise of Urbanization and the Decline of Citizenship( San Francisco: Sierra Club
Books, 1987). , .
, ,
, . ,
.

10
:

, -
-
, ,
, , , -
5.

, .


, , ,
, . ,
, , ,
, ,
6. ,
, -
, ,
.

, ,
, . -
, -
. ,
.
. . ,
.
, , , -
,
. ,
,
. -
, ,
. -

, , , ,
.7

5 .Fortune Is a Woman (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984). Carole Patemans recent writing also
focuses on such analysis. See, e.g., Carole Pateman, The Social Contract (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University
Press, 1988). See also Nancy Hartsock, Money, Sex and Power (New York: Longman, 1983), chaps. 7 and 8.
6 . Susan Okin, Women and the Making of the Sentimental Family, Philosophy and Public Affairs 11 (1982):
65-88; see also Linda Nicholson, Gender and History: The Limits of Social Theory in the Age of the Family (New
York: Columbia University Press, 1986).
7 :Okin, Women in Western Political Thought (Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1978); Lynda Lange, Rousseau: Women and the General Will, in The Sexism of
Social and Political Theory, ed. Lorenne M. G. Clark and Lynda Lange (Toronto: University of Tornoto Press, 1979);
Jean Bethke Elshtain, Public Man, Private Woman (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981),Citizenship with
a Feminist Face: The Problem with Maternal Thinking, Political Theory 13 (1985): 19-37. On Rousseau on women,
see also Joel Schwartz, The Sexual Politics of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).

11

, , ,
, .

, -
, ,
: . ,
, , ,
. ,
. -
,
. , -

.
.


, , -
. ,
, ,
, , -
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , -
. ,
-
, 8.
, -
9.


,
,
, -
. , ,
. , -
, , , , , -
, , ,
,
, -
.

8 . Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th Century America (New York: Knopf, 1979).
9 George Mosse, Nationalism and Sexuality (New York: Fertig, 1985).

12
:

, -
, ,
,
. , -
-
,
. . ,
-
.

,

. -
, ,
. -
,
. ,
, -
, -19
, -
, -
. , -
, , , ,
, . -
,
.
-
10.


, :
-
. (. 207) , -
, (.232),
, ,
-
. (. 224)
, , -
. , -
: -
,
, . -
, , ,

10 Barber, 8; 9.

13

, -
, ,
. (244)

, -
,
, , -
,
. -
, -
, .
, , , -
, .

11.
, -
. -
, , ,
, -
, , -
. -
,
, -
. -
, ,
, , , -
,
, ,
, -
.

, ,
, ,
. -
. ,
,
, -

. ,
, . -
. ,
, .

11 : Iris Marion Young, Impartiality and the Civic


Public: Some Implications of Feminist Critiques of Moral and Political Theory, in Feminism as Critique, ed. S.
Benhabib and D. Cornell (Oxford: Polity Press, 1987), pp. 56-76.

14
:


, -
, . ,
, , -
,
, , -
,
. , -

, ,
, .
,
-
.

-
, ,
,
. ,
, -
12. ,
-
, -
, , -
,
,
, -
, .

2. ,

-
, ,
, -
, , . -
,
, , -
. , -
. .
, 13.

12 . .
13 Jane Mansbridge, Beyond Adversarial Democracy (New York: Basic Books, 1980).

15

.
. ,
, -

.14 -
, , -
,
.

, -
-
. , ,
,
-
. ,
, , -
-
, -
.
. -
,
, .

, -
,
,
. , , -

. , , , -
, -
,
.

,
-, -
. , ,
, , -
. -
, ,
, -
.
, , -
. -

14 Amy Gutmann, Liberal Equality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).

16
:

.
, -
. : .

- .
, : ,
, , . , -
,
, -
, - -
, , .
, ,
. , ,
, , , , -
-
. , -
, -
, , .


, . -
, : , -
, , , ,
. -
, . ; -
, , ;
, .

, , -
, , ,
, . , -
, .
,
. ,
, -
-, ,
. -
, , ,
. -
, , . -
,
, .

, , -
- . ,

17

. -
, -
, .
.
, . ,
,
. ,
. ,
. . ,
, -
-20 . -
, ,
.
,
. .

, -
. , -
.
, , .

? 15.
, ,
: 1.
(-
) 2. ,
, , ();
3.
(); 4. -
, , , ,

( ); 5.
, -
. -, , -
: , , -
, , - ,
, , , , , ,
.

, -
. -
,
, ,

15 . Iris Marion Young, Five Faces of Oppression, Philosophical Forum (1988).

18
:

,
, , ,

.

, : ,
, -
,
, -
: 1.
-
. 2. ,
; ,
,
. 3. , -
, , , : -
, .


, .
, , -
. -
, , ,
,
, -
, ,

. ,
, , -
. -
.

,
, -
. , .
, ,
, . -
, , -
, , ,
, , ,
. -

. -
.
,

19

, ,
.

, -
,
-
.
, , , -
, , -
, ,
. -
, -
.

, , ,
,
, .
, -
. -
,
, -
, , , -
.
, ,
, , . , ,
, -
.


. -
.
-
, ,
, ,
.
, , -
.
, -
, -
,
, -
.16 , -

16 Jurgen Habermas, Reason and the Rationalization of Society (Boston: Beacon, 1983), pt. 3. -
.Seyla Benhabib, Critique, Norm and Utopia (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986); Young,
Impartiality and the Civic Public.

20
:

, ,
, -
. -
,
, , -
.


, . , -

, . -
,
, , -
; , , ,
. ,
, -
. , ,
,
, -
, ( , -
) , . -
, ,
,
.

-
. ,
, -
.
, , , , -
, -
. , ,
-
. , ,
,
, ,
, , -
.

, -
-
.
, -
(. , ,
, ),

21

.
,
.
-
.

, ,
-
. -
,
.
, , -
. , , -
-
.
-
.17
, -
-
. ,
, ,
, -
, ,
, -
, ,
,
.

,
,
. -
,

.
-
-
,
.
-
, .

17 -
, . . Radical America
17, no. 6, and 18, 1 (1984). , -
,
1984
.

22
:

-
, : , , -
, , , , -
,
. .
, -
-
. -
, , ,
, .18

,
,
? -
, , , , -
, , ,
. ,

. ,
, -
-
.

, -
.
, -
. -
? ,
-
? -
, ,
.
, . -
, ,
, .

? ,
- . , -
-
, , ,
. -
,

18 . Gary Ruchwarger, People in Power: Forging a GrassrootsD emocracyi n Nicaragua (Hadley, Mass.:
Bergin & Garvey, 1985).

23

,
. , ,
. -
, -
, .

, ,
-
-
. - -
, , ,
.
,
-
.
, , , -
, , -

, -
. -
,
, .

-
, , . -
. , -
, , , -
.
. , -
, -
.

, -
.
,
-
, , -
.
, -
. ,
, -
.

24
:

3.


-
: . -
-
, ,
.
,
, -
, -
.


, ,
,
,
. -
, -
, -
.

,
. -
, - , -
, , .
, ,

, ,
, , , , -
, .

, -
, -
19. , -
, , , ,
, , , -
, ,
, . ,
,
, ,
,

19 Martha Minow, Learning to Live with the Dilemma of Difference: Bilingual and Special Education, Law and
ContemporaryP roblems, no. 48 (1985), pp. 157-211.

25

, , -
. ,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
, -
, .

,
, ,
, . -
, ,
- , , -
, , -
, ,
. , , , -
,
, , -
, -
,

, , , -
.

, , -
, ,
,
. , , -
. , -
, -
. ,
, , , ,
,
. , -

, , -
. .

, ,
,
-
. , -
, . ,
, , -

26
:

, ,
, -
. , , , -
, , ,

. ,
, -
, .
,
, -
.20

, -
. -
, , -
.
, , -
-
, -
, , ,
.21

, , -
, -
,
. ,
.
,
.22 -
, -
. , , -

20 , (.
Equality and the Rights of Women (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980). , -
, , , ,
, ,
, , -
. , -
, , .
, , , -
, , -
.
21 Linda J. Krieger, Through a Glass Darkly: Paradigms of Equality and the Search for a Womens Jurisprudence,
Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 2 (1987): 45-62.
22 Ann Scales, Towards a Feminist Jurisprudence, Indiana Law Journal 56 (1980): 375-444. -

vs. -
: Reconstructing Sexual Equality, California Law Review 25 (1987): 1279-1337. ,
, -
.

27

, ,
, -
, .
, , -
,
.

,
, -
. -
, ,
. ,
,
vs. .
, .
-
, ,

.

, -
. -
, -
. ,
-
-
, .
,
.
. -
. -
. -
, ,
.

,
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
, , -,

. ,

28
:


, ,
.23


,
.
, .
, , , ,
, , -
.
,
. -
, -
, .
: , , -
.

, , -
, -
,
. . ,
,
, , , -
,
.24 ,
,
. , ,
, ,

. , -
, , , -
. ,
-
, , -

. ,
-
. -

23 , -
,
. , ,
- -
.
24 . Bernard Boxill, Blacks and SocialJustice (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Allanheld, 1984), 7.

29

,
,
.

,
,

. -
,
, -
, . ,
, -
. -
, :
, , ,
, .. -
, ,
-
. 25
, : -
, , , ,
, .26 , -
, -

.

, , -
, ,
, ,
,
, . -

, ,
, .
, -
, -
. - -
, ,
.

25 .See R. W. Beatty andJ. R. Beatty, Some Problems with Contemporaryjob Evaluation Systems, and
Ronnie Steinberg, A Want of Harmony: Perspectives on Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth, both in
Comparable Wortha nd WageD iscrimination: Technical Possibilities and Political Realities, ed. Helen Remick
(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981); D. J. Treiman and H. I. Hartmann, eds., Women, Work and Wages
(Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 198 1).
26 . David Alexander, Gendered Job Traits and Womens Occupations (Ph.D. diss., University of
Massachusetts, Department of Economics, 1987).

30
:

, -
, , ,
,
. , -
,
.
, -
, ,
-
.

-

, , -
. , , -
,
. -
, .

, -
, -
.
, ,
, -
.
,
. , -
.

-
. -

.
,


, -
. -
,
, .

,

. -
-

31

. ,
, . , -

, -
.
-
,
.

, ,
, -
. , -
: , ,
,
. , -
, .
-
, ,
.
. , , -
,
, -
.

32
?

: -
:

2010 , .
- 1,
, - .
, . , -
, .
! ,
... .

. ?-
, . . ?
, . . .
, , , ,
... . .

, -
, , -
. -
. . ,
, . , ,
. -
, . ,
,
. -
. -
,
.

, -
, .
, . ,
. , -

1 , ,
.

33
-

-
.
, :
, , , , .
, . , -
.

. -
. , ,
. , , -
, .
. .

, , ,
.
. -
. ,
-
. ,
.
, . , -
2.

.
. , -
. -
- . , -
,
3. ,
,
- , -
. , , -
, , ,
-
. , , -
, , , .
-, ,
, , ,
, .

2 . , ,
, ,
.
3 , , ,
. .
: Elizabeth Wickett, For the Living and the Dead: The Funerary Laments of
Upper Egypt, Ancient and Modern (London: I.B. Tauris, 2010); Lila Abu- Lughod, Dramas of Nationhood: The
Politics of Television in Egypt, Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures 2001 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).

34
?

, . -
. . -
, , -
- . ,

,
.

, ,
. ,
. -
, -
, ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, -
, -
.

, -
, , ,
. , -
, , -
,
, , ,
. , -
.

,
.
2001 , - -
, 20 ,
. 1970- , -
, , 2 . -
. -
: 4.

4 Lila Abu-Lughod, Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1986).

35
-

. -
, , . ,
, ,
, -
, , .

, -
,
, 6 -
, 1980- . -
, , .
-
.

, ,
, . -
; ; ,
, , ; , -
, .
; , , .
, , . -
, , ,
, .
. , -
. -
, , , -

. .

, -
,
-
. -
. , , -
. ,
, ,
, -
.
,
, ,
,
,
, life as lived 5.

5 Paul Riesman, Freedom in Fulani Social Life: An Introspective Ethnography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).

36
?

, . -
, -
. -

6. , -
, -
. -

.
, .

7, 2001
11 , -
. , -

. -
, .
, , ,
, .
-
, . , ,
, , , -
8.

,
. -
, -
9.
,

6 Lila Abu- Lughod, Writing Womens Worlds: Bedouin Stories, 15th anniv. ed.
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).
7 . -
, -
. , : Dohra Ahmad, Not Yet beyond the Veil: Muslim Women,
in American Pop u lar Literature, Social Text 27, no. 99 (2009): 105; Rana Kabbani, Europes Myths of Orient
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986); and Meyda Yegenoglu, Colonial Fantasies: Towards a Feminist
Reading of Orientalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
8 Suad Joseph, Elite Strategies for State Building, in Women, Islam, and the State, ed. Deniz Kandiyoti
(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991); Nadje Sadig Al- Ali, Iraqi Women: Untold Stories from
1948 to the Present (London: Zed Books, 2007); Nadje Al- Ali and Nicola Pratt, What Kind of Liberation? Women
and the Occupation of Iraq (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
9 Christina Hoff Sommers, The Subjection of Islamic Women and the Fecklessness of American Feminism,
Weekly Standard, May 21, 2007, weeklystandardom/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/013/641szkys.asp. -
. -
,
, . -
,

.

37
-

, -
(
, , ). -
, , 1990-

. , 1970-
-
, , ,
(,
, -
). ,

. -
,
: , , -
. -
, -
-, 10.

, -
, . -
,
. , -
, , -
. -
, , ,
. ,
, -
, -
. ,
.

. -
, -
. , -
, 11. , ,
.
( )

10 Amy Farrell and Patrice McDermott, Claiming Afghan Women: The Challenge of Human Rights Discourse
for Transnational Feminism, in Just Advocacy? Womens Human Rights, Transnational Feminisms, and the
Politics of Repre sen ta tion, ed. Wendy S. Hesford and Wendy Kozol (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University
Press, 2005).
11 , -
,
, . , -
.

38
?

. , ,
. .
, -
, , -
. ,

.


. ,
,
. ,
. 2011 13 -
, - Muslimah Media Watch,
, .
12. ,
. ,
. , , ,
( ) . -
:
. . -
, - - -
: , .13 -
, , ,
, : ,
, -
, ?
, . ,
, , , -
, .

, ,
. 2010 , The New York Times-

.
,

12 Fatemeh Fakhraie, Just . . . Ugh, Muslimah Media Watch, April 13, 2011, muslimahmediawatch.org/2011/04/
just- ugh/.
13 Maya Dusenbery, Agency Is Easily Overlooked if You Actively Erase It, Feministing, April 14, 2011,
feministing .com/2011/04/14/agency- is- easily- overlooked- if- you- actively- erase- it/.
, .

39
-


.14
,
, .

, , -
. ,
,
, , . -
, , ,
. , -
,
. 1. ,
; 2. -
. : ,
. , . -
- . -
, ,
, . ,
:
, , () ,
.

, , -
, ,
( ). ,
, . -
. ,
, , ,
. . :
, , , -
, .15 , ,
, ,
.
, : -

14 ,
. Martha Nussbaum,Veiled Threats?, New York Times: Opinionator, July 11, 2010,
opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/07/11/veiled- threats/. ,
. -
.
. , , .
, . -
, . Hans Christian Korsholm
Nielsen,The Danish Expedition to Qatar, 1959: Photos by Jette Bang and Klaus Ferdinand, English- Arabic
version (Moesgrd Museum, 2009).
15 Martha Nussbaum, Beyond the Veil: A Response, New York Times: Opinionator, July 15, 2010, opinionator.
blogs.nytimes.com/2010/07/15/beyond- the- veil- a-response/.

40
?

,
, 16.

, ,
. -
, ,
17. , , -
, ,
, , , , -
, . -
, ,
, . ,
, ,
, ,
.
, .



. 1995 , , -
, -
,
,
-
.
(CEDAW)
18.

16 Martha Nussbaum, Veiled Threats?, New York Times: Opinionator, July 11, 2010, opinionator.blogs.nytimes.
com/2010/07/11/veiled threats/; Martha C. Nussbaum, The New Religious Intolerance: Overcoming the
Politics of Fear in an Anxious Age (Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press, 2012).
17 : Martha C. Nussbaum, Creating Capabilities: The
Human Development Approach (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011).
18 (CEDAW) -
: Sally Engle Merry, Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006). CEDAW- ,

. -,
, CEDAW , . -
, , ,
, .
. ,
. 1979 ,
,
, , . . Ziba Mir-
Hosseni, Beyond Islam vs. Feminism, IDS Bulletin 42, no. 1 (2011): 67 77.

41
-

. ,

, , -
, , -

19. , -
?

, -
, . ,
?
, , , -
.
, , -
, .
.

. --
, . -

. .
, -
. ,
. -
, . ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.

, -
-
,
. , -
, . -

19 , -
, , , : Wendy Brown, Regulating Aversion: Tolerance
in the Age of Identity and Empire (Prince ton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006); Inderpal Grewal, On
the New Global Feminism and the Family of Nations:Dilemmas of Transnational Feminist Practice, in Talking
Visions:Multicultural Feminism in a Transnational Age, ed. Ella Shohat, Documentary Sources in Contemporary
Art (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998); Inderpal Grewal, Transnational America: Feminisms, Diasporas,
Neoliberalisms (Next Wave: New Directions in Womens Studies) (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2005);
Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Feminism without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity (Durham, N.C.:
Duke University Press, 2003); Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Can the Subaltern Speak?, in Marxism and the
Interpretation of Culture, ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988);
Rajeswari Sunder Rajan, Real and Imagined Women: Gender, Culture, and Postcolonialism (London: Routledge,
1993); Leti Volpp, Blaming Culture for Bad Behavior, Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities 12 (2000): 89 116;
and Leti Volpp, Feminism versus multiculturalism, Columbia Law Review 101, no. 5 (2001): 1181 1218.

42
?

,
. -
, , ,
, , . -
.
,
( ),

20.

, -
, , .
2001 . , -
. -
, .
. , -
.

-
,
. , ,
,
, -
. -
( , )
,
, , -
, ,
Amnesty International- 21. ,
-
, -

, 22.
(
, )
. -, -
.
, , -
. , -

20 Zakia Pathak Rajeswari Sunder Rajan, Shahbano, Signs 14, no. 3 (1989): 558 582; Flavia Agnes,
Interrogating Consent and Agency across the Complex Terrain of Family Laws in India, Social Difference
Online 1 (2011): 1 16, socialdifference.columbia.edu/files/socialdiff/publications/SocDifOnline Vol 12012.pdf.
21 Elora Halim Chowdhury, Transnationalism Reversed: Women Or ga niz ing against Gendered Violence in
Bangladesh, SUNY Series, Praxis: Theory in Action (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011), 4.
22 Makau W. Mutua, Savages, Victims and Saviors: The Metaphor of Human Rights, Harvard International Law
Journal 42, no. 1 (2001): 201 245.

43
-

, . ,
- .
.

-
, .
-
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
- , -
, .
, -
, .

, .

,
,
, . -
.
,
, , -
23.

, , -
,
-
.
24. --
, ,
,
25. , -
,
. , -
, ,
.
2009 ,
26.

23 Dina M. Siddiqi, Crime and Punishment: Laws of Seduction, Consent, and Rape in Bangladesh, Social Difference
Online 1 (2011): 46 53, socialdifference.columbia.edu/fi les/socialdiff/publications/SocDifonline-Vol12012.pdf.
24 .
25 Jacqueline Aquino Siapno, Sharia Moral Policing and the Politics of Consent in Aceh, Social Difference
Online 1 (2011): 17 29, socialdifference.columbia.edu/fi les/socialdiff/publications/SocDifOnline Vol12012.pdf.
26 -6 .

44
?


, . -
, .
,
. ,
-
, . -
. ,
, , - ; -
, ; ,
. , ,
,
. -

. -
, . -

?
, ,
, . -
, , -19
-20 , -
27.


. , -
, ,
. -
. 2001 , -

. ,
, . , ,
-
. , , , -
. , -
,
, -
, , , -
. ,
.

27 Elora Shehabuddin, Gender and the Figure of the Moderate Muslim: Feminism in the Twenty- First
Century, in The Question of Gender: Joan W. Scotts Critical Feminism, ed. Judith Butler and Elizabeth Weed
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011), 107.

45
-

, -
,
, -
,
, -
.
-
, (// /)
. , , ,
, , -
-
30 .
-
, .
, ,

28. -
? ? -
, , ? 2007
The New Yorker-
. - - .
- .
, . -
. , ,
. : .

, -
, -
, , -
. , ,
. , -
, , -
, .

. , , , -
,
. , ,
, ,
29. ,

28 Leila Ahmed, A Quiet Revolution: The Veils Resurgence, from the Middle East to America (New Haven,
Conn.: Yale University Press, 2011).
29 Virginia Woolf, A Room of Ones Own (London: Hogarth Press, 1929).

46
?

? -
, ,
- . ,
, , , -
. ,
, .
,
.

-
. , -
,
, -
. ,
,
, 30. , -
, -
,
, . -
. ,
,
-
, .

. -
.
, ,
- ,
.
, , -
, -
31. -
, 32. -
,
, -
.

30 Wendy Brown, Civilizational Delusions: Secularism, Tolerance, Equality, Theory and Event 15, no. 2 (2012).
. Joan W. Scott, The Politics of the Veil (Prince ton, N.J.:
Princeton University Press, 2007).
31 Saba Mahmood, Politics of Piety (Prince ton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006).
32 Ayaan Hirsi Ali, The Caged Virgin: An Emancipation Proclamation for Women and Islam (New York: Free
Press, 2006): 129 140.

47
-


, -
. - -
,
. -
, ,
.

33.

, -
, . -
, ,
. ,
, .
, , , -
-
, , -
. , ,
, .
-
.
,
. -
, .

( , -
, ). -
, .
1948 , , -
,
.

, . 80 ,
. -
. , . -
, .

, , .
, , -
, . , -

33 Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Ten Tips for Muslim Women Who Want to Leave, ibid., 111 122.

48
?

. . , ,
, , .
,
.

,
,
.

,
,
, .

, ,
. , ,
. , -
, , .
, -
: , .
, , ( ,
) , -
. .
-
, .

, . ,
, ,
. , -
, ( ) -
.
- , ,
, ,
, , , ,
- , .

, -
,
. , , ,
. .
. , , -
,
.
. . -
. 20 -,
.

49
-

1950- , , -
(UNESCO) . -
, . -
, . ,
. .
, , ,
. , ,
. , (, , -
, ) .
.
- .
.

. 1930-40- , -
. 1948 , , -
, ,
. 50 , .
, , . -
. , , ,
. : .
. ,
. -
,
.

, ,
, .
, ,
, . , -
: , . -
, .

, , . -
. ,
, -
, .
,
, , ,
,
. -
.

,
. 2011 , -
, ,

50
?

1948 -
, ,
, , -
. , , -
, ,
. -
, , ,
-
. , , ,
?

? -
, .
. -
. -
,
. .

, -
,
. -
, -
, . -
,
, ,
. -
-

.

, , 2001 11 -
, ,
. ,
.
,
, , -
. , , -

, -
. , -
( )

51
-

. , -
, -
21-
.

. , -
, . , ,
. ,
, ,
; , .
, , , -
, , . -
? ? ,
? ,
, ?
, -
, ?

,
,

. -
? -
?
34 ,
, ? -
, ,
.


,
(EMC).
,
(USAID) .
.
- , USAID - .

34 Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (New York: Bantam Books, 1993); The Complete Collected
Poems of Maya Angelou (New York: Random House, 1994), 194 195.

52
?
1
: -
:
:

,
, Time- , ,
.
,
2010 . ,

,
. ,
? , ,
. ,
-
.

Time- , ,
. , -
, -
.
. -
, , ,
.

, ,
Time- .
,
, ( )
. , ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
: -
, , -
-
,
, , -
. , 91 000 :
-
, .

53
-

,
(WAW), , -
. - -
Grossman Burn Foundation- , ,
-
.

-
Time- . -
-
. ,
. -
, -
.

WAW- .
,
. -
, .
Nation- -
. , -
, ,
. , - -
. , ,
,
. -
,
(WAW).

, -
2001 -
.
. -
,
,
, , -
, -
.

,
, 2001 , -
, -
. ,
, , ,
, .

54
?

, 20 -
, . -
(
women under cover) , -
. ,
, -
. .


: , ,
, 2001 11 -
-
? , , , -
, (,
)
? , ,
, -
? -
,
,
. ,
. -
, , ?

, 2002 1 -
, ,
. -
:
, 2001
17 .

2001 .
, - ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
? , , -
. :
X-? Y?
Z- ? ,
? , -

55
-

. ,
,
. , -
.
-
, .

, ,
,
, -
-
. , -
; -
- ;
;
-
, ,
.

, ,
-
, , ,
- ? ,
, -
. -
,
. , -
-
, , -

,
, ,
,
.

, -
,
, , , .
, -
,
? , 2001 , -
- ,
. , -
, , , . -
, ,

56
?

: --.
,
: , , ,
-
,
. ,

, , -
-, , , ,
.

, -
,
.
, , ,
. -
, -
.
.

, -
-
. , -
, (,
, -
) . -
(brown)
(brown) . , ,
. ,
.
. , -
, ,
.
, ,
.

,
-
:

, -
, , ,
, , 1958 15
(4 , -
130- ).

57
-

, ,
, -
. , -
,
, ,
. -
,
. , -
,
, -
, -
.

, -
, . -
, 1851-1852 ,
, -
. ,
.
: , ,
! ,
: ..
, ! , , -
, ,
!.

, ,
, , .
-- , -
.

, ,

. ,
( ),
, ,
.
. -
; -
,
,
.

58
?

, , , -
, . -
,
. , -
, -
,
,
.

, ,
.
,
2001
. , ,
. , , -
,
, ? -
. , -
.

, , -
. - - ,
.
- , - -
; ,
- -
. , -
,
, ,
, , -
.

1970- -
. ,
, , -
, -
,
. , -
, . -

,
, .

59
-

, , :
, 2001 , -
?
, ,
, -
: ,
, , .

(, ), -
,
, , -
, , ?
, -
, - , -
, ,
, (, -, ) -
. - ,
, -
, .
,
. , ,
.
. -
.
,
( -
). -
. , -
, -
.

, , -
- ,
, . -
, , -
, ,
.
,
. , -
. , -
, ,
. , -
,
. ,
, ; , -

60
?

, (
), .

2001 , New York Times- , -


. -
.
,
, - ,
. ,
, . -
,
, .
. - ,
. , : -
, , -
. , .
, , -
, , -
,
. -
, -
, .

Guardian-, 2002 ,
, -
, --
. 60 .
, .
, , ,
. , ,
, . -
- -
, 1996 ,
, 8 .
, .
, ,
. ,
, , -
.

, -
. -
.
, , -
. , -

61
-

,
.

, -
, 1970- 1980- ,
, , , -
, , -
. -
/ . ,
, .

, -
, 1970- -
, ,
, . -

,
. ,
. -
. ,
, -
. , , -
.
, , -
, , , -
, .

, -
, ,
, . (, ,
, -20 ,
, -
. ).
, ,
, -
,
. -
, ,
?

. , , ,
.

- ,
, . -

62
?

, , -
-
; , ,
, ,
. , , -

. ,
, . , -
, -
; , .

, ,
. ,
-
? , -
, .
, -
. , -
. -

, , , -

; ,
- -
, , -
, -
.

, , ,
, -
,
. ,
,
, , -
;
, , , -
. , -
,
(RAWA) ?
Glamour- .
, -
. , -
RAWA. RAWA- , 1977 , -
, ,
, ,

63
-

-, -
. ,
, , -
. -
, ,
. ,
- ,
, - -
.

-
, -
, -
, Human Rights Watch-, Amnesty
International- , -
-
. , -
,
, -
. ( ,
, ,
, ).

, ( ).
. ,
, -
? ,

. , ,
, -
,
, , -
? -
,
,
, , -
? ,
, , -
, . -
,
, .
, -
, , -
.

64
?

, , -
- . -
.
. -
, ,
, -
, ,
. ? ,
.
, ?

, -
, . -
.
, . , ,
,
, -
. , -
,
, , -
, ,
,
. ,
.

2001 , ., ,
- , . -
-
, .
RAWA .
, - , , -
, -
, ,
. , - -
: -
, . - ,
,
, .
. , , ,
, , -
.
.

, -
, , - -

65
-

. , ,
, . , -
, , -
/, -
,
(
). , , -
. ,
, , , -
?
( -6 ),
, .

, , -
.
,
, -
. ,

. , , -

( - -
) ,
, -
. , -

, -

, : , ?

,
, -
, -
. -
, ? ,
, ,
? ,
, ?
, :
,
,
, , , -
-
. -
? ?

66
?

? ? -
. ,
,
,
. , , -
,
, , -
,
, -
, / .
, . ,
,
.

,
. -
, , , -
, - .
, (Piety) ,
, -
. , .
, -
, ,
,
.
,
-
.

, ,
,
, -
.
,
. -
. , . -
? -
, ?
, ,
.

67
-

,
-, -
, , -
, . , ,
. -
, . ,
, -
. -
, -
, 1906 ,
.
, (A Cry of Need from
the Lands of Darkness Interpreted by Those Who Heard It). -
, , , -
.
,
: , -
. , -
, ,
.

, ,
-
, , , -
, .
, , -
. - , -
,
.
, -
.
Vogue- . -
-
. , 2002 ,
, ,
, - ,
Mdecins du Monde (MdM)- -
. -
. -
: : .
, /
, :

20 , MdM-
. ,

68
?

. 1996 , ,
. -
, .
-
. ,
, -
, MdM- -
, .
, .

, , -
, ,
, -
. -
.
:
?

,
. , ,
. -

, ,
-
, .
, /-
, ,
. .
,
, ,
- ; -
.

,
? -
,
,
, ; , -
, ,
, , -
. ,
, -
,
( )
.

69
-

, . -
, ( ) .
, ,
. , -
,
, .

RAWA- ,
, - -
, -
. -
. , ,
.
.
,
, -
;
. , -
,
. -
, ,
,
. , -

, ,
.

, -
, 1980- . ,
RAWA-
. 6
, -
.
.
,
.
WAW- -
, -
,
.
.

, -
, ,
( ), ,

70
?

-
. -
,
. ,
.
.
, , -
, . -
, .
, , ,
,
, .
,
. , -
. , , -
, , -

. ,
, , -
.

- .
. , , -
, ,
, -
, , -
, , -
. ,
, , -
.
, -
, , / .
, .

30- , -
. 2010 Time- ,
, . -
, , -
( ) : ,
, , -
. ,
. -
. , . ,
,
. , ,

71
-

. , -
, .
.

-4 . -
, ,
,
. , -
,
-
.
,
.

, (,
RAWA, 2001
) , ()
, ,
. .
,
(, ,
), ,
. -
, , ,
, ,
.


,
(EMC).
,
(USAID) .
.
- , USAID - .

72

:
:
:

, . , -
.
. *.
.


.
? .
.
, , : -
.

, , -
, ,
,
, . -
.
,

, .

, -
: -
? , ,
,
, . ,
, ,
, -
. , -
-
(, , ,
, ). , -
, , -
, ? ,

73

, ,
.
-
, ,
, . , ,
,
, ,
. , , -
,
,
.

, ,
, -
, , -
.
, , -
, .
, :
, , ;
, , ,
, . , -
, ,
, -
. , -
: ,
, , , ,
, .
, . -
, . , .

, .
, , -
-
, , , -
, .
, ,
.
, , -
, -
. ,

74

,
, , , ,
- , -
-
.
.

, , ,
-
, -
, ,
. ,
. , , -
,
, . -
, .
, ;
, , ,
, . , -
: , ; -
, ,
, -
, , , -
. , , , ,
.

,
. . -
, -
. ,
; , ,
,
( : , , -
). , -
, ;
,
, . , , -
, , , -
, .. -
,
. ,
, -
: , ,
,
( ) . ,

75

, -
,
, -
, . , -
.
, , ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
. , ,

. , -
, .
, :
,

. , , -
(
). -
, .
, [] ,
[] , -
; ,
, , ,
. (
, -
, .
).

, ,
, , -
, -
, , ,
, . ,
, -
,
,
(
).
,
.
. ( , , ,
, , ,
, ?)

76

, -
. ,
, -
, , -
, ,
.

-
, , -

. ,
-
. ,
, .
,
. , -
,
. ,
, , -
, .
,
-
, -
. , -
, ,
,
, -
, . -
, ,
, .
. , ,
, -
.
, , ,
.

, , -
, . ,
, , , -
, -
.
-
, ,

77

. -
, , , -
,
, -
, , .

, , ,
, -
, , . ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
, , -
.

, -
: , , -
. , , ,
, -
, . , -
, ,
. -
, , , ; ,
. : , -
. , ,
, .
,
, ,
, , ,
.

, .
, ,
, -

. , .. -
, , ,
. -
, . -
,
, ,

78

, , -
; , ,
, -
, , -
, ,
. ,
. -
, .
, , , , -
, .
, , , ,
,
,
: ; , ;
, ;
.
-
? ,
, ? (
,
,
). , -
, -
, ,
, .

,
-
. , ,
; , -
, -
, , 5, 15 24
. , ,
( )
, -
. , , -
, .

: -
?
,

79

? ,
. ,
.
,
. , , -
. , , , -
, -
, , (.. ):
, . , -
, ,
, , -
.
, , , -
, ,
, ,
. , -
, , -
( , -
, ), , ,
. ,

, , -
, . -
, ,
,
, . -
, .
,
, ; -
, , ,
. ,
, , -
, , .

, , , -
, ,
. ,
,
. . , -
.
, ,
, , -
,
, , , -
, , ,

80

. ,
: ,
;
, -
, , -
, .

,
. ,
?
? ? -
, ()
( ) ?
? ,
?
? ? -
, -
?

: -
?

* , , , .

(EMC)
: ,
, National Endowment for Democracy (NED)- .

81
FAMILIAR EXPLOITATION
A NEW ANALYSIS OF MARRIAGE IN CONTEMPORARY WESTERN SOCIETIES

?
-

: &
:
:

1970-80- -
. ,
,
, , . , , -
,
. , -
, ,

, -
; , -
. ,
.

, ,
, /
, -
.

50 ,
.

1. , ,
,
( ,
), , -

.

2. , -
. , -

82
?
-

( ;
), -
. , , -
.

3. , ()
. ,
.
, , -
.

4. , , -
, , -
(, ), -
,
.
, , ,
-
.

5. ,
( ), ,
, -
.
() -
.

6. ,
, . -

, , -

. ,
.

7. , ,
, , -
/ , -
,

. -
: ()
, , ,
, , -
, ()

83
&

-
.

, ,
(
) -
, , -
,
, ,
( ) . ,
, -
(. 1- -4 ), -
(. -2 ),
,
, -
. .

-
: , ,
.
1970-
, ( ) , , -
. -
, ( 1979 ),
,
, . -
, ,
, 20
.

-
.
,
100 , -
. , / -
-
, . ,
.

, , ,
.
, , , ( )

84
?
-

.
- , -
, ( )

, ,
. ,
.

, -
, , ,
(, , ) -
, , ,
; -
. , , ,

, .
, ( -
) .

3-5 -
, ,
,
. ,
( -
) , ;
, ,
( ). ,
.

, (. -2
), , , , -
, , ,
. , -
, , -

. ,
-
, .
( -
, ),
, , ( )
.

, . -
,

85
&

( ), , -
, , -
( ,
), , -
.

, , -
, .


(1972). -

, -
( ),
,
.. , -
, ,
. , , -
, , -
, , -
, .

,
. , , -
, ;
,
, ( ) . ,
,
( ,
) .
, . -
,
, -
.
(1) (2) -
- , -
,
, -
. (, ) ,
, ,
( ,
).

-
. , -

86
?
-

, , , ,
( ) -
, -
,
. -
, . -
,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, -
, .

, -
, () .
, ,
, -
. , -
, ,
,
, , .
, -
,
, ,
.

, -
, , , , -
( ),
.
, -
. ,
, -
.

. -
, ; -
,
. ,
, -
, , ,
, .

,
-

87
&

, . . -
( ) -
, , . ,
, ,
, , ,
/ .
.

. -
(
); -
, .

, -
(, )
. ( , -
) .

, , -
(), , .
, ,
, , -
,
. ( , ).
,
. -
,
.

,
. , -
, -
,
,
(, , -
) -
. (
) ,
, , -
( -4 )
, ,

. (. -7 -8 ), -
, ,
.

88
?
-

, -
, -
. ,
-
, ,
, -
, , -
. , -
, , ,
, .
, -
.


, . , -
,
, , , -
. , ,

, -
. ,
. ,
, , -
() ( ,
) ,
. , ,
( ,
), ,
( ) :

1. , (
, ),
( ) , -
/ ;

2. , -
: , , -
,
, ,
, .

. ,
, -
, (,
, ). -

89
&

, ,
,
, , -
, .

, , , -
.
. ,
. -
, , -
,
. ,
, -
. .



, . , -
-
. ,
( -
) , ,
( ) , -
.


, ,
, .
,
(, ) /
(,
) .

, , , -
, , .
,
, , -
, . -
,
. ,
,
( ,
), -
, ,
.

90
?
-

. -
, -
, ,
-
, -
.

, -
, -
(
), , .
, . ( -
) . , ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, -
. , -
, , ,
, , ,
, , , -
. , -
.

-
-
. ()
,
. , -
-
, , ; -
.
, .
, , . , -
.
, -
( ,
)

,
, . , -
, , ()
, , , :
( , -
, (1974) -

91
&

, ,
!).

-
. , , ,
, . -
,
,

, , -
, , -
-
.

, , -
,
. ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, ; -
.

, , -

( ).
, ,
(1976) -
: (1979)
, -
. -
:

, -

, , , -
.
.

-
. ,
, -

92
?
-

,
. , , -
: -
(, , ),
,
( ), -
,
, , , -
, , , .
, ,
(Hartmann 1979 reprinted in Sargent 1981: 18-
19 ).

(-
, ) ,
, ,
. . -
, ,
,
() .
, -19 -

. -
,
, , ,
.

.
,
,
,
. , -
.

, ,
.
.

. ,
, . ,

, .
,
. -
.

93
&

; ,
; , -
.
-
, . (Hartmann 1976 reprinted
in Eisenstein 1979:208)

, -
. ,
, ,
, -
.
, -
.

, , -
: (1981) -
, -
, ,
,

. ,
-
, .
,

, , ,
. ,
, -
,
(Hartmann 1981:9).

.
, ,
,
( -
(1986) , ,
,
). , ,
. , (1) -
(2) -
. ,
, -
, .

94
?
-

, , .
, , -
1979 , 1981 , -
,
(Sargent 1981).

,
,
. -
, , -
, , ,
. -
, , . ,
, 3 n , -
( ,
, /
). -
.

-
, , -
, -
; ,
,
.


. , : -
.
, , ,
. , , -
, .

,
( -2 ) (
)
, , -
.
, -
,
, -
.

,
-, ;

95
&

:
. , -
, -
,
, , .

,
. ,
.
, , -

, ,
, -
. (,
1981 ),
. ( ), -
.

- ,
, -19 -
; , -
, -
,
,
. () : ,
; -
, ; -
, ;
, -
, , ;
,
, .

, : -
, -
, , ,

,
, , -
, 50-150 .

-
-
, , -
,

96
?
-

(
,
). , , -
() , -
. , -
( ,
).

,
. ,
(1981: 256)
, , -
.

, ,
, , ,
, -
, . -

, , ,
, , , . -
:
, , , , , -
, .

, , -
. -
, ; -
,
, .
, -
,
.

-
,
-
. , -
, .
, 1950-
, -

97
&

,
,

.
, ,
( -
) .

() -
, ,
. ,
, -
. -
. ,
, , -
, ,

,
.

, -
; -
, .
,

, .. .
, ,
, , -
, , -
. -
, ,
. ( ),
, , -
.

, , -
, -
, .
, -
, .

-
( ,
), . -

98
?
-

- -
.

, ,
, -
, -
(, , -

, ,
, -
). ,
, , (
), ,
(, ). -
, ,

, ,
. , -
, , -
, , . ,
. , ,
, -
, , ( )
.
, , , -
.

, -
, -
, ,
-
(,
). ,

/ -
, , , -
.
,
( ) -
( ) -
: /. , -
.

,
, , .

99
&

, , -
. , , ,
,
. ( ) -
,
,
, -
, ; , -
.

, ,
, , ,
, .
-
, .
,
.

, ( -
) -
, -
,
-
. -
, . -
,
,
, . ,
, , -
,
, , ,
, ; -
, .


/-

, : -
, , , ,
. ,
.
, , -
.

100
?
-

, ,

, ,
, 1960- 1970- -

. , -
. ,
,
.
, . -
.
, , -
, ,
, , , -
, -
,
.

1920- 1970 , ,
. -
, ,
,
, , -
, . , , :

1.
.
60-80 , (

10 40 , ).

2. (, )
.
, . ,
-
(,
). .
(, , , -
, ,
).

101
&

3. . ,
, , -, . -
,
, , , -
. , , -
.

4. ,
, ,
,
, -
, .

5. ,
, ,
, .

,
,
-
, -

,
1970 . , ,
.. (1973), -

.


, , -
:


 (, , );


 ( -
, , , -
);


 , , .

1. -
-3 .

102
?
-

2. , -
, -
(, ).
,
.

3.
, ( -
)
.
.

4. -
(
) -
.

5. ,
-
, . -
, .

6. , , .

7. ,
, ,
, -19
-20 : -
- .

,
. -
, () -
. , -
, , ,
, , -
, .
, .
.

, -
. , .
, . -
, , ( ) -
, , , -

103
&

, . ,
(,
, ) ,
, . -

, , ..
, .

, -
.
,
( -
, ),
. , , -
, , -
, , ,
( ) -
, . -
, .

-
-
.

1. -
?

() ? () -
?

2. , (
) ?

, :

1 () -
, ( )
. , , -
, , , -
, : ,
, , ,
, , -
, , .

104
?
-

, : , -
. -
, ,

(, , -
, ).

1 () -
, . ,
-
. ,
, ,
.

2. -
,
, , , .. .
,
, , , -
, , ,
,
, ,
, , ,
..
-
, , -
. -
.

, .
,
, (, ) -
.
. -
, -
, ,
/ ,
, ,
, .

, ,
, -
. ,
, , -
, .

105
&

, ?

1970- ,
, -
-
( ) -
. ,
, , , ,
-
.

(, ) , -
, ( )
,
.

, ,
, , -
,
, .
, , -
, -
, .

,
, , -
( ), -
. , :

 , ;
 , ;
 , .

, , .

, ?

:
; , -
, . , -
:

[ ] -

.

106
?
-

( ) .
, ,
. . -
, .
;
. -
,
.

-17
: , ,
. ,
( ) .
, -
, (Mackie and Pattullo 1977: which
includes qutations from Comer 1974 and Gardiner 1975, ).

, :

1. (, ,
) .

2. .

3. ( )
, , -
-
. , ,
, -
, . -
, ,
.

4. . -
, -
( ).

5. , ( -
), .

6. : -
.

. , -
.

107
&

(. 2 4), -
, , .
/ , ,
, . -
, -
-
(, ),
, .

, ,
,
. , , ,
; ,
.
-
,
(, -
,
). , , -
, (,
, ; , -
; , ).
, ( )
(. -5 ).

(. 5),
, ,
-
, ,
. -
, ,
,
(, ) -
. ,
:
, : ; -
,
.

(. 4), , -
; , , -
, (
) .
? -
? ? , -

108
?
-

-
,
. (, -
, , )
-
,
( , ). ,
,
(Ehrenreich and English 1979:12) , ,
, -
.

, ( )
, , : -
, , -
( ) .

-
,
,
() , / -
. (-
1 2).
, , -
, .

= ,

= , ,
= .

, .
, , -
-
, , , ,
/
( )
,
( , ).

-
: -
.

109
&

,
, ; ,
, -
, -
.

, , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , -
.

, , , ,
. -
-
.
. ,
,
, -
; , , ,
.


(. 1) ,
( )
, (Gardiner 1976:111).

,
(, -
) / ,
, -
,
. , . ,

( ), (.
-3 ). -
? , ,
, / (
, )
( ) , ,
, .

(
), -
, .

110
?
-

, , (-
, ) (-
, , ) -
,
, . , , -
, , ,
. -
(
) , -
. ( ),
( ).

, -
, , -
, (
). , ,
. , -
, (, ), ( )
. , -
, ,
, ,
, , ,
. , -
, -
. , , -
.
( ) ( ( ))
. ,
.

,
?


,
. , -
,
, , , -
, . ,
, -
, ( )
.
,
-

111
&

, ( ),
( ) , -
. , -
, .

, ,
:

 = = ( )

 = = -
( , -
, ..)

,
, , -
. ,
, -
,
.

, -
-
; , ,
, :
, ; , -
, -

(
).

, ,
, . -
, ; , -
, ,
. -
, , .
.

, -
, .
, , , -
( ) ,
.

112
?
-

, ,
, ? -
, , -
, , (, -
, )
.

-
, , -
,
, ,
, . ,
(, ),
; , -

(, )
, -
, .

, -
, , , -
, , ,
, . -
,
.

, , ,
,
, , .


,
. ,
,
, -
, -
() ( -
) . , .

, -
, , .
( ), (-
) ( , -
), -

113
&

. , -
, ( )
(Wolfelsperger 1970:20 ).

, -
(- ), -

. -
50-80 .

, ,

. , ,
,
; ,
. , , -
. ,
, ,
: ( ) ,
-
, .

, , -
, , , -
,
. , , ,
,
, , -
, .

, () -
: , - ,
;
, -
, ,
, , .

-
, , -
, . -
. ,
, , -
.
, -
.

114
?
-

,
?

, -
, -
, , -

. -
.

, -
, 1960- - . -
(1969) ,

;
, ,
. , :

1. [] ,
-
... [ ]
[ ], , -
. , -
; , ... -
, ,
...[ ]
(Benston in Tanner 1970:2813 ).

2. , -
. , , ,
, , -
( : ;
; ) (Benston in Tanner 1970: 283 4).


,
 ,
.

, (, -
) . , -
, ,
. , ,

115
&

.
, ,
( ),
, (-
) , .

, , ,
, -
. , , -
, .

-
. , .


. , , -
. .
-
( -
, , ). ,
,
, , -
, .
, -
.
. -
-
- .

( ) -

( ). , -
.
, , ,
(, , , ,
,
, , ).

, ,
. ,
, , ,
, . ,
.
, , -
. .

116
?
-

, -
(, -
, , ),
, , , -
, . ,
, , (. 2,
. 3744). , ,
,
.

-
. , ,
; , (,
/ ) .
, , -
,
.

,
, :

 ,
;
 ( )
,
;
 ( );
 , -
, ,
. , , -
, ,
;

, -
, -
,
.

(EMC)
: ,
, National Endowment for Democracy (NED)- .

117
, :

: -
:

,
, ,
,

, ,
. ,
-
, , ,
, , .

. ,
, ,
,
.

:
/ ,
,
,
.
,
,
.

,
, ,
,
, , ,

. , ,
, .
(1981), (1981),
(1981), (1981), (1982) ,
, ,
,
.

118
, :

, ,
,
, ,
. , ,

, ,
.
(
) ,
, (1981, 1984), (1981),
(1981), (1981), , (1982), (1982)
(1983). , , ,
,

, ,
.


, ,
. , -
[womanist] . (1983)
, ,
,
(xi). , , ,
(xi).
,
,
.. , ,
; ,
,
, , ( , ,
) [ ]
.

, ,
, ,
. ,
( , - ), ,
-
. , 1960- ,
, ,

,
. (1983), (1984)
, ,

119
-

, (
, ) .

, .
: (1) ,

; (2)
, .
,
, ,
,
.

1970- ,
,
,

.


. ,
,
,
.;
, ,
. (1979), (1984)
, 1960-70-
, ,
,
,
.

1970-1980
(, 1975; , 1976; , 1980)
,
, , .
(1981), (1985), , (1986)
,
(,
1975; , 1980).
( ,
, ,
, , , ,
).

120
, :

,
,
.

(1977) ,
1976
. ,
.
, , (1981) ,
,
, ,
. , ,
, ,

,
, . -
, ,
, (, 1981, 9).

, , (1986) ,
NGO [ ]
, -
(, 1985 ), , ( ,
) , -
,
. (1981) , :
,
, ,
[] -
, -
, , ,
, . ,
,
, ,
, (. , ,
), ,
, , ,
.

.
,
, -
.

, , ,

121
-

. ,
,
,
.
() (Club Movement) -
- (1978), (1981),
(1982), (1984) ; ,
(Native Americans), , , -
.


, , ,
.
- ,
. -
. , , (1981),
(1981, 1984), , (1982) (1983)

. (1981) ,
, , ,
.
-
. , (1985)
, (slaveocracy)
.
, (nonwomen), ,
-
.
, .
, ,
. ,
,
, .
.

.
( ,
) , ,
,
. ,
; ,
, . , ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,

122
, :

, , ,

.
, , ,
.

,
, , -
, ,
. , -
, . ,
, , -
. ,
.
, -
. , -
, ,
, , ,
, .
.

, -
,
, . (1982),

(AAWORD) , :

, ,
( -
)

, , ,

.
,
, , (5)

(1985) , ,
(6). 1984
-

,
, , :

(, 1985, 10).

123
-


, ;
,
; ,
, .
(1977) , ,

, .. .
, ,
,
, ,
,
.

,
.
. , ,
, .
,
, ,
,
,
. ,
. (1982)

.

,
. Multinational Monitor- 1983 -
, -
.
(1981) ,
,
,
,
. , ,

,
. (1985) ,
. :

, ,

. ,
,

124
, :


,
,
, ,
. (3)

,
, ,
- ,
, ,
, . (1980) :
,

. ,
,
,
(v-vi). , -
-
. ,
,
,
, ,
.
, , ,
.

, ,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
, . ,
,
.
, . -
, , . ,
(1986)

,
.

125
-

, ,
,
.
, - ,
.
,
,
. , , - ,
,

,
, ,

;
,
. , ,
,
,
.
,
.

-
. ,
, ,

. , ,
, .
, ,
(. , 1981;
, 1981; , , 1982). , ,

, ,
.

, , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,

126
, :

( ) , ,
.
(, ,
, , )
. ,
, (1981) ,
,
, .
,
,
, .


( )
(, 1981, 213-16).
, ,
, ,
.

,
.
, .
, ,
, .
(1981) , (
)
. ,

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.

,
.


.
(1983) ,
, ,
.
,
, .
, ,

127
-

,
.
,

.

,
,
. ,
. (1981), (1981, 1984), ,
(1982), (1981), (1983)
,
, , ,
. ,

; ,
. , ,
,
,

.
, ,
, , ,
.


,
. , (1986)
, ,

. ,
,
.
,
, , .
,
. , ,
,
, :

, ,
-
. ,
-
. -

128
, :


, -
. (,
, 1986, 411)

AAWORD- ,
:

, -
-
;


.

,
, ,
,
, ,
, .
.

,

, , , ,
.
,
,
, . , ,
, , ,
, -

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
,
(, 1982, 15).

,
,
. , , ,

. , ,

129
-

,
.
,
.
. ,
. , , -
,
. - (Midwest)
- . , ,
,
.
, , (
) ,
,
.
, .

, .

, ,
.
, ,

.
,
.

130
, :

Aptheker, Bettina. 1982. Womans Legacy. Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts


Press.

Awe, Bolanle. 1977. Reflections on the Conference on Women in Development: 1. Signs 3,


no. 1 :314-16.

Barrow, Nita. 1 985. The Decade NGO Forum. Africa Report (March/ April):9-12.

Beneria, Lourdes, and Gita Sen. 1981. Accumulation, Reproduction, and Womens Role in
Economic Development: Boserup Revisited. Signs 7, no. 2:279- 98.

Cagatay, Nilufer, Caren Grown, and Aida Santiago. 1986. Nairobi Womens Conference:
Toward a Global Feminism? Feminist Studies 12, no. 2 (Summer): 401-12.

Davis, Angela. 1981. Women, Race and Class. New York: Random House.

Etienne, Mona, and Eleanor Leacock, eds. 1980. Women and Colonization: Anthropological

Perspectives. New York: Praeger.

Evans, Sara. 1979. Personal Politics: The Roots of Womens Liberation in the Civil Rights
Movement and the New Left. New York: Vintage.

Giddings, Paula. 1984. When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and
Sex in America. New York: William Morrow.

Harley, Sharon, and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, eds. 1978. The Afro-American Woman. Port
Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press.

hooks, bell. 1981. Aint I a Woman? Boston: South End Press.

--. 1 984. Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Boston: South End Press.

Hull, G., P. Scott, and B. Smith, eds. 1982. But Some of Us Are Brave. Old Westbury, N.Y.:
The Feminist Press.

Joseph, Gloria. 1981. The Incompatible Menage a Trois: Marxism, Feminism and Racism. In
Lydia Sargent, ed., Women and Revolution. Boston: South End Press. 91-107.

Joseph, Gloria, and Jill Lewis. 1981. Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White
Feminist Perspectives. New York: Anchor Books.

Leacock, Eleanor. 1977. Reflections on the Conference on Women and Development: III.
Signs 3, no. 1 :320-22.

Moraga, C., and G. Anzaldua, eds. 1981. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical
Women of Color. Watertown, Mass.: Persephone Press.

Okeyo, Achola Pala. 1981. Reflection on Development Myths. Africa Report (March/
April):7-10.

Savane, Marie Angelique. 1982. Another Development with Women. Development Dialogue
l, no. 2:8-16 . .

131
-

Seidman, Ann. 1981. Women and the Development of Underdevelopment. In R. Dauber and
M. Cain, eds., Women and Technological Change in Developing Countries. Boulder, Colo.:
Westview Press.

Smith, Barbara, ed. 1983. Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology. New York: Kitchen Table:
Women of Color Press.

Steady, Filomina Chioma. 1 985. African Women at the End of the Decade. Africa Report
(March/ April):4-8.

Walker, Alice. 1983. In Search of Our Mothers Gardens. New York: Harcourt, Brace,
Jovanovich.

White, Deborah. 1985. Arnt I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York:
W. W. Norton.

132
Studies in Social Justice
Volume 7, Issue 1, 47-63, 2013

Governmentality1

:
, ,

:
:

-
. -
,
,
. , ,
, -
.
governmentality- -
. governmentality- -

. , , governmentality-
-
. governmentality-
. -
, ,
governmentality- ,
.

.

1Governmentality
governing modes of thought mentalit .
-
.

133


, , -
, .
, -
. -

. ,
-
. -
, , , governmentality-
.
governmentality- -
, -
. , ,
,
- , ,
.
, -
. -
, , -

.
-
-.
, ,
,
,
.

,
, , -
. -

, -
,
(, 2011, . 125-140; ,
1985).
, : , , -
1758-1834 , ,

134
Governmentality


. , -
, ,
(, 2011, . 16). , -

, ,

.

- ,
, -
-
. -
,
. , ,
,
, -
. , -
, ,
, -
;
(, 1984, . 96). ,
, - -
, ,
,
(, 1845, 39). -

, , , ,
.


.
. , 1840
-
1888 ,
() , - (, 1980, . 22).
-, , -
,
.
1904 , -
, - (, 1980, . 22).
,
, ,
, 1875
(, 1999, . 160). 1873 -

135

, -
,
(-
, 1999, . 35). , 1875-1914 -
,
, (, 1999, . 160).

,
, -
. -
, , (worthiness, unity, numbers
and commitment) , -
, -
(&, 2009, . 4-5).
,
,
, , -
.
.
. -
, . ,
, -
(1998) -
, .

(1998)
;
-
: , ,
, -
(. 2). -
, , , ,
, -
.
, -
, , , -
. -
(1998) ,
,
; -
,
, , ,
,
.

136
Governmentality

, , , -
; ,
, -
, -
, . ,
-
, 1990-

, , -
.
[master frames]
(&, 1998, . 196). (1998)
; -
, , -

. : -
, -
.
: , -
, -
. ,
, , -
. (. 196)

: [ ] -
, -
(&, 1998, . 196). -

.

, -, UN women-
.
(1998) , -
,
, -

(. 197) ,
-
, . ,
, -
,
, .
, ,
, -
, .

137

, -
-
. ,
, -
,
, -
. , , -
, , ( ,
1998, . 195).
, -
, , -
, -

(, 2010).

.

,
,
, .
,
, .
,
- ,

. governmentality-
,
.
(
) .

governmentality Governmentality

,
. , (1990) -
, 1- -
:

(. 95). governmentality-

. ,
, governmentality- -
(, 2011, . 31). (2006) -

138
Governmentality

, governmentality- ,
,
(. 190).

- -
,
.

. -
-
. -
, -
, .

-
, .

(1991) governmentality- , ,
: .
, governmentality
, : ;

(, &, 2009. . 3). Governmentality ,
,
.
, : ,
. Governmentality , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
(, 1999; , 2010; , 1997).

, -
, , -

. , (1996) , governmentality-
,
: , ; -
, ; ,
-
-
, (. 131-134). Governmentality-
, ,
, , , -

139

(, &, 1996; , 1999;


&, 1998; , 1999).

-
. (2004) governmentality-
,
, : , , -
. governmentality
,
. governmentality
, , , -

. developmentality- -
,
-
(,
2009; , 2001; &, 2010).

-
governmentality , -

. ,
.
,
governmentality-
, ,
, .


-
. -
, ,
, , .
,
, -
, , -
.
, -
(, 1997, . 75).
,
, ,
. -
, -
(, 1997).

140
Governmentality

, -
,
,
, -
. ,
, -
.
, -
.
- ,

(,
1994; , 1997; , 1996, . 20).

-
,
. -
,
(, 1999; ,
2009; ,1999; , 1996). , -
(,
1994). -
, -
. , ,

-
.

,
, ,
-
. -

: ,
, : -
,
.
(NGO) ,

(ECOSOC) (, 1996, . 40).
, ECOSOC-
,
[?] -
(, 1997, . 42). , NGO-
, , , , -

141

,
, : , -
, , -
(ECOSOC, 1996, . 31).

developmentality2


,
, , , -
. -
, -
: , , ,
, ..
. -
, ,
. NGO- -
governmentality- ,
-
, .

,
,
, -
.

(, 2000).
,
. ,
,
governmentality-
. governmentality-
.
,

.
,
governmentality- ,
, : ,
(&, 2010, . 850). ,

2 Developmentality ,
.

142
Governmentality

,

; ,
,
(, 2003).

,
, -
.
, -
-
. - -
, . 1909

, 1912
(, 1999, . 3;
, 1912). ,
, , ,
,( ), ,
,
(, 1999, . 3).

, -
-
. -
.
, ,
-
. ,
(, 1970).
-
, -

(, 1994; , 1991).
developmentality- , -

, -
.
governmentality-, -
( -
, )
( , -
, -
).

143

,

. -
,
, (1927),
, 1929
. (&, 1998, . 503).
, , -
, ,

(
: -
, 1925 ),
, ,

.
(-
) ,
. , ,
, :
(, 1978)
(&, 1998, . 495-520). ,
, -

(, 2001, . 16-38).

-
-
. (1999) -
,
,
. , -
governmentality- , -
, , -
, , .
, -
-
.
,
(&, 2008).


. (2010) -
,
. -

144
Governmentality

(GEM) -
,
(, 2006, . 257). GEM- -
,
, (, 2006,
. 258). , ,
,
.

, governmentality

governmentality- -
. 3 (-
) governmentality-
. -

; -
,
, . (2009) -
,
, , -
-
.

governmentality -
,
.
-
,
(, 2004).
, NGO- -
(, 2008. . 9-10). ,
, , NGO- (-
, 2000, . 2). -
NGO- -
(, 2001, . 198).

governmentality
,

3 Responsibilization , -
, , -
, , .

145

.
,
(IGO-, , , , )
NGO- ( , NGO-)
. ,
, NGO-
NGO- .
. ,
, ,
,
NGO-, ,
, ,
.
.
NGO-

NGO (, 2009, . 175). (2009)
,

, NGO- ,
.

NGO-
- ,
() ,

. , , ,
. (, 2009, . 178)
NGO- ,
, NGO
(, &, 2005).
,
. , NGO-

.

Governmentality- -
, -
, ,
( , 2008, . 713-714).
NGO- ,
--
(, 2009, . 177).
governmentality- , ,
,

146
Governmentality

, . -

-
. ,
-
,
. ,
, ,
.


governmentality- . -
, governmentality -
, ;
-
(, 2002, . 42). -
governmentality-
.
,
, -
, , ,
, , -
. ,
, , -
, . -

(-
, 2001; , 2003; , 2010; , 2003). -
,

, , -
NGO- .
, -
.


(&, 2010; , 2001; , 2006; , 2003).

-
. -

147

,
(, 2006; ,
2010). -

(DPKO, 2002; , 2006).

(, 2007; -
, 2010a, . 124-127). 1992 ,
, -
, ,

( 798). 1994

( ,
1996, . 142-145; , 1993, 1994,1996a, 1996b, 1996c; UNHCR, 1993).
-
, ,
, ,
(PPDVP, 2010; AFP, 2010). -

. -

(, 2004). , ,
,
(&, 1915).

1970- 1980- ,
(-
, 2005). -

(, 2010b, .
98-117). , -

. , -
, -
, ,

.
-
(. , 2010, 2009). -
-
, ,
( ,
2011).
, -

148
Governmentality

. , -
, ,
. , facebook -
-
, ,
BBC-
(BBC, 2007;
, 2011).


governmentality- ,
-
. -
, -
,
. , -
,

. -
,
-
, -
, ,
,
.

149